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IRo^al tTdbee of 








f-'tllmv of the Royal Historical Satiety, 

et nos aliquod nomenqne decusqne, 



Liverpool : 





fttgljt Honourable (Botoara f anus, (Barl of }3ofois, 






ist Attest, 1887. 


NATIONS when first possessed of the art of writing, had their 
events entered on the plain page of domestic history, independent 
of foreign wars, and distant occurrences. Their most eminent 
citizens were recorded as founders of their families, and their 
descendants respected as links of the same chain, however un- 
worthy they may have been of their progenitors. The Patrician 
families of ancient Rome, had their origin from men famous in 
their generations. The twelve Tribes of Israel are arranged 
with great accuracy, and the Phoenicians, their neighbours, were 
probably not more remiss in this branch of history. They traded 
to the mines of the Cassiterides, and planted colonies in this 
island. They might have brought the tracing of pedigrees into 
Britain ; and the Welsh are acknowledged to have assiduously 
continued the practice, thus supposed to have been primarily in- 
troduced. It may be asked what certainty we have of the authen- 
ticity of our early genealogies? The same as of every other species 
of history in other nations ; the credit of ancient writers, professed 
genealogists ; men appointed and patronized by the princes of the 
country, who were prohibited from following any other profes- 
sion ; whose records are still extant, and bear no stamp of fiction, 
which our poets even would not allow. What credit is to be 
given to the line of kings, said to have reigned in this island 
prior to Caesar's invasion, or from' what source Tysilio drew his 
Brut, is not within the limits of this paper. Our most ancient 
existing manuscripts are the Triads, and the works of the bards 
of the sixth century, who celebrate in epic strains the deeds of 
our heroes, who fought and fell in the cause of their country. 
The Gododin of Aneurin at that period, is a noble poem, and 
a curious piece of British antiquity : its plaintive numbers in sad 
sounds, echo the sense of the sorrowful retreat of the vanquished 


few from the field of blood, of whom the bard himself was one 
During the earlier centuries, the registering of genealogies was 
the province of the Arwydd-feirdd, and the Ofyddion, during 
their three years of probation, which preceded their initiation into 
the higher orders of bardism. It was then optional whether they 
continued to register the descents of their chiefs, but in general 
they did; and a bard, and a genealogist became synonymous 
terms. Prom the ninth to the twelfth century, the genealogist 
sanctioned by royal authority, classed the first families into twenty 
tribes; five termed royal, and fifteen called common. Other 
founders of families are recorded, but not included in the tribes, 
although of greater merit than some who were honoured with 
that distinction. Why Jestyn ab Gwrgant, a petty Lord "of 
Glamorgan, and a character in everlasting disgrace, should be 
thus dignified, while he was the founder only of ignominy and 
loss of dominion to himself, of slaughter and slavery to his coun- 
try, is difficult to adjust; and that Brochwel Ysgithrog, a prince 
of Powys in its highest splendor, having Shrewsbury for his 
capital, and a chief of great power and martial character, 
should have his name omitted even in the fifteen tribes, is alike 
inscrutable. Our bards continued their genealogical pursuits to 
the reign of Elizabeth ; from which time bardism, in all its 
branches, for want of the customary encouragement, suffered an 
irrecoverable decline. Copies of ancient manuscript pedigree 
books, falling among persons who had a value for the subject 
were carefully preserved, and the descents of families continued 
to the present century. However numerous these may have been 
two pedigree books only have appeared in print; the first by 
Mr. Davies of Llansilin, in 1716,' containing little more than an 
enumeration of the families descended from each particular tribe 
The second by Mr. John Reynolds of Oswestry, in 1739,2 more 
copious, but less correct than the former, and both alike con- 

"A Display of Herauldry of most particular Coat Armours, now at use in the six 
Counties of ^ or th Wales, &V. Collected out of several Authentic Authors. By John 
Davies of Llans.llm Parish in Denbighshire, Antiquary.-Salop. Printed by John 
Roderick for the Author, in the year 1716." Ed. 

A" Tl % Scr 'P tltr c c Genealogy beginning at Noah & To which is Added, The Genealogy ' 
of the Cesars. & Also a Display of Heraldry of the particular Coat of Armours 
] " "' r, S ' X , COU " eS f^hWal CS , & c . By John Reynolds of Oswestry, 
Antiquarian. Chester. Printed by Roger Adam for the Author, 1739 "John 


fused and uninteresting. 1 From the short materials thus before 
him, the Author hopes allowances will be made for this imper- 
fect attempt. He is sensible to its defects ; at the same time 
he is free to say, that he has spared no assiduities, nor left a 
corner untried, whence any probable information was likely to 
arise. He regrets that a nation, possessing so many curious 
documents of ancient history as the Welsh, should have so 
long neglected bringing them to the light and public investi- 
gation. The Triads, Tysilio, and the rest of our historic 
manuscripts have yet no other dress than their British garb ; 2 
and the Latin works of Nennius, Giraldus, Paris, Polydore, 
Virunnius, Pryce, Llwyd, Powel, and Caius, relative to Wales, 
remain yet without translations, 3 to the disadvantage of English 
literature, and general information. Before he concludes, the 
Author (or historical collector rather) of the following sheets 
returns his thanks to those gentlemen who have assisted him 
with their communications : To John Kynaston Powel, Esq. of 
Hardwick ;* to the Rev. Samuel Strong of Marchwiel ; 5 the 
Rev. Edward Edwards of Wrexham ; e the Rev. Edward Davies 
of Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog ; 7 the Rev. John Williams of 

Reynolds's mother was John Davies's sister. This work is a very imperfect compilation 
by Reynolds of MS. materials left by his uncle, and put together with very little 
knowledge of the subject. Ed. 

1 Since this was written much has been done to remedy the deficiency complained of. 
In 1846 the Welsh MSS. Society brought out a splendid edition of Lewys Dwnn's 
Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches, in two large imperial quarto 
volumes under the editorship of Sir Saml. Rush Meyrick, assisted by W. W. E. Wynne, 
Esq., of Peniarth, and Joseph Morris, Esq., of Shrewsbury. The Archceologia Cam- 
brensis from its first publication in 1846 to the present time ; the Cambrian Journal, 
1854 1864 ; the Montgomeryshire Collections of the Powysland Club ; various county 
histories; and The History of Poivys Fadog in six octavo volumes (1881 1887), by 
J. Y. W. Lloyd, Esq., and other publications, have added very materially to our infor- 
mation respecting Welsh genealogy. Ed. 

2 Geoffrey of Monmouth's British History must not be considered as a translation of 

8 Ably edited translations of most if not all of these works have since appeared. Ed. 

4 Created a Baronet in 1818, and died in 1822. See p. 86. Ed. 

5 Rector of Marchwiel and Canon of St. Asaph. Died about 1816. Ed. 

6 He was then Curate of Wrexham, and held the Vicarage of Llanarmon yn lal from 
1782 to 1820, the date of his death. In 1801 he brought out a new edition of Willis's 
Survey of St. Asaph, in two volumes. Ed. 

~ Rector of Llanarmon from 1796 to 1811. Ed. 


Llanrwst ;' _ and the Rev. Walter Davies of Meifod, 2 an able 
Welsh antiquary, who will throw more light on this subject. 
The author hopes that the portrait engravings which have been 
collected from the best pictures of the several persons that could 
be obtained, will make some amends for other deficiencies. 

1 Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. He held the Head Mastership of 
Llanrwst Grammar School from 1791 to 1812, and was Rector of Llanbedr y Cenin 
He died in 1826. Ed. 

- He was at that time Curate of Meifod. Shortly afterwards he was nominated to 
the Perpetual Curacy of Yspytty Ifan. In 1803, he obtained the Rectory of Llan- 
wyddelan, which he resigned in 1807, on being collated to that of Manafon. He 
resigned the benefice of Manafon in 1837 on his preferment to the Vicarage of Llan- 
rhaiadr yn Mochnant, where he died December 5th, 1849, in his eighty-ninth year. Mr. 
Davies was one of the best Welsh scholars of his day, an able critic, a good poet, and a 
voluminous writer. His collected works were published in 1868 in three volumes 
under the editorship of the Rev. D. Silvan Evans.-B.D. Ed. 


THE Author of this small work would attempt to enlarge it 
through the Fifteen Common Tribes, and would hazard another 
publication (correcting the errors of this) with some additional 
Engravings, if the Families descended from them were pleased 
to communicate their Pedigrees, and what biographical matter 
and anecdote belong to them. This is the more necessary, nay 
indispensable, as the founders of these Tribes have little, or no 
notice taken of them in History. 


IT is a good proof of the intrinsic value and excellence of Yorke's Royal Tribes 
of Wales, that, after the lapse of nearly ninety years it is still popular, and that a 
new edition is called for. In the meanwhile, time has brought about great changes, 
as must ever be the case, more particularly in a busy commercial country like ours. 
Old families which still nourished in YORKE's time, have decayed or disappeared 
altogether, while new men have risen to the surface, and have founded new houses 
on the ruins of the old. It has been my object and my endeavour, while retaining 
in their integrity the original text and notes, and even with a few exceptions the 
original spelling, to add by way of notes, such information as I have been able to 
gather, to indicate these changes, and to bring down to the present date, the story 
of our old Welsh families, so agreeably told by the genial and accomplished 
author. The notes and additions for which I am responsible are marked Ed. 
throughout. The fine engraved portraits which illustrated the original edition, 
have been reproduced by the Typographical Etching system, which the printer 
has selected, after carefully comparing the numerous processes now in vogue, as 
being the best adapted for the purpose. 

One of the difficulties that a genealogist has to contend with in the present day, 
is the little attention given now, as compared with former times, to the preservation 
of Pedigrees and family history. People's minds are so engrossed by the present 
and the future, that certainly less regard is paid to the past, than used to be the 
case. Men are too much occupied in the race for riches or honour, to think much 
about their ancestry. " Let the dead past bury its dead," is the language of the 
time, and homage is paid to men more and more for what they are than for what 
their fathers were. Wealth, power, and (which is a more hopeful sign) genius and 
intellect, will generally command respect for a man, though his father may have 
been a sweep or a shoeblack. 

It has been thought desirable to take this opportunity to publish, in an 
enlarged form, the brief Account of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, composed, 
it is generally understood, by Robert Vaughan, the eminent Welsh antiquary, 
first published with Notes in the Cambrian Register for 1795, and as an Appendix 
to Pennant's History of Whiteford and Holywell, in the following year : also the 
account of the Tribe of Tudur Trevor, or the Tribe of March, given by Pennant, 
and by him styled the Sixteenth Tribe. 


The origin of the Tribes is involved in some obscurity, and has given rise to 
much discussion, for Vaughan's explanation (p. \,post) is by no means satisfactory. 
That account represents Gruffudd ab Cynan, Rhys ab Tewdwr, and Bleddyn ab 
Cynfyn, as having " made diligent search after the arms, ensigns, and pedigrees of 
their ancestors " ; while a comparison of dates will shew that it was impossible 
for those princes to have co-operated in the way referred to, and that they all 
lived and died before the time when hereditary arms were borne or heraldry 
existed. With regard to the Fifteen Tribes, Mr. Trevor Parkins, who ably discusses 
these difficulties in the recent (1883) edition of Pennant's Tours in Wales, vol. iii, 
p. 415, points out that "they belong exclusively to North Wales. They are 
"principally found in Anglesey and Carnarvonshire, and in those parts of 
Denbighshire and Flintshire which did not belong to Powys. Their distribution 
" is exceedingly irregular, but there seems to be something local in their arrange- 
"ment. Many difficulties will be explained, if the Tribes are 

" believed to have been constituted subsequently to the reign of Owen Gwynedd 
" C 1 I 37- 1 I 69], in the last years of national independence, and to have been limited 
" to the districts which remained un-conquered. The heraldic bearings, some of 
" which appear to be more modern, may have undergone changes, and been finally 
" determined upon at a later period. * * * The Tribe of March (or Tudor 
" Trevor) has no connection with the rest, and its formation is certainly more 
"recent." Professor Rhys, however (Ib., vol. i., p. 15), is "disposed to put back 
" the real origin of the tribes into the pre-historic times, when the inhabitants of 
" Gwynedd were still Goidels, and had a tribal system differing from that of their 
" neighbours the Ordovices of Powys, who were a Brythonic people, and the 
" introductors of the Brythonic language into Wales." But whatever may have 
been the causes which led to the formation of these Tribes, they furnish a highly 
interesting record of great value to the historian as well as the genealogist, of the 
history and connections of most of the leading families of North Wales. 

PHILIP YOKKE, the author of The Royal Tribes of Wales, was the son of Simon 
Yorke, Esq. and Dorothy his wife, and was born at Erthig, near Wrexham, 
Denbighshire, in the year 1743. His father was a first cousin of Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke, and their common ancestry, according to Sir Egerton Brydges, 
though of no particular lustre either from its titles or estates was by no means' 
"mean, insignificant in point of property or unrespectable in alliances." His 
mother was the daughter and heiress of Matthew Hutton, Esq. of Newnham, 
Herefordshire. Erthig is a fine old mansion, built in 1678, delightfully situated 
within about a mile of the town of Wrexham. It originally belonged with a 
considerable estate to an old Welsh family long extinct, of the same name, of 


the tribe of TUDOR TREVOR. It was purchased in 1715 by John Meller, Esq., 
a Master in Chancery, who bequeathed it to his nephew (son of his eldest sister), 
the above named Simon Yorke. Wat's Dyke runs through the property. After 
a liberal education, Philip Yorke was entered at Benet College, Cambridge, where 
he proceeded to the degree of M.A. in 1765. He inherited the Erthig estate on the 
death of his father 0:1 the 28th July, 1767, and the following year he was elected 
F.A.S. On the 2nd July, 1770, he married Elizabeth, younger daughter of the 
Right Hon. Sir John Cust, Bart., Speaker of the House of Commons, and by her, 
who died in 1779, had besides a daughter, a son and heir, Simon, born 27th July, 
1771, whose son of the same name now resides at Erthig. Mr. Yorke married 
secondly, Diana, widow of Ridgeway Owen Meyrick, Esq. of Bodorgan, Anglesey, 
and daughter and heiress of Pierce Wynne, Esq. of Dyffryn Aled, Denbighshire, 
of the tribe of MARCHUDD (see p. 194, post), by Margaret his wife, daughter of 
Robert Wynne, Esq. of Garthewin. Of this marriage there was issue, three .sons, 
Pierce Wynne, Philip, and Robert, and a daughter, Lucy. The former died in 
1837, leaving by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Bulkeley Hughes of 
Plas Coch, besides two daughters, a son, the present Pierce Wynne Yorke, Esq. 
of Dyffryn Aled. 

Yorke, for some years represented the boroughs of Helston and Grantham 
successively in the House of Commons, but constitutional diffidence prevented his 
speaking there. He was, however, a man of superior endowments and cultivated 
tastes, which his ample fortune of about .7,030 a year enabled him to gratify. 
He indeed spent his money lavishly, though not recklessly or foolishly. " Waste not 
want not" was written up in large letters in his kitchen, but that was all that was 
known of economy at Erthig, where the owner made great improvements in the 
house and its surroundings, and added many to its treasures. He was well versed in 
the classics, especially Virgil, and, as few equalled him as a conversationalist, he was 
a delightful companion. He loved to gather round his table friends, whose tastes 
for literary studies and pursuits were similar to his own. Among these was 
Thomas Pennant, the accomplished author of the Tours in Wales, and other well 
known works. Pennant, who died some years before him, left him a legacy of 
ten guineas as a token of their friendship. 

Yorke made his first appearance as an author in 1795, when he brought out 
the Tracts of Powys, a thin quarto volume, printed by Marsh " at the Druid 
Press," Wrexham. This formed the groundwork of his later and more important 
work, T/ie Royal Tribes of Wales. It is now very scarce. He dedicated this work 
to his intimate friend, Pennant, thus : " To Thomas Pennant of Downing, Esq. 
" Dear Sir, I attempted with some pains and to little purpose, th; several 


" pedigrees of the different descendants of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, the founder of our 
" third Royal Tribe, but communications failing me, the design hath ended for the 
" present, at least in this slight Memoir of the Princes and Lords of Powys only. 
" Such as it is then permit me to present it you as to one by whom our Antiquities 
" have been best understood and best illustrated. I have added the names of all 
" the families I can find descended from this as from the nineteen other Tribes ; 
"from that source alone, the information necessary must be sought; what we 
" have abroad is without anecdote, imperfect and uninteresting, and I detach this 
"with great submission among them on a service of better intelligence. If with 
" success, I would report progress ; for I am free to think the race of Cadwalader 
" more glorious than the breed of Gimcrack, and a Welsh Card than a Newmarket 
" Calendar. I am, Dear Sir, with great esteem, Your very faithful and obedient 
"servant. Ph. Yorke, Erthig, April 2oth, 1795." 

Besides the historical sketch of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, which occupies 37 pages, 
the Tracts of Powys include " A refutation of Polydore Vergil's remarks about 
the ancient Britons " (20 pages) ; lists of the descendants of the five Royal and 
fifteen Noble Tribes of North Wales ; " Observations on Crown Manors in Wales," 
afterwards reprinted as an Appendix (No. xvi) to the Royal Tribes ; the divisions 
of Bromfield and Yale ; and some letters of Goronwy Owen, Lewis Morris and 
others, some of which have been republished in the Life of Goronwy Owen and 
elsewhere. The sketch of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn ended with the reference to Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury (see p. 81 post). The author subsequently made great 
additions to it and wrote accounts of the other four Royal Tribes framed on the 
same model, but not so exhaustive. These he published in 1799 in a handsome 
quarto volume of about 200 pages (vii+ 192) embellished with twelve fine engraved 
portraits under the title, The Royal Tribes of Wales. The work was printed by 
Mr. John Painter at Wrexham, and upon it rests Yorke's fame as a genial and 
accomplished writer on genealogy a subject which to many is in itself dry and 

In 1802, he published a small volume of thirty four pages quarto, entitled 
Crude Ditties, containing about two dozen short poems mostly humorous, but of 
little merit. He died on the igth February, 1804, in the sixty-first year of his 
age. The Yorke arms are, argent on a saltier azure a bezant ; crest, a lion's head 
erased proper, collared gules charged with a bezant ; motto, " Nee cupias nee 

ROBERT VAUGHAN, the supposed author of the Brief History of tJte Fifteen 
Tribes of North Wales (pp. 172 209 post), was the eldest son of Howel 
Vaughan, Esq., a descendant of Cadwgan ab BLEDDYN AB CYNFYN, and 


Margaret his wife, a granddaughter of Lewis Owen, Vice-Chamberlain of North 
Wales and Baron of the Exchequer, an account of whose murder by banditti is 
given in p. 114 post. He was born in 1592 at Hengwrt near Dolgelley, Merion- 
ethshire, to which the family residence had not long before been removed from 
Y Wengraig, an old mansion at the foot of Cader Idris, where his ancestors had 
resided for many generations. The seat of the original stock was Nannau, from 
which in the sixth descent from Cadwgan of Nannau, Howel Fychan or Vaughan 
separated and settled at Y Wengraig. Robert Vaughan entered Oxford Univer- 
sity as a commoner of Oriel College in 1612, and having passed through the 
regular course of studies pursued at that time in Logic and Philosophy, he left 
the University without taking a degree and retired to his estate at Hengwrt. 
Possessing a good estate, and animated by a patriotic spirit, he devoted himself 
with great zeal to the cultivation of those antiquarian and historical studies that 
have rendered his name famous and of such authority on all subjects connected 
with Welsh history and antiquities. " In genealogy he was so skilled and his 
" knowledge on that subject derived from such genuine sources that Hengwrt 
" became the herald's college of the Principality, and no pedigree was current till 
" it had first obtained his sanction ; a compliment he was justly entitled to if we 
" may judge by the immense mass of that sort of learning left behind him which 
" evinces an industry almost incredible, and a method and perspicuity rarely to 
" be met with in similar collections." (Cam. Reg. iii. p. 279). He was intimate 
with most of the eminent literary characters of the age he lived in, and carried on 
an extensive correspondence with Archbishop Usher, Sir Simon D'Ewes, Selden, 
Sir John Vaughan, and others. The following are only a portion of the fruits of 
his diligence and industry: "British Antiquities Revived; or friendly contest 
" touching ye sovereignty of the three Princes of Wales in antient times managed 
"with certain arguments, whereunto answers are applied. To which is added the 
" pedigree of the Right Hon. the Earl of Carbery, Lord President of Wales, with 
" a short account of the Five Royal Tribes of Cambria." Oxford 1662 (quarto). 
This was the only work published in his lifetime. A second edition was printed 
at Bala in 1834, with a memoir prefixed by the Rev. John Jones, of Borthwnog. 
He also wrote Notes or Commentaries on the Book of Basingwerk ; on Nennius ; 
on ^he Triads, with an English translation ; on Caradoc of Llancarvan's Brut or 
Chronicles, with a collation of ten several copies, on vellum ; on Leland's New 
Year's Gift ; on Burton's Antoninus ; on Dr. Powell's History of Wales ; on 
Usher's Primordia ; Ball's Catalogus Scriptorum ; Annals of Wales from Vortigern 
downwards, translated from the original into English with notes ; a short account 
of the family of Corsygedol ; a Topography of Merionethshire ; and a Tour to 


St. David's, containing short and cursory notices of the places he passed through 
in going and returning. He also formed at Hengwrt an unrivalled collection of 
Welsh manuscripts, the greater portion of which are now in the Peniarth library 
(see p. 115 post). The Cambrian Register, vol. iii., contains a catalogue of 162 of 
these, many of which are of very early date,' and several transcripts are in 
Mr. Vaughan's own handwriting. He also constantly employed a secretary at 
his house to transcribe valuable manuscripts entrusted to him by others ; and he 
obtained a large addition to his own collection on the death of Jones of Gelli-lyfdy, 
another industrious collector, with whom he had made an agreement that the 
survivor should succeed to the other's library (see p. 1 15 post). Vaughan's notes 
and copious additions to many of these render them the more valuable, and as 
materials for illustrating the history and antiquities of Wales, too much importance 
cannot be attached to them. Transcripts of Y Seint Greal and some others have 
been published under the able editorship of the late Canon Williams of Rhydy- 
croesau, and the Hengwrt collection has been indeed a vast quarry to which our 
leading antiquaries have since Vaughan's time resorted, and whence they have 
obtained most important materials for their works. Robert Vaughan died at 
Hengwrt in 1666, and was buried in the parish church of Dolgelley. 

August 1st, iSSj . 



PAGE 17, line 12, for Corysgedol read Corsygedol. 

' 28, 4, for council read counsel. 

40, 20, for langued or read langued iizurc. 

56, 28, for Dafydd ab Llwyd read Dafydd Llwyd. 

61, 12, for respository read repository. 

,, 68, 3 1 , for English read eighth. 

,,93, 4, after made read by. 

107, 19, for of Golden Grove read at Golden Grove. 

,, 119, 32, for Conway read Cownwy. 

129, 14, for purposes read purpose. 

141, 29, for Din read Dni. 

,,153, 21, for of one clothe read one of clol/ie. 

,, 173, 14, for Nicholson read Nicholas. 

,, 185, , 3 1 , for gread read great. 

192, 14, dele the semicolon (;). 

,, 197, 14, for obtained read attained. 





AB CYNAN ranks first of the five Royal 
Tribes. 1 He recovered his crown of North Wales from Trahaern 

1 The five regal Tribes, and the respective representative of each, were considered 
as of royal blood. The fifteen common Tribes, all of North Wales, and the 
respective representative of each, formed the Nobility ; were Lords of distinct 
districts, and bore some hereditary office* in the palace. Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
Prince of North Wales, Rhys ab Tewdwr, of South Wales, and Bleddyn ab 
Cynfyn, of Powys, regulated both these classes, but they did not create them ; as 
many of the persons, placed at their head, lived before their times, and some, 
after. Their precedence, as it stands, is very uncertain and not governed by the 
dates ; the last of them were created by Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, who began 
his reign in 1169. We are left ignorant of the form, by which they were called 
to this rank. Mr. Vaughan of Hengwrt informs us " that Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
" Rhys ab Tewdwr, and Bleddyn ab Cynfyn. made diligent search after the arms, 
" ensigns, and pedigrees of their ancestors, the Nobility and Kings of the Britions. 
" What they discovered by their pains in any papers and records was afterwards 
"by the Bards digested, and put into books, and they ordained five Royal Tribes, 
"there being only three before, from whom their posterity to this day, can derive 
" themselves, and also fifteen special Tribes, of whom the gentry of North Wales 
"are for the most part descended." 

* By the laws of Hywel Dda it appears there were twenty-four great officers of the Welsh court. 


A.D. ah Caradog, at the battle of Carno, 1 who had been elected by 
I0 79 the people, without the merits of descent, on the assassination 
of our worthy Prince, Bleddyn ab Cynfyn. 

In Gruffudd, the succession was restored. He was the son 
of Cynan, the son of lago or James, the son of Meurig, the 
son of Idwal, the son of Anarawd, the eldest son of Roderic 
the Great ; and had not the principality of the north alone, 
but the supremacy of Wales, vested in him ; for it was the 
condition, in the tripartition of Roderic, 2 and confirmed by his 
grandson Hywel Dda, that the Princes of South Wales and 
Powys, should be tributary to the North. 

Gruffudd owed his success at Carno to a force of Irish, 
devoted to his fortunes, from his relation to Auloecld 3 King of 
Dublin, Man, and the Isles; whose daughter Ranhult, widow 
of Mathganyn, King of Ulster, by her second marriage, was his 
Mother. From the same interests, he had been supplied in a 
former attempt to recover North Wales, when he fixed himself 

1 The mountains of Carrio, as the mountains of Gilboa, are celebrated for the 
fall of the mighty. The fiercest battle in our annals, happened in 1079, amidst 
these hills, when Gruffudd ab Cynan, assisted by Rhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of 
South Wales, disputed the sovereignty of North Wales, with Trahaern ab Caradog, 
the reigning usurper. After a bloody contest, victory decided in favour of the 
first, and Trahaern was slain. Pennant, Carno is in the hundred of Arwystli 
in Montgomeryshire. .W. 

2 Roderic ordained that the Princes of South Wales and Powys should each of 
them pay yearly to the Sovereigns of North Wales, a tribute, called Maelged, of 
sixty-three pounds. 

3 Auloedd had built a castle on the Menai, near Moel y donn, called Castle 
Auloedd Frenin, the Castle of King Auloedd. 


in Anglesey ; but pursuing his success beyond the Menai was 
defeated by Trahaern at the battle of Bron yr Erw, and driven 
again, with great loss, within the island. 

Gruffudd died in 1136, at the age of eighty-two, and lies 
buried on the south side of the great altar, in the Cathedral 
church at Bangor, 1 having reigned fifty-seven years through various 
fortunes, 2 and with equal interruption from his enemies the 
English, and his friends the Welsh. His early life was marked 
by spirit and success, but in his riper years, the desire of peace 
and his submissions 3 to obtain it, tarnished his former glory. 

1 Not a vestige of his shrine is now to be seen. Ed. 

2 Soon after his victory at Carno, he was treacherously surprized at Rug by one 
Muriawn Goch, and, notwithstanding his late eminent success, suffered a long 
captivity of twelve years* in the castle of Chester. At length he escaped by the 
bravery of a young man, Kyririg hir or the tall, of lal ; who coming to Chester, 
under pretence of buying necessaries, took an occasion, whilst the keepers were 
feasting, to carry away his Prince, laden with Irons, on his back, to a place of 
security. Vita Conani, 

3 Gruffudd had personal rather than political courage (often political villainy). 
He had fought hand to hand with that hardy Baron Fulke Fitzwarren, who was 
entrusted by Henry the First with the care of the Marches, and was wounded by 
him in the shoulder, and fled ; but in the end wrested from Fulke, his castle and 
lordship of Whittington. There was another action in which he was personally 
engaged ; and the circumstances are very extraordinary. Robert of Rhuddlan, 
nephew to Hugh Lupus, and the possessor of that castle, where he then resided, 
received in it a visit from Gruffudd, who came to solicit his assistance against his 
Welsh subjects. This he obtained ; but on some quarrel attacked Robert in his 
castle, took and burnt the baily or yard, and killed such a number of his men, 

* This could not be : the restless spirit of the Welsh, in this course of time, would have set up another 
Prince ; besides, it contradicts the evidence of Ordericus Vitalis, who says, that Robert of Rhuddlan was- 
slain by Gruffudd on the third of July, 1088, which was only nine years after the battle of Carno. 


His son Owain Gwynedd more popularly succeeded him ;' and 
it may have happened that on this account, the descendants of 
the tribe, have taken his coat,' in preference to his father's 
bearings, or have borne the father's only in the second quarter. 
Gruffudd was accomplished : He reformed the Welsh minstrelsy, 3 

that but few escaped into the towers. An extraordinary end attended Robert in 
a future contest, which ought to become history. On the third of July 1088, 
Gruffudd had entered the Cynwy, with three ships, and leaving them on the shore 
at low water, had proceeded to ravage the country, which belonged to Hugh Lupus 
Earl of Chester, the uncle of Robert. Alarmed at the descent, Robert, while his 
men were mustering their forces, went down tc the sea side, with one soldier only, 
named Osborne de Orger, where he was slain, and gave up (says Ordericus,) his 
soul to God, and the virgin, his men coming up too late, to save him ; but they 
recovered his body, which was first interred at St. Werburgh's, Chester, but 
removed afterwards to Normandy. 

' Consilio felix Princeps, fortissimus armis ; 
Civibus, ille novus Solomon, novus hostibus, Hector. Pentarchia. 

Owain Gwynedd reigned thirty-two years. He died in December, 1169, and 
lies buried at Bangor ; whose tomb when Baldwyn, Archbishop of Canterbury 
coming to preach the Crusade against the Saracens, saw, he charged the Bishop 
to remove the body out of the Cathedral, when he could find a fit opportunity so 
to do, in regard that Archbishop Becket had excommunicated him heretofore, 
because he had married his first cousin, the daughter of Grono ab Edwyn, and 
that, notwithstanding he had continued to live with her till she died. The Bishop 
in obedience to the charge, made a passage from the vault through the south wall 
of the church, under ground, and so secretly shoved the body into the church 
yard. Hengiurt MSS. 

2 The arms of Gruffudd ab Cynan were, Gules, three lioncels passant in pale 
barry argent, armed azure. Those of Owain Gwynedd were, Vert, three eagles 
displayed in fess or. Ed. 

3 After Cadvvaladr, the Princes who next undertook the reform of our minstrelsy, 
were Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, and Gruffudd ab Cynan. It was by them enacted, that 
no person should follow the profession of Bard or Minstrel, but such only as were 


and improved the national music: Himself; his mother and 
grandmother were born in Ireland, then the land of harps and 
harmony ; whence he brought our best tunes, better performers, 
and a better order of instruments. He regulated also the family 
pedigrees, and heraldic distinctions of our Countrymen, 

Sus horrid-its \ atraqtie Tygris. 

Sqitamosusque Draco, et fulvd cervice Lecena, 

and established our first game laws. Of his descendants the 
house of Gwydir 1 seems most eminent. Sir John Wynn the 
historian, 2 was no ordinary character. He was made a Baronet 
on the creation of that honour, and his journey to Court, with 
the particulars 3 kept by himself, is curious. He was a man of 
ability, and learned in the histories of his country, which he 
much embellished, nor did he neglect his common interest, but 
was shrewd and successful in his dealings. Hence the people 

admitted by the Eisteddfod, which was held once in three years. They were 
prohibited from invading each other's province, nor were they permitted to degrade 
themselves, by following any other occupation. Lewis Morris MSS. 

1 Gwydir, from Gwy, aqua, and Tir, terra ; the lands being much subject to be 
overflowed by the river Cynwy. 

2 The History of the Gwydir Family by Sir John Wynn is of all the works 
which have been written relating to the general or family history of North 
Wales the most highly esteemed. It has been published four times viz., the 
first edition edited by the Hon. Daines Barrington in 1770; its second appear- 
ance in Mr. Harrington's Miscellanies in 1781 ; a third edition edited by Miss 
Angharad Llwyd in 1827; and a fourth by Mr. Askew Roberts in 1878, with Notes 
by that accomplished genealogist and antiquarian the late W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., 
of Peniarth. The two last editions contain the portrait of Sir John Wynn from 
an exceedingly rare engraving by Robert Vaughan, the engraver. Ed. 

3 In the possession of the Antiquarian Society. 


were led to think he deceived and oppressed them, and it is 
the superstition of the place to this day, that the spirit of the 
old gentleman lies under the great waterfall of Rhaiadr y 
Wennol, or the swallow, 1 from its swiftness, there to be punished, 
purged, spouted upon, and purified from the foul deeds done in 
his days of nature, 

aliis sub gurgite vasto 

Infectum eluitur scelus 

He made the amende honorable of that time, and founded an 
hospital, and endowed a school at Llanrwst, and gave the 
rectorial tythes of Eglwysfach, to the support of these charities, 
and left regulations for their government. In 1615 he had 
incurred the displeasure^ of the Court 3 of Marches, since the 
Lord Chancellor Ellesmere is informed by it, that Sir John 

1 But query, Rhaiadr Ewynol=the foaming cataract. Ed. 

2 He was unjustly charged (as he is pleased to say himself) with procuring a 
petty riot, and for entering into lands, of which he was the King's farmer. 

3 This Court, in the nature of a French Parliament, was first established by 
Edward the Fourth, who sent his son Edward to reside at Ludlow, where it sate, 
under the government of his uncle Rivers.* It was confirmed by an Act of 
Henry the Eighth. The Council, assisting the President, consisted of the Chief 
Justice of Chester, with the three other then existing Justices of Wales. There 
were also extraordinary members of Council called in, as the President should 
think proper. They were allowed six shillings and eight-pence per day, and diet 
for themselves and their men. "In this Court," says Mr. Lewis, "when it 
flourished without restraint, as many causes were dispatched in a Term, as in any 
Court in England, or more, and that he had himself moved in an afternoon above 
twenty causes, and that the Counsellor for all the motions and pleadings in one 
cause, in one Term, had but five shillings fee." It was dissolved at the Revolution. 

* The Welsh were so turbulent at this time, that it was thought necessary for some person of high 
distinction to reside on the borders, to strengthen the civil power. More. 



Wynn Knight and Baronet, is unfit to be continued a member 
thereof, and that his name should not remain in the commission 
for Carnarvonshire ; but he made his peace from the sure 
means 1 of that moment. The Court of James was corrupt to 
an extreme, and beyond the examples of any period. 

Sir John died at the age of seventy-three, and lies buried A.D 
at Llanrwst. By his wife Sidney, 2 the daughter of Sir William 
Gerard, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, he had eleven sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son John was a Knight, and died 
during his father's life, on his travels at Lucca, at the age of 
thirty-one. Domestic disagreements are said to have sent him 
so late abroad. He married Margaret" daughter of Sir Thomas 
Cave of Stanford in Northamptonshire, and left no issue. He 
was a man of observation, and some of his foreign letters 
remain. The father was succeeded by his son Richard, who was 
Groom of the Bed-chamber to Prince Charles, and attended 
him and Buckingham, on their matrimonial excursion to Spain, 
of which he left a pleasant account. 4 He became Treasurer to 

1 See Appendix xii. [By the payment of a bribe of ^350. Ed.~\ 
2 Who died 8th June, 161,2. Ed. 

3 " This Lady," says Mr, Pennant, " had four husbands. Her first was Sir 
John Wynn the younger ; her second of the Milesian race, for she married Sir 
Francis Aungier, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, afterwards created Baron of 
Longford. Thirdly, she gave her hand to an Englishman, Sir Thomas Wenman 
of Oxfordshire ; and finally she resigned her antiquated charms to my relation, 
Major Pennant, a younger son of Downing, who in the year 1656 deposited her 
with his ancestors in the church of Whitford." 

4 Preserved by Thomas Hearne. 
Sir Richard, in one of his letters to his father from Spain, says " We may 


Queen Henrietta. He built the chapel at Llanrwst, from a 
design of Inigo [Jones ;'] the roof was not new, and taken from 
the neighbouring abbey at Maenan. Parts of that fabric may 
be traced at Gwydir. 

Invenius etiam disjecti membra 

Sir Richard married a Darcy, but died without issue, and 
was buried at Wimbledon.' He was succeeded by his brother 
Sir Owen, who left a son Sir Richard, 3 who married a daughter 
of the old cavalier Sir Thomas Middleton of Chirk castle, and 
had one daughter Mary, the wife of Lord Willoughby, the first 
Duke of Ancaster. This lady was great grandmother to the 
present Baroness Willoughby, 4 married to Lord Gwydir, to whom 
in her right, the place belongs. The Baronetage continued and 

think ourselves happy, that have everything in Wales, for both of the kingdoms 
Castile and Arragon are not worth one of our worst counties." 

1 Inigo Jones, the great architect, was a native of Llanrwst or of the immediate 
Durhood. The fine old bridge at Llanrwst is considered to be his work.-d. 

2 See Appendix xiii. 

"Sir Richard Wynn is stated to have been Chamberlain to Catherine, Queen 
Carles the Second, and to have presented to her Majesty a pearl from the 
nver Conway, which is said at one time to have been a conspicuous objert in the 
royal crown. Ed. 

* This lady, Friscilla Barbara Elizabeth, in whose favour the abeyance of the 
Barony of Willoughby de Eresby was terminated by the Crown, ,8th March 1780 
was the wife of Sir Peter Burrel, Bart., created Baron Gwydyr, May 28,' I796 ' 

pon the death of her grandson, Alberic twentieth Lord Willoughby de Eresby and 

Baron Gwydyr on 2 6th August, 1870, the former title again fell into abeyance 

between his survivmg sisters, in favour of the eldest of whom, Clementina 

ihzabeth, Dowager Lady Aveland, the present Baroness, the abeyance was 

terminated in 1871. Ed. 



ended in Sir John Wynn of Wynnstay, the grandson of Sir 
John of Gwydir, by his tenth son Henry, 1 and the heiress of 
Rhiw goch. Sir John of Wynnstay, married Jane the heiress 
of Watstay. 2 He changed the name as nearer his own, to 

1 Henry Wynn married Catharine, the daughter and heiress of Elizei Lloyd of 
Rhiw goch, in Merionethshire. Henry was no small pluralist in lay- preferment, and 
with a kind of law Commendam, he held together the Prothonotaryship of North 
Wales, was the Judge of the Marshalsea, Steward of the Virge, Solicitor General to 
the Queen (Henrietta), and Secretary to the Court of the Marches. He sat for 
the County of Merioneth, in the last Parliament of James the first, and died in 
1671. This gentleman, writing to his father, Sir John, the second of April, 1624, 
and speaking of Parliamentary business, says, "We sit very hard from seven in the 
morning until one in the afternoon, and after, from two of the clock in the after- 
noon until seven, in relation to Recusants, state of the Navy, motion against the 
Lord Treasurer concerning stamps, used by him in stamping his name, which are 
left with his men. These some held he might lawfully use, but kept safely by 
him, as the Keeper doth the Great Seal. I cannot chuse but remember what was 
said by Sir Peter Mutton of Llannerch, in the House, Sir Edward Coke sitting in 
the chair: "That this time, was not the first that stamps were used, for he had 
heard before he was born, that stamps were used here, in this kingdom." At 
which the whole House laughed ; which is not to be forgotten in haste. To 
whom presently Sir Edward Coke called, Sir Peter Stamp. 

2 She was the daughter and heiress of Eyton Evans of Watstay, by Anne the 
daughter of Dr. Powel, Vicar of Rhiwabon, the Welsh historian. Eyton Evans 
was the eldest son of Thomas Evans of Rhiwabon, as Wynnstay was then called, 
which he altered to Watstay, from its situation on Wat's Dyke. Thomas was 
the son of Richard Evans, the son of old Thomas Evans of Oswestry, Attorney 
General in the Court of the Marches. Richard married Mary Eyton, daughter 
and heiress of Edward Eyton of Rhiwabon. This Edward Eyton was the son 
of William, the younger brother of John Eyton, who suffered death at Holt, for 
killing William Hanmer, and died without issue ; on whom a Welsh Englyn was 
made,* which signifies that in the year 1534 a great grief befel us in the death of 

* It is as follows : 

" Oed Ner mil a banner mal hyn mawr alaeth, 

Manvolaeth Sion Eutyn, 
Pedair ar ddeg teg at hyn 
Ar hugain wr rhywiogwyn." Ed. 


Wynnstay, and in a manner made the place, 1 which had been 

the residence in times past of Madog ab Gruffudd Maelor, 

the potent Lord of the Bromfields, and founder of the Abbey 

17/8 f Llane g west - Sir John died at the age of ninety-one, and 

John Eyton, an amiable Man. William, who succeeded his brother John, was 
the son of John Eyton of Rhiwabon, the son and heir of John ab Ellis Eyton, 
distinguished for his services at Bosworth, who lies buried at Rhiwabon, and his 
stone effigy in armour, is ornamented with a collar of S.S.* This John ab Ellis 
Eyton was the son of another Ellis Eyton, who was the eldest son of John hen 
(or the old) of Eyton and Rhiwabon. The last John was Steward of the 
Lordship of Bromfield and lal, in I439 , and, after the birth of his eldest son Ellis, 
he was divorced by the church, on the stale ground of consanguinity; by whTch 
ecclesiastical pretence Ellis was made illegitimate, yet he had the Rhiwabon 
estate given him. The father and mother were again married by licence, and had 
afterwards issue William Eyton, who in preference to his elder brother, had the 
Eyton estate, and was ancestor to Edward Eyton Esquire, the present possessor. 

[The mansion and estate were sold soon after this was written Ed.] 

Of the House of Eyton was Madog Eyton of Eyton, Erddlis, and Bersham, 
who died in 1331, and was buried at Gresford on the feast of St. Matthias. He 
lies represented in armour in stone, on the south side within the church, in the wall. 

1 ln 1678 Sir John inclosed a park for deer, with a stone wall, at Wynnstay,. 
and at the same time, the avenues of oak, elm, and ash, were planted there." 
[In 1691 he made the fishpond. Ed.~\ 

On the night of the sth of March, 1858, a disastrous fire took place at Wynnstay, 
which nearly destroyed the old mansion and the greater part of its contents, 
including the valuable collection of MSS., paintings aud books, with some 
exceptions. Many of these treasures can never be replaced. The house has 
since been rebuilt. Ed. 

* He was an Esquire by creation, which was the fourth class of Esquires, called white spurs. The 
Ceremony was, that the King put about his neck a silver collar of Esses, and conferred upon him a pair of 
silver spurs. The five ancient orders of Esquires were, first, those who are elect for the King's body ; 
second, Knight's eldest sons ; third, younger sons of the eldest sons of Barons and other nobles of higher 
estate ; fourth, the white spurs by creation ; and fifth, they who are so by office, and by serving the Prince 
in any worshipful calling. This title of white spur was hereditary, and belonged only to the heir male of 
the family. Prince's Worthies. 


1 1 

lies buried at Rhiwabon, under a mass and massacre of marble, 
ludicrous to look on. He left Wynnstay, and his other estates 
of great value, to his kinsman Watkin Williams, afterwards 
Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, the grandfather of my spirited 
friend of the same name the present possessor. 1 Sir John was 
a man of pleasure in his youth ; late in life he made a visit 
to the Court, in the early days of Queen Anne, and meeting 
in the drawing-room after many years absence, his old West- 
minster school-fellow the Apostolic Beveridge of St. Asaph ; 
"Ah, Sir John! Sir John!" says the good Bishop to him, 
"when I knew you first, the Devil was very great with you." 
'Yes, by Gad, my Lord,' says Sir John, 'and I wish he was 
half so great with me now.' 

He was an early improver of Welsh gardening, and introduced 
a small swan egg pear, that is yet very popular and bears 
his name. 

The house of Llwyn, is of this tribe and family. Maurice 
Wynn of Gwydir, father of Sir John the historian by his first 
wife, to his second married Catherine of Beren ; by her he had 
a son, on whom he settled Llwyn ; from him is descended 

1 This was the fifth Baronet, who died 6th January, 1840. He was succeeded by his 
son, the late Sir Watkin, who died in May, 1885, leaving one surviving daughter and 
heiress, Louisa Alexandra, who in 1884 had married the heir to the title, her cousin, 
Herbert Edward Watkin (the present Baronet), second son of Lieut. Col. Herbert 
Watkin Williams Wynn, by Anna, daughter of John Lloyd, Esq., of Cefn, a descendant 
of Cunedda Wledig. Thus, the ancient line of Gwydir and Owain Gwynedd and the 
Cefn branch of the parent stem of Cunedda Wledig, so long divergent, were once 
more re-united. Ed. 


Owen Wynn Esquire of that place, the existent male heir of 
the house of Gwydir. 1 

The Wynns of Berthddu, and Bodysgallen, were of this 
tribe, and 'i younger branch of Gwydir. Gruffudd Wynn the 
younger brother of Maurice, and uncle to Sir John the historian, 
was settled at Berthddu. He married the daughter of Richard 
Mostyn of Bodysgallen (the second son of Thomas 2 ab Richard 
ab Hywel ab Jevan Fychan, of Mostyn) and obtained the 

estate, which hath again reverted to the Mostyn family- The 

male line ended in Robert Wynn, who died a batchelor, and 

his estates fell to Margaret, (the daughter of his brother Dr. 
Hugh Wynn, and, by her mother, the heiress of Plas hen, 

1 He died in 1780, having been twice married. By his first wife, Ellenor Seele, of 
Liverpool, he had three sons and one daughter. His two elder sons dying without issue, 
the Llwyn estate came to the youngest, the Rev. Maurice Wynn, LL.D., Rector of 
Bangor Iscoed, the Vicar of Wenlock, who died in 1835 ; the last descendant in this 
line of the Wynn's of Gwydir. The last descendant in the male line of the house of 
Gwydir was Dr. Rice Wynn, an eminent surgeon at Shrewsbury, who died unmarried 
in 1846, aged 69. He was lineally descended from Robert Wynn the fourth son of 
Maurice Wynn of Gwydir by his first wife, Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Bulkeley 
(Hist, of Powys Fadog. vol. iv., p. 357). Ed. 

2 " Thomas ab Richard ab Hywel first took the name of Mostyn, says Mr. Pennant, 
on this occasion. Rowland Lee, Bishop of Lichfield and President of the Marches, in 
the reign of Henry the Eighth, sat on a Welsh cause, and wearied with the quantity of 
Aps on the jury, directed that the panel should assume their last name, or that of their 
residence ; and that Thomas ab Richard ab Hywel ab Jeuan Fychan, should be reduced 
in future to the poor dissyllable Mostyn." 

" You may see," says Mr. L. Morris, " in some copies of Gildas Nennius, that the 
Cambro-British Kings used, on the first coming of the Saxons, the appellation of Mac, 
instead of Mab or Fab, although now entirely disused in Wales, and preserved only in 
North-Britain and Ireland. It hath of late sunk into the surname there, as 
Macpherson, Macdonald ; so Ap, properly ab, from Mab the son, is generally lost in 


Corsygedol, and Bodidris,) married to Sir Roger Mostyn of 
Mostyn. The last Mr. Wynn sat for the boroughs of Carnarvon- 
shire, and will be remembered in the annals of hospitality for 
his plentiful long table and substantial Christmas dinners. He 
was not so fond of long sermons, especially in cold weather ; 
and it happened that Bishop Sherlock then of Bangor, his old 
acquaintance, was on a visit with him at Bodysgallen, on a Sunday, 
and observing to the Curate at dinner, that he was surprized 
he had given them no sermon that morning ; " Ah, my Lord," 
says poor Ellis in his broad simple manner, " had I PREACHED 
when Master Wynn is in church, I shall have nothing but 
small beer ; but when I do not PREACH when Master is in 
church, I may have my belly-full of ale and welcome." 

The Lloyds of Rhiwaedog were of this Tribe, and of great 
extraction. The materna nobilitas was here also considerable, 
their ancestor Maredudd ab Jeuan, the Eighth from Owain 
Gwynedd, having married Margaret, the coheiress of Einion 1 ab 

Wales in the surnames Prys for Ap Rhys, Powell for Ap Howell, Parry for Ap Harry. 
Ap is the banter of the English, upon our pronunciation of Ab, the true abbreviation 
from Mab, a son." 

1 Einion ab Ithel was Esquire to the body of John of Gaunt, who gave him a pension 
of twenty marks from his manor of Halghton in Cheshire to serve ' him in Guienne. 
Ithel, on the death of Walter Lord Manny, succeeded him as Sheriff of Merionethshire 
for life. Ithel was in great favour with Henry the Fourth, in the beginning of whose 
reign he died. Jeuan ab Maredudd had matched his son Maredudd ab Jeuan with the 
daughter of Ithel, who belonged to the House of Lancaster. Jeuan ab Maredudd the 
father held stedfastly to that house, when Owain Glyndwr rebelled ; so that in the time 
of that war he and Hwlkyn Llwyd of Glynllifon had the charge of Carnarvon town, 
and an English captain was in the Castle ; in revenge whereof Owain burned his two 
houses, Cefn y fan or Ystumcegid, and Cesail Gyfarch. In the continuance of this war, 
Jeuan ab Maredudd died at Carnarvon, and was brought by sea (for the passage by land 
was shut up by Owain's forces) to Penmorfa, his parish Church, to be buried. Robert 

Ithel ab Gwrgeneu Fychan, ab Gwrgeneu ab Madog, ab Ririd 
Flaidd, 1 Lord of Penllyn, who dwelt at Rhiwaedog. The eldest 
Son of this match, John Ab Maredudd, was cousin to Owain 
Tewdwr, and with an hundred gentlemen of North Wales his 
kinsmen, he went to visit Owain, then in prison at Wysg castle. 
On his return within two miles of Caerlleon, being beset with 
enemies, favorers of the House of York, he made an oration to 
comfort his people, willing them to remember at that time the 
support of the honor and credit of their ancestors, and concluding 

.ab Maredudd, the brother of Jeuan ab Maredudd, taking the contrary side, was out 
with Owain, as may be gathered by a pardon granted him by Henry the Fourth, and 
Henry his son, then Prince of Wales. From Robert, who did not marry till near 
eighty, descended the houses of Gwydir, Cesail Gyfarch, and Hafod Lwyfog; and Sir 
John the historian, his descendant, says, he was the elder brother; from Jeuan ab 
Maredudd, who was Constable of Cruccaith, the families of Rhiwaedog, Clenenneu, 
Ystumcegid, Brynkir and Park. It is not material which was the elder brother, the 
gavelkind and the custom of the country not yeilding to the elder any prerogative or 
superiority. The father of Jeuan and Robert was Maredudd ab Hywel ab Dafydd ab 
Gruffudd ab Thomas ab Rodri, Lord of Anglesey, ab Owain Gwynedd, as is evident by 
the Extent of North Wales, in the twenty-sixth of Edward the Third. During Robert 
ab Maredudd's time, the inheritance, which descended to him and his brother Jeuan, 
was not parted after the custom of the country, by gavelkind, but Jeuan being married 
-enjoyed both houses, Cefn y fan and Cesail Gyfarch. 

1 Ririd Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, took his surname of Blaidd (or the Wolf,) from his 
maternal ancestor Blaidd Rhudd, or the Bloody Wolf, of Gest, near Penmorfa, and in his 
Arms bore a Wolf passant, &c. Some Welsh verses remain concerning him, which 
may be thus interpreted (the Poet speaks)* " I have a friendly Wolf, that stands by me 
to crush the insulting foe. It is not the forest Wolf, scattering the harmless flock, but 
the Wolf of the field of battle : though at other times he is mild and liberal." 

From Ririd Flaidd were descended the Lloyds of Rhiwaedog, the Myddletons of 
Gwaynynog and Chirk Castle, the Vaughans of Glanyllyn, and the Lloyds of 


* " Mae im' flaidd a'm car o'm caffael wrtho 

Yn wrtheb archafael ; 
Nid blaidd coed coll ei afael 
Namyn blaidd mies, moesawg hstK\."-Cynddtlw. 


that it should never be said in time to come, that there an- 
hundred North Welsh Gentlemen fled, but that the place should 
carry the name and memory, that there an hundred North Welsh 
gentlemen were slain. Because some of his kinsmen had brought 
with them all their sons, and some others had but one son to 
succeed in their name and inheritance, as Hywel ab Llywelyn ab 
Hywel and others, he placed all these in the rereward, out of 
the fury of the fight, whilst all his own sons were in the 
vanward which himself led, where he was sore wounded in the 
face, whence he was called 'Squier y Graith, the 'Squire with the 
scar, to his. dying day : But God gave his enemies the over- 
throw, he opening the passage with his sword. 1 

Queen Catharine being a Frenchwoman born, the relict of 
Henry the Fifth, knew no difference between the English and 
Welsh nations, until her second marriage 2 being published, Owain 
Tewdwr's kindred and countrymen were objected to, to disgrace 
him as most vile and barbarous, which made her desire to see 
some of his kinsmen. Whereupon, Owain brought to her presence 
this John ab Maredudd and Hywel ab Llywelyn his near cousins, 
and men of goodly stature and personage, but wholly destitute 
of bringing up and nurture ; for when the Queen had spoken 

1 Gwydir History. 

2 Soon after the death of Henry the Fifth, his widow Catharine became enamoured 
by the manly graces of Owain Tewdwr. His introduction was singular: He being a 
courtly and active gentleman was commanded once to dance before the Queen, and in a 
turn, not being able to recover himself, fell into her lap as she sate on a little stool with 
many of her ladies about her. Draytoris Epistles. 


to them in different languages, and they were not able to answer 
her, she said they were the goodliest dumb creatures that ever 
she saw. 

At this time there happened some difference between William 
Griffith of Penrhyn, Chamberlain of North Wales, and John ab 
Maredudd, who both bore chief rule in the country ; the one 
by reason of his authority, that all should reverence and obey 
him, the other in regard of his descent, kindred, and ability 
acknowledging none but the Prince his superior ; hence grew the 
debate : 

nec Casar ferre priorem, 

Powpeiusve par em 

To John ab Maredudd his kindred and friends cleaved steadfastly, 
like courageous men: so then it began to be a proverb or 
phrase, to call the family of Owain Gwynedd Tylwyth John ab 
Maredudd, the race of John ab Maredudd. This variance 
continued in their posterity long after, till with matches and 
continuance of time it was worn out. 1 

Our valiant countryman married Gwenhwyfar, daughter of 
Gronw ab Jeuan of Gwynfryn. By her he had five sons. 
Morys ab John ab Maredudd, the eldest, had Clenenneu 
Rhiwaedog and Park, and married Angharad, the daughter of 
Ellis ab Gruffudd ab Einion ab Gruffudd ab Cynfrig ab Osbern 2 

1 Gwydir History. 

[relan S d ber a n /f 8era H d HT * *""* * ** ^^^ ^^ wh were se ^ 
Ireland, and descended from Gerald, Constable of Windsor, a military attendant on 


Fitzgerald. By her he had three sons ; William Llwyd of 
Rhiwaedog ; Ellis who had Clenenneu, and was Sheriff of 
Merioneth in 1541 ; and Robert who had Park. The Llwyds 
were extinct in the male line in William Lloyd, whose sister was 
the mother of the present William Lloyd Dolben Esquire, of 
Rhiwaedog. 1 

The Morices 2 of Clenenneu were descended from Ellis, the 
second son of Morys ab John ab Maredudd. Sir William 

William the Conqueror. Osbern is called Gwyddel, or the Irishman. He came into- 
Wales in the time of Llywelyn the Great, and was much favoured by that Prince. 
From Osbern are descended the Vaughans of Corysgedol, the Wynns of Maes y 
Neuadd, the Yales of lal, the Wynns of Glynn in Ardudwy, whose daughter, and 
heiress Margaret married Sir Robert Owen of Clenenneu, Llanddyn and Porkington, 
the grand father to the late Robert Godolphin Owen Esquire. 

[The Vaughans of Corsygedol became extinct in the male line upon the death in 1791 
of Evan Lloyd Vaughan, Esq., M.P. for Merioneth. William Wynn of Maesyneuadd 
(Sheriff for Merioneth in 1758) assumed the surname of Nanney. His grandson, John 
Nanney, the last of this line died in 1868. Sarah Yale the last of the direct line of 
the family of Yale, of Plas yn Yale, by her Will, proved in 1821, antailed the Plas yn 
Yale estate upon William, fourth son of Thomas Parry Jones Parry, Esq., M.P., of 
Madryn, her mother's grandnephew, who assumed the name of Yale, and was succeeded 
by his nephew, William Corbet Yale, Esq., the present owner. Robert Godolphin 
Owen's niece and heiress, Mary Jane Ormsby, in 1815, married William Gore, Esq., 
who assumed the name of Ormsby before his own of Gore. Their eldest son, John 
Ralph Ormsby Gore, was, in 1876, created Baron Harlech. The name of Porkington 
has now been restored to its original form, Brogyntyn. Ed.] 

1 Rhiwaedog is in the parish of Llanfor, near Bala. The mansion house, and a 
remnant of the estate, subsequently became vested by descent in two ladies of the name of 
lies, by the survivor of whom they were bequeathed to Mrs. Price, of Rhiwlas. The 
present owner is R. J. Lloyd Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas. The Lloyd's of Plasyndre, and 
other families in the neighbourhood of Bala, are descended from this ancient stock. Ed. 

2 Sir William Morice, Secretary of State to Charles the second, and an instrument 
in his Restoration, was the son of Evan Morice, a younger brother of Clenenneu, 
settled in Devonshire.' Sir William was succeeded in his great office by another of our 
countrymen, Sir John Trevor, of the house of Trefalyn. 


Morice of this house married the daughter and heiress of the 
Lacons of Llanddyn and Porkington, and the heiress of the three 
houses married John Owen (fourth son of Robert Owen, of 
Bodsilin,) of the Tribe of Hwfa ab Cynddelw. This gentleman 
had been Secretary to Walsingham, and made a fortune of ten 
thousand pounds, when his great master left not wherewith to bury 
him. The eldest son of this match was the memorable Sir John 
Owen of Porkington, Llanddyn and Clenenneu, of whom I shall 
speak under his proper Tribe. From Robert, the third son of 
Morys ab John ab Maredudd, came the Anwyls of Park. They 
ended in an heiress, Catharine, who married Sir Gruffydd 
Williams of Marl and Pantglas, a younger branch of Penrhyn. 
Ann, their daughter and heiress, was maid of honor to Queen 
Caroline ; was first married to Sir Thomas Prendergast of the 
Kingdom of Ireland, and secondly to a gentleman of the same name 
and nation. She died without issue, and her estates have passed 

A . I ' . 

1770 away in different alienations. Of a younger branch of Clenenneu, 
was Andrew Morice D.D., the twenty-sixth Dean of St. Asaph. 

He was instituted to the Deanery on the nomination of Sir 
A.D. 3 

1634 Morice Abbot, Executor to Archbishop Abbot, who had made it an 
option. He was ejected from this and his other preferments by the 
Parliament, and dying in 1654 was buried in the Cathedral at St. 
Asaph. After his death this dignity lay vacant till the Restoration. 
He left a son, David Morice, D.D., who held the Vicarages of Bettws 1 

1 The Vicarage House at Bettws is remarkably small, and was built by the joint efforts 
of Sampson Roberts, and Jones, two of its Vicars ; 

Stare ncquit uno cardine ianta Domus, 


and Abergele. He is buried in the churchyard of the former A .D. 
place, with the arms of Owain Gwynedd engraved on his stone, J 9 2 
exploding as the rest of his Tribe the bearings of the Founder. 

The Lhvyds of Esclusham and Dulaseu, Baronets, of this 
Tribe, descend from Dafydd Goch of Penmachno. The first 
Baronet, Sir Richard Lloyd, was governor of Holt Castle in the 
civil wars of the last [i7th] century, and defended it vigorously, but 
without effect, against General Mytton. The estates passed to 
coheiresses ; Mary married to Sir [Harry] Conway of Bodryddan, 
Jane, to Lewis Owen of Peniarth, and Anne to Edward 
Ravenscroft of Bretton. 

Of a younger son of Dulaseu was descended Humphrey Lloyd, 
Bishop of Bangor and Vicar of Gresford. He built the good sub- 
stantial brick house 1 there, which with the church hath been much 
improved by my old friend, its worthy incumbent. 2 The Bishop 
built his house in the form of a cross, and the windows con- 
sisted of three lights in each window. Since the year 1576, 
this church has had four Episcopal Vicars ; Bishop Hughes 3 of 

[An old rhyme says of the old Vicarage of Bettws yn Rhos : 
" Vicar Jones and Vicar Sampson, 

Joined their pence to build this mansion." 

An excellent Vicarage house was built in 1861, on a new site, at a cost of about ji,joo r 
in lieu of the old one above referred to. Ed.~\ 

1 See Appendix xiv. 

2 The Rev. Henry Newcome, a nephew of Bishop Newcome, for nearly 40 years 
Vicar of Gresford. The Vicarage was rebuilt by Archdeacon Wickham, Vicar, in 1850, 
at a cost of about ^2,500. Ed. 

3 Bishop Hughes was of the house of Cefn Garlleg, of the Tribe of Marchudd ; was 
Bishop of St. Asaph in 1573, and died in 1600, and was succeeded by the translator 


H St. Asaph, Bishop Bellot 1 of Chester, Bishop Parry of St Asaph 
and Bishop Lloyd of Bangor.' Dr. Lloyd was the third son 
AID> of Richard Lloyd D.D. Vicar of Rhiwabon, and was born at 
1610 Trawsfynydd. He was, says Wood, a great tutor at Oriel and 
Becoming known to his countryman Archbishop Williams when 
the King and Court were settled at Oxford, he was the means 
of h,s preferment. Bishop Lloyd died in ,688, and was buried 
at Bangor. 

Morgan^ Hughes left land, , nd re ,e nues for foxing, a Free-school a, S, 
THlrt Tf ArChbiSh P f C '""' b "" " h ld "" ^ 

I he amount of these livings at this time would be 4 oool. per annum 

ervants at home, and his linen washed abroad." There was an old Divine n 

C IT '" Ang ' eSe> '' f "^ tranS P arent P U "^' *.< ^ would not sul h 
at home or abroad, to be washed in the same tub with the women's shifts 

yel^bectlBTr ""f^f* ^ ^^ "^ ^ >" ^ wh ' the ^ing 
ecame B 1S hop of Ferns and Leighlin, and subsequently Archbishop of Cashef 
Dublin and Armagh m succession. .</. 



The Brynkers of Brynker were of this Tribe. They descended 
from Rodri, Lord of Anglesey, the second son to Owain Gwynedd, 
by his second marriage. Their Ancestor Jeuan, the second 1 son 
of the valiant John ab Maredudd, was settled by his father at 
Brynker, an estate since alienated to the Wynns of Wern. 2 
From this house the good Lord Lyttelton on his Welsh tour, 
writes to Archibald Bower, and says playfully : " But what Bala 
is most famous for, is the beauty of it's women, and indeed I 
saw there one of the prettiest girls 3 I ever beheld ; but such 
is my virtue that I have kissed none since I came to Wales, 
except an old maiden lady, a sister of Mr. Brynker, at whose 
house I now lodge, and who is the ugliest woman of her 
quality in Great Britain ; but I know a Duchess or two, I 
should be still more afraid of kissing than her." 

1 The third son, Robert, was slain in his father's time, in a fray near Ruthyn. Thus 
says the Gwydir Historian : " The Thelwals* of Ruthin, being ancient gentlemen of 
that country, who came into it with the Lord Grey, on whom King Edward the First 
bestowed the country of Dyffryn Clwyd, were in contention with a septe or hundred of 
that country, called the family of Gruffudd Goch. These being more in number than 
the Thelwals, although the Thelwals carried the whole offices of the country under the 
Lord there, the Lord of Kent, then treasurer of England, drave the Thelwals to take 
to the castle of Ruthyn for their defence, where they besieged them, until the siege was 
raised by John ab Maredudd, his sons and kindred, to whom the Thelwals sent for aid. 
In that exploit, Robert, the third son of John ab Maredudd, was slain by an arrow in a 
wood, called Coed Marchan, within view of the Castle of Rhuthyn ; in revenge 
whereof many of the other side were slain, both at that time and afterwards. Owain, 
the fourth son of John ab Maredudd, was settled at Ystumcegid, and Gruffudd at 

2 It was afterwards sold to Sir Joseph Huddart, Kt. Ed. 

3 This gentlewoman is still living [about 179]. 
* Of this house was Thelwal who published his digest of Writs. 


The Gethins of Fedw deg now extinct were of this Tribe. 
The first that bore the name was Rhys Gethin, 1 or the swarthy, 
ugly, terrible ; he was brother to Hywel Coetmor, who anciently 
possessed Gwydir, sold by his son Dafydd to Maredudd ab Jeuah, 
Welsh nephew, or first cousin once removed, to the renowned 
John ab Maredudd, and ancestor to the Wyrins of Gwydir. 
Hywel lies (with his effigy in armour) in Llanrwst church. 
Rhys and Hywel were the sons of Gruffudd, 2 the son of Dafydd 
Goch of Penmachno, the natural son of Dafydd, Lord of 
Denbigh, the brother of our last Prince Llywelyn. Dafydd, who 
resided at Denbigh, was seized near the place by his own 
Countrymen, and carried laden with irons to Edward the First, 
then at Rhuddlan ; thence he was taken before the Parliament, 
sitting at Shrewsbury. At this august assembly, was tried and 
condemned Dafydd. His perfidy to Edward, and his treasons to 
his country, rendered him an object of detestation to all. Eleven 
Earls and an hundred Barons were commissioned to try him, as 
a subject of England, for he had received from Edward an 
English Barony, 3 and a pension. He was the first who suffered 

1 Rhys Gethin lived in the parish of Bettws y Coed near Llanrwst, at a place called 
to this day Hendre Rhys Gethin ; it is a little above Pont y Pair. His two sons, Hywel 
and Jeuan, had their residence on each side the river Lleder near Cromlech Hwfa, above 
Llanrwst. Jeuan had a house also at Penman maen, in the Parish of Dolwyddelan. 

- There is a stone figure of this Gruffudd, recumbent in armour, in the church of 
Bettws y Coed, with this inscription ; 

Hie jacet Gruffudd ab Davydd Goch. 
Agnus Dei, 
miserere mei. 

3 In the Writ for the trial of this Prince, Edward paints his ingratitude pathetically. 
" Quern susceparamus orphanum, ditaveramus de propriis terris nostris, et sub alarum 


the death of a traitor, in the form of the sentence now in use, 
which he underwent in it's fullest extent ; and his head, with 
that of his brother Llywelyn, was exposed on the highest pinacle 
of the Tower of London. 1 

Gruffudd's encomiast, the Friar, 2 thus concludes his history. 
" Full oft the Earls of Chester met him and were defeated ; 
full oft the men of Powys attempted his overthrow, but without 
effect. The friends of Trahaern projected his destruction, but 
could not prevail. At length he sat on a peaceful throne, surrounded 
with wealth and prosperity, and conducted the public with 
success. He lived in friendship with the neighbouriug Kings ; 
Henry the First King of England, Morchath of Ireland, and 
the King of Denmark and the Isles. His fame extended to 
distant as well as adjacent countries. North Wales wore a 
flourishing aspect. The people were employed in building castles, 
in raising churches, planting trees, orchards and gardens, and 

nostrarum chlamyde foveramus ; ipsum inter Majores nostri Palatii collocavimus." 
This last favor was made his destruction. By his acceptance of the Barony (Frodsham 
in Cheshire) he was held liable to be tried and condemned by the Peers of England. 
Cromwel pursued the same rule with the Duke of Hamilton, as Earl of Cambridge, 
and to a similar effect. 

1 Pennant. 

2 Gruffudd ab Cynan his troublesome life and famous acts are compiled in Welsh, 
says Sir John Wynn, by a most ancient Friar, or Monk of Wales ; and, continues the 
historian, this was found by the posterity of the said Gruffudd in the house of Gwydir, 
and at the request of Maurice Wynn Esquire,* who had the same written in a most 
ancient book, and was lineally descended from him, was translated into Latin by 
Nicholas Robinson, Bishop of Bangor. [This translation, in his own handwriting, is 
preserved at Peniarth, and a transcript of the Welsh text, and of the Latin, was made 
by the late Canon Williams, of Rhydycroesau, and published in Arch. Cambrensis 
for 1866. Ed.] 

* Sir John's father. 


protecting them with fences and ditches. They repaired ruined 
fabrics, and adopted the Roman method of husbanding the produce 
of the soil. Gruffudd founded churches near his principal 
residences; his halls and entertainments were distinguished by 
their grandeur and magnificence. North Wales glittered with 
churches, as the firmament with stars. Gruffudd governed the 
people with a steady sceptre, and maintained peace with the 
neighbouring kingdoms. His sons, who were yet but young, he 
placed on the frontiers of the State, to guard and defend it 
against the bordering nations, who should renew hostilities against 
him. The petty Princes repaired to his Court, when they were 
reduced to distress by foreign powers, to solicit his advice and 
protection. He was at length overtaken by old age, which 
deprived him of his sight. Thinking he had secured by his 
victories the esteem and admiration of posterity, he devoted him- 
self to works of charity, and once thought of monastic retirement, 
that he might lead a life of prayer, and manifest his contempt 
of temporal grandeaur. Perceiving his dissolution, to approach, he 
called for his sons, put his affairs in order, and prepared for 
death after the example of King Hezekias. His goods he divided, 
and his justice will endure for ever. He left a legacy of 
twent shillings to Christ-church in Dublin, where he was born 
and educated and the same sum to all the principal churches in 
Ireland. He bequeathed twenty shillings to the church of St. 
David, and to the Monastery at Chester, but more to the 
Monastery of Bangor ; ten shillings to Holyhead, the same to 
Penmon, to Celynnog, to Enlli, to Meifod, Llanarmon, Dinerth, 
and many other principal churches. He did not forget the 


Bishop, Archdeacon, and the rest of the Priests of Bangor, and 
bound them by legacies to defend the Holy Spirit, the searcher 
and knower of all things. Then David the Bishop, Simeon the 
Archdeacon, a man of mature age and experience, the Prior of 
Chester, with many other religious and learned men, came to 
anoint his body with oil, in conformity to the injunctions of the 
Apostle James. His sons were among them, and he blessed 
them and foretold their fortune, and what peculiar character each 
would support, and as the Patriarch Jacob did on taking his 
dying leave of his sons in Egypt. And he solemnly enjoined 
them to combat their enemies with vigor and constancy, after 
the examples he had set them. 

Angharad his Queen was present, to whom he bequeathed one 
half of his personal estate, with two Rhandir or portions in land 
and the customs at Abermenai. His daughters -and nephews 
were also present, and he left to each a legacy sufficient to 
their maintenance. 

The Welsh, the Irish, and the men of Denmark, lamented 
Gruffudd, as the Jews mourned for Joshua the son of Nun. 

He was eighty-two years old, and was buried on the left side ' ',. 

1 136 

of the great altar at Bangor. And let us pray that his soul 
may enjoy rest in the bosom of God, with the souls of other 
pious and good Kings, for ever. Amen. 

Gruffudd in his person, was of moderate stature, having yellow 
hair, a round face, and a fair and agreeable complexion, eyes 
rather large, light eyebrows, a comely beard, a round neck, white 
skin, strong limbs, long fingers, straight legs, and handsome feet. 


He was moreover skilful in divers languages, courteous and civil 
to his friends, fierce to his enemies, and resolute in battle ; of 
a passionate temper, and fertile imagination. 

He married Angharad, the daughter of Edwyn ab Grono, the 
founder of the tribe of that name ; and by her had three sons 
and five daughters. 1 Our Friar in his singular and digressive 
manner, thus describes her : She was an accomplished person ; 
her hair was long and of a flaxen colour, her eyes large and 
rolling, and her features brilliant and beautiful. She was tall 
and well proportioned, her leg and foot handsome, her fingers 
long, and her nails thin and transparent. She was good tempered, 
cheerful, discreet and witty, gave advice as well as alms to her 
needy dependants, and never transgressed the laws of duty. 

1 His sons were Cadwallon (who was slain in his father's lifetime), Owain Gwynedd, 
and Cadwaladr ; his daughters' names were Gwenllian, Marred, Rannilld, Susanna, and 
Annes. Ed. 

P.S. Inigo Jones's birthplace see ante p. 8 note. It is often stated by biographers 
of this eminent architect that he was born in London, where his father carried on 
business as a clothworker ; but it has always been a tradition generally accepted in the 
neighbourhood of Llanrwst, that he was born either at that town, or at Dolwyddelan. 
Barrington adds that in his time, the tradition was so circumstantial as to suppose that 
he was christened by the name of Ynyr, which after his travels into Italy he exchanged 
.for Inigo as sounding better. (See Introduction to History of the Gwydir Family). Ed. 


[HE Founder of our second royal tribe was Rhys ab Tewdwr, 
distinguished by the name of Mawr, 1 or the Great. In him the 
legal succession of South Wales was restored. 2 He was more- 
over the choice of the people, on the murder of the usurper 
Rh$'s ab Owain. With Gruffydd ab Cynan 3 he shared the 
victory at Carno ; and the fortunes of that field, set them both 
on their hereditary thrones. His first adversities had a slight 
beginning, which in the end led to his destruction. Einion and 
Llywelyn, sons of the Lord of Dyfed and 'chiefs of some 
eminence in South Wales revolted, but were defeated, and fled ; 
Einion to lestyn ab Gwrgant 4 Lord of Glamorgan, whom Rhys 

1 Major, 

2 Rhys was the son of Tewdwr, the son of Einion, the son of Owain, the eldest son 
of Hywel Dda, the legal Prince of South Wales ; but elected to the North in preference 
to the sons of Idwal foel, the right heirs. [He resided at Dinefor Castle. Ed.~\ 

3 Gruffudd ab Cynan had landed from Ireland at Port clys,* near St. David's. Rhys, 
defeated by Trahaern, had taken sanctuary at that place; and hearing of Gruffudd's 
arrival, he went with all the clergy to meet him ; and, falling on his knees, implored 
his help against his adversaries, promising to do him homage, and to reward him with a 
moiety of his revenues. Gruffudd, pitying his condition, yielded to his request ; and 
having together overthrown their Common enemy, Rhys was put into quiet possession 
of South Wales. Panton Papers. 

4 In the year 1091, lestyn, Lord of Glamorgan, rebelling against Rhys ab Tewdwr 
Prince of South Wales, invited many Barons and Knights out of England to his aid 
when, joining his power to them, he led them to Brecknock. Then Bleddyn ab 

* Port Cl^s near St. David's meant only some fortified spot in that neighbourhood, quasi pars pro toto 
It is a name borrowed from the English Portcullis, and that from the Latin Porta clausa. 


had raised to a royal tribe. Him Einion 1 associated in rebellion, 
and together they brought the Normans under Robert Fitzhamon, 
a Baron of England, and gentleman of the chamber to William 
Rufus, and with his council and concurrence. The old and 
gallant Rhys met 2 them near Brecknock, was unsuccessful, and 

Maenyrch, Lord of Brecknock, whose wife was sister to Rhys, sent instantly to him for 
succour ; when making the best levy he could on the sudden, he came forthwith to 
Brecknock, and joined himself with Bleddyn and his men ; and being far less in number 
than their adversaries, they very unadvisedly fought a most dismal battle to all South 
Wales ; for they both falling by the sword, left it a prey to strangers, and the welfare 
of their children at the mercy of their enemies. Then Bernard Newmarch, or 
Newmarket, a Norman, seized upon the Lordship of Brecknock, the possession of which 
remained in his blood until the time of Henry the Eighth, when, by the attainder of 
the last Edward Stafford it came to the crown. Panton Papers. 

1 Einion, a discontented Welsh nobleman, persuades lestyn, Lord of Morganwg (of 
Glamorgan) to implore aid from England against Rhys, Prince of South Wales. Led 
by Robert Fitzhamon, twelve Knights (namely, de Londres, Grenville, Turburville, St. 
Quintin, Seward, Umphreville, Berkerolles, Sully, Le Soer, Le Fleming, St. John and 
Sterling) with their followers, willingly attended the call ; defeat Prince Rhys, and are 
nobly rewarded by lestyn. They were on the point of departing and on shipboard 
when Einion (whom Esmond had treated ungratefully) persuades them to return, and to 
revenge his cause, by driving the thankless Welsh Lord from his dominions. This 
they accomplished, and allotted to Einion the craggy and mountainous districts, and 
kept possession of the rest, settling their families in the country. This Colony with 
the Flemings settled by Henry the First in Pembrokeshire, proved fatal to the indepen- 
dence of South Wales. 

" Queis iter aggressis, occurrit Rhesus in armis ; 
Undique concurrunt acies ; pugna aspera surgit, 
Ingruit armorum rabies ; sternuntur utrinque ; 
Sternitur Haymonis pubes, sternuntur et Angli, 
Proque focis, Cambri, dum vos certatis, et aris : 
Acriter et pugnans, medio cadit agmine Rhesus, 
Cum quo totus honor cecidit, regnumque Silurum. Pentarchia. 

This battle is stated by the best authorities to have taken place in 1089. It was 
fought at a place called Hirwaen Wrgant. The aged and gallant prince was pursued 


fell gloriously in the ninetieth year of his age, and the fourteenth 
of his reign. By his wife the daughter of Rhiwallon, the 
brother of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, he left two sons ; Gruffudd, who 
succeeded him, and Grono, at the time of his father's death a 
prisoner in England, where he died. 

With Rhys sunk the sun of South Wales, and all its glories ; 
his successor Gruffudd being stiled Lord only of that | country. 
He was sent for security to Ireland, where he remained till he 
was twenty-five years of age. He came then secretly to South 
Wales, to visit his sister Nest, the beautiful 1 mistress of Henry 
the First, and who brought him his eminent son Robert of 
Gloucester. 2 She was now married to Gerald de Windsor, by the 
favor of Henry, Constable of Pembroke. Gruffudd remained in 
South Wales, till he raised the suspicions of Henry, who 

and taken in Glyn Rhoddni, now generally called Rhondda, and beheaded at a place 
called from that circumstance Pen Rhys ; being then upwards of ninety-two years of 
age, not as stated in the text, in his ninetieth year. A monastery was subsequently 
erected at Pen Rhys to commemorate his death. An Eisteddfod was held there in the 
time, and under the protection of Owen Glyndwr. Rhys ab Tewdwr's arms were : Gules, 
a lion rampant or within a bordure indented. Ed. 

1 Her beauty had excited Owain, the wicked son of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, to an 
atrocious act. He burst into the castle of Pembroke by night, and carried off Nest 
and her children to Powys, her husband escaping very narrowly ; and the castle was 
left in flames. Whether she yielded to the ravisher from choice or necessity is left in 
doubt ; but Owain sent back to Gerald his children at her request. 

2 Robert Earl of Gloucester was very eminent as a soldier, as a statesman, and scholar. 
He was the instrument of restoring his nephew, Henry, to the throne of England, 
altho' that event took place after Gloucester's death. Geoffrey of Monmouth dedicates 
to him his Latin translation of Tysilio ; and Robert was a general friend to learning, 
and learned men, in that early age of English literature. William of Mahnsbury, the 
Poet and historian, was patronized by him. 


engaged Cynan Prince of North Wales, the father in law and 
great uncle to Gruffudd, to seize and imprison his son and 

Gruffudd fled to the church of Aberdaron, and Cynan attempting 
to force the sanctuary, was resisted by the Clergy, which gave 
Gruffudd time to escape and to reach the wilds of Ustrad-Towi. 
Here he collected his friends, sallied forth, and destroyed the 
possessions of the English. He extended his ravages to Dyfed, 
attacked Carmarthen, demolished the town and dismantled the castle ; 
but attempting Aberystwyth, was surprized, defeated, and driven 
again within the wilderness of Ustrad-Towi. Henry once more 
attempted his destruction. 1 I find him next restored to his favor, 
but on a false accusation was ejected from lands which that 
Prince had given him. 

' Henry engaged the wicked Owain ab Cadwgan to assasinate Gruffudd, or to make 
him prisoner. Robert of Gloucester, the nephew of Gruffudd, by his sister Nest, was 
employed in the same service. Owain, at the head of an hundred men, on entering the 
forest at Ustrad-Towi, perceived the footsteps of men ; he pursued, killed some, and 
dispersed the rest ; then seizing on their cattle, he returned with his plunder towards 
the main body. At this time Gerald, the Constable of Pembroke, made his appearance, 
intending to join the King's forces. Meeting the people who had fled from Owain, they 
complained of the injury they had just received, and implored his assistance. In an 
instant the idea of revenge rushed on his mind for the insults his honor had received by 
the outrage Owain had committed on his wife. He instantly entered the forest in 
pursuit of that Chief, who, being warned by his followers of the approaching danger, 
refused to fly, confident that his pursuers intended him no injury, they like himself 
being vassals of the King of England. As soon as Gerald and his forces drew near, 
they discharged a volley of arrows. Owain finding his mistake, with much spirit called 
on his men to support him, telling them, that, though their enemies were seven to one 
in number, they were only Flemings, who would be affrighted at the name of a Welsh- 
man, and distinguished by nothing but drinking deep at carousals On the first onset, 

On the accession of Stephen, hostilities were renewed, and A>E >. 
Gruffudd solicited the aid of North Wales to recover his IZ 3 
inheritance. Accordingly he went into that country, and in his 
absence, his wife, Gwenllian, a woman of an high spirit, collected 
her friends, and with her sons entered Cydweli, the land which 
the ancestors of Maurice de Londres had ravished from her 
family. Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, who commanded for Maurice, and 
was an enemy to Gruffudd, met Gwenllian, and a bloody scene 
ensued, wherein Gwenllian 1 and her son Morgan, were defeated 
and slain, and her son Maelgwn made prisoner. 

In the succeeding year Gruffudd, in concert with Owain and 
Cadwaladr the sons of Gruffudd ab Cynan, made a successful 
irruption ou South Wales, and returned with a large booty ; 8 no 
light object in the warfare of that period. 4 

Owain ab Cadwgan was slain, an arrow having pierced his heart. His death dispirited 
his followers, and gave them so great distrust of the King's forces, that they dispersed 
and returned into their own country. In this manner, says Warrington, died suitably 
to the tenor of his life, this bold and profligate Chieftain. 

1 The place where this battle was fought, is to this day called, Maes Gwenllian, 
Gwenllian's Field. Warrington (but he speaks doubtfully) thinks Gwenllian was taken 
and beheaded after the battle. But I hope that was not the case : 

Nullum memorabile nomen 

Faminea in pcena est, nee habet victoria laudem. 

2 Cadwaladr's daughter had married Anarawd, the son of Gruffudd ab Rhys. A 
violent dispute having arisen between the father and the son in law (who were in the 
relation of uncle and nephew also) it was decided by single combat, in which Anarawd 


animosus Anarawd 

A socero casus Pentarchia. 

3 praedae et spoliorum ardebat amore. 

4 In this expedition they had a conflict . with the Flemish, the Normans, and the 
English, near Cardigan ; in which the latter were defeated, and lost three thousand 


This year (says Powel) died Gruffudd ab Rhys ab Tewdwr, 

A. I_). 

Ir 37 "the light, honor and support of South Wales;" who by his 
wife Gwenllian, the daughter of Gruffudd ab Cynan, had Rhys 
his son who succeeded. 

Our Chroniclers are encomiastic of this character. The Lord 
Rhys ab Gruffudd, say they, " was no less remarkable in courage 
than in the stature and lineaments of his body, wherein he 
excelled most men." In 1143 he distinguished himself against 
the Normans, and Flemish, in Dyfed. His life was a continued 
warfare, too much engaged against his countrymen and relations ; 
exhausting the national strength in domestic hostilities. 1 On 
the submission of North Wales to the Second Henry, and 
in the pacification which ensued, Rhys was not included, but 
alone supported himself against the English, and obtained terms 
from them. In the absence of Henry in Normandy, Rhys 
renewed the war, encouraged by the Welsh prophecies, that the 
King would not return. Henry however was soon in South. 

men. In consequence of this event the Countess of Clare, the sister of the Earl of 
Chester, a widow lady singularly handsome, was left in a castle attended by many 
female attendants, distant from every friend, and surrounded by the Welsh, who 
menaced her with every possible indignity. The poor Countess and her damsels had 
already felt each horror by anticipation, when they were unexpectedly relieved by the 
romantic gallantry of Milo Fitzwalter, who encouraged by King Stephen ,and 
accompanied by a few chosen warriors, rode night and day to the beleagured fortress, 
and although he found it environed by numbers of Welsh, brought away the Ladies 
inviolate. Gerald Camb. 

Few anecdotes redound more to the honor of that spirit of chivalry, which almost 
alone illumined the gloom of the early Centuries. /. P. A. 

1 ne tanta animis assuescite bella : 

Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires. 



Wales, and Rhys unable to resist, submitted to do him homage, 
and gave hostages for his obedience. This ceremony was 
performed at Woodstock, and Rhys swore fealty to the English 
King, and to Henry his son. 

The following year he is again in arms, and, invading A . D . 
Cardigan, subdued that country. 2 Encouraged by his success the Il6 3 
spirit of contention became general in Wales ; the Prince of the 
North, Owain Gwynedd, and all his sons, his brother Cadwaladr, 
and the Lord of Powys, joined Rhys. Their first attack under 
Dafydd, the son of Owain Gwynedd, and with success, was on 

Some forces had been raised in Henry's absence, for the 
reduction of Rhys ; with these the King of England marched 
to Oswestry. I here omit the history of this event, which was 
disastrous to the English, and very honorable to the Welsh, as 
it appertains to the next tribe ; but it should seem disgraceful 
to Henry, 3 that in revenge of his disappointment, he put out 
the eyes of his Welsh hostages, among whom were two sons of 
Rhys, 4 and two of Owain Gwynedd. Rhys pursued his success 

1 This date should be, I think, 1165. Ed. 

2 In revenge of the death of his nephew, Einion, who was murdered by his servant, 
Walter ab Llywarch, at the instigation of Clare Earl of Gloucester. 

impiger Einion, 

(Pro dolor 1) a famulo jugulatus fraude Lomarcho. Pentarehia. 

3 " Barbarity," says Mr. Andrews, " to hostages was not esteemed a crime in the 
early ages." 

4 Obses ab Henrico csecatus rege secundo. Pentarchia. 



in South Wales, took the castles of Cardigan and Cilgerran ; 
the last, a place of great importance, and in it his cousin 
Robert, 1 the son of Nest his aunt, in her second marriage with 
Stephen, Constable of Cardigan. 

In n6g 2 Henry was at Pembroke, on his passage to Ireland. 
Rhys met and presented him with eighty-six horses, of which the 
King accepted thirty-six, and returned the remainder. Rhys was 
restored to his peace, and Henry gave him Cardigan, Ustrad-Towi, 
Arustli and Elfel : He also paid him a visit at Ty gwyn, and 
restored his son Hywel, who had been long an hostage in Henry's 
hands. The politic Henry rendered this journey and his return 
through South Wales conductive to the interests of his Country ; 
for by conversing familiarly with the Welsh Princes, loading them 
with presents, and conferring shewy, though unsubstantial dignities 
on the most ambitious, he found means to break that union, 
which had hitherto rendered all his measures against their 
independency abortive. On the return of Henry from Ireland, 
Rhys attended him at Talycarn, and was made Justice 3 of South 
Wales. Hence he was attached to the English interests, and an 
instrument in the subjection of his country ; and he brought all 
the Lords of South Wales, who had usually opposed Henry to 
do homage to that Prince at Gloucester. 4 

1 This Robert, surnamed Fitzstephen, was one of the first invaders of Ireland, with 
Strongbow Earl of Pembroke, under Henry the Second. 

5 This must have been in 1171. Ed. 

3 This office, which was hereditary, continued to the twenty-seventh of Henry the 
Eighth, and ended in the Lord Ferrers of Chartley. 

4 dominumqe potentem 

Imposuit . 


In 1176 he made a great feast 1 in his castle of Cardigan, to 
which he invited many Normans and English. These civilities 
were of short continuance, for the same year they treacherously 
murdered his son-in-law Einion. To awe them, Rhys built the 
castle of Rhaiadr, in precipitous, strong ground (near the noted 
cataract of that name) above the Wye. 

In 1182 the sheriff of Hereford, Ranulph de Poer, murdered 
the Lord of Gwent, a Welchman of distinction. In revenge, 
his countrymen put Poer to death, with many of his friends. 
Henry in wrath marched to Worcester, where Rhys met and 
appeased him, and promised his sons and nephews as hostages ; 
but the young men, considering how former pledges had been 
treated, refused to appear, and Henry seems satisfied without 

In 1 1 86 Rhys lost his son Cadwaladr, by a private assassination ;. 
and his kinsman, Llywelyn, the grandson of Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
was imprisoned by his brothers, who put out his eyes. 2 

1 In 1176 the Lord Rhys made a great feast at Christmas in his castle of Cardigan, 
on finishing that fortress ; and he caused it to be proclaimed throughout all Britain a 
year and a day beforehand. Thither came many strangers, which were honorably 
received, and worthily entertained, so that no man departed discontented. And among 
deeds of arms and other shews, Rhys caused all the Poets of Wales, which are makers 
of songs and recorders of gentlemen's pedigrees and arms, to come thither ; and 
provided chairs for them to be set in his hall, where they should dispute together, to 
try their cunning and gift in their faculties; where great rewards and rich gifts were 
appointed for the overcomers. Among them they of North Wales won the prize of 
poetry ; and among the musicians, Rhys's own household-men, and in particular the son 
of Eytyn the Crythor, were accounted the best. -Guttun Owain. [Rhys in the year 
1164 founded the famous Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida (Ystrad Fflur), where 
several princes of the house of Dinevor were interred. Ed.~\ 

" Hie quibus invisi fratres 


A.D. On the death of Henry the Second, 1 Rhys renewed hostilities, 2 
and took the castles of St. Clare, Abercorran and Llanstephan ; 
and in the last his son, Maelgwyn, then in rebellion against him. 

Returning with success, 3 he lost his daughter, Gvvenllian, a lady 
of great beauty and accomplishments, the wife of Ednyfed Fychan 4 
(the able General and Minister to Llewelyn the Great), and the 
great great grandmother to Owain Tewdwr, the grandfather of 
Henry the Seventh. 

During the absence of Richard and his imprisonment in Germany, 
Rhys pursued the war, and subdued South Wales. A cruel 
feud now arose among his sons, although allied against their 
father ; and Anarawd, having taken his brothers Hywel and 
Madog prisoners, put out their eyes. Soon after they took and 
imprisoned the father himself, who recovered his liberty through 
his blind son Hywel. 

1 " Henry," says Carte, " used to tire all his Court with continual standing, and 
suffered himself so much by this practice, never sitting but when he eat or rode, that 
it was supposed to be, in conjunction with the kicks he received from horses, the cause 
of the swelling of his legs, and to have hastened the breaking up of his constitution." 

2 Rhys was highly esteemed by Henry the Second, insomuch that whenever he came 
to his court, the King always in person, with his Nobles, was wont to receive him. 
But after the death of Henry, the Lord Rhys coming to England, Richard the First did 
not honour him, as his father was wont to do. Rhys was much displeased, and 
returned home without speaking to the King. This happened at Oxford. Passim. 

8 Hi nostri reditus expectatique triumphi ! 

4 Of Ednyfed Fychan and his numerous and illustrious posterity, we shall have occasion 
to treat hereafter, under MARCHUDD AB CYNAN, the eighth Noble Tribe of North 
Wales. Ed. 


In 1197 the plague raged in Wales, and this restless 1 chieftain 
perished in it, and was buried 2 at St. David's. By his wife 
Gwenllian, the daughter of Madog ab Maredudd, Lord of 
Bromfield, he had four sons and two daughters. He 3 was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Gruffudd. The first I learn of him 
is in an English prison, whither he had been sent by his wicked 
brother, Maelgwyn, and his brother-in-law, Gwenwynwyn. He 
was released by the English Justiciary, Fitzpeter, who assisted 
him also in their defeat. Gruffudd died in 1202, on St. James' 
Day, and was buried at Ustradfflur. 4 He was succeeded by his 
elder son Rhys. Rhys died in 1222, being says Powel, "a lusty 
gentleman." His inheritance was divided between his brother, 
Owain, and his uncle, Maelgwyn. Owain married Angharad, 
daughter of Maredudd ab Robert, Lord of Kedewain, and left 
two sons, Llywelyn and Maredudd : Of the elder I learn nothing, 
but that he left a son, Thomas. Maredudd, the younger brother 

1 Hi motus animorum atque haec certamina tanta, 

2 Pulveris exigui jactu, compressa quiescent. [His monumental effigy still remains 
in the Cathedral of St. David's, in a good state of preservation. Ed.} 

3 Rhys was the eldest of six towardly sons, that his father, Gruffudd, had by 
Gwenllian the fair daughter of Gruffudd ab Cynan, Prince of North Wales; and he 
surviving them all, obtained the dominion of South Wales, which he well and worthily 
ruled.* Panton Papers. [The Lord Rhys's brothers were Anarawd, Meredydd (lord 
of Ceredigion), Cadell, who had a portion of Dyfed, Rhys Vychan and Owen -five in 
all ; his sisters were Gwladys and Nest. Dwnn's Vis. ii., p. 99, note. Ed.} 

4 This prince is celebrated in the Welsh Chronicles for his martial prowess and 
nobility of mind. Williams' Em. Welshmen. 

* Spes Patrue, columcn pacis, lux urbis et orbis ; 
Gentis honos, decus armorum, fulmenque duelli ; 
Quo neque pace prior, neque fortior alter in armis. Pentarchia. 

A.D. of Llywelyn, was better known, and, says Powel, "this year 
1268 died Maredudd ab Owain, the defender of South Wales." 
Thomas married the daughter and heiress of Philip, Lord of 
Iscoed, and by her had a daughter, Elen, who married Gruffudd 
Fychan, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, and by him was mother to our 
great Glyndwr 1 . 

I find but five descendent families from this Tribe ; Wynn of 
Dol-Bachog, 2 Owen of Cefn-Hafod, Lloyd of Plas-uwch Clawdd, 
Evans of Tre-Castell, and Jones of Haim. 

1 She was also the mother of Tudor ab Gruffudd Fychan (slain in the battle of 
Mynydd-y-Pwll-Melyn in 1405), from whom descended the Vaughan's of Corsygedol, 
the Hughes's of Gwerclas, Barons of Kymmer in Edeirnion, and other good families. -Ed. 

2 Of the Dol-Bachog family I can trace nothing. Of Cefn-Hafod I am equally 
ignorant, as of the Lloyds of Plas-uwch Clawdd near Rhiwabon, and Jones of Haim. 
But there is a place called Haim wood, near the junction of the Severn and Vernew. 
Mr. Evans of Towyn is one of the Tre-Castell family, [Dol-bachog is now an ordinary 
farm house in Trefeglwys, Montgomeryshire ; and so are Tre-castell in Llanwnog ; 
Cefn-hafod, or rather Cefn-hafodau, in Llangurig ; and Haim or Hem, in Forden, all 
in the same county. The Owen's of Cefn-hafodau are now represented by Arthur 
Charles Humphreys Owen, Esq., of Glansevern, and by Mr. Baxter Owen, of Glandulas, 
in that county. The late William Owen, Esq,, K.C., of Glansevern (who died in 1837), 
traced his descent by uninterrupted male succession from Rhodri Mawr, King of all 
Wales, through Cadifor ab Dinawal, whose wife was a daughter of the Lord Rhys. 
The present owner of the Glansevern estate, Mr Humphreys Owen, is his 
great grand nephew. The other families above named became extinct long ago. One 
of the most illustrious of Rhys ab Tewdwr's descendants was Giraldus Cambrensis (or 
De Barri) one of the brightest luminaries of the twelfth century, who was the fourth 
son of William De Barri, by Angharad, daughter of Nest, the daughter of Rhys ab 
Tewdwr. Among numerous other families now extinct descended from Rhys ab Tewdwr, 
were the Wynns of Coed Llai, or Leeswood, near Mold, who became extinct apparently 
in 1793, upon the death of Margaret, daughter of Sir George Wynn, Bart., and wife of 
Richard Hill Waring, Esq.(ffist. of Pmvis Fadog, v., p. 230) the Griffiths of 

Perhaps the only family still existing which can trace its descent in a direct line 
paternally from Rhys ab Tewdwr, is that of Lewis of Harpton Court, Radnorshire, of 
which the late Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Bart, M.P., was a distinguished represent- 
ative (Lewys Dwnn's Vis., i., p. 253). The Powells of Brandlesome Hall, Lancashire, 
also claim similar descent (Bur Ms Landed Gentry. ) Ed.] 


AB CYNFYN ranks the third Royal Tribe. He 
had a title to Powys in female succession from his great grand- 
mother, Angharad ;' but his crown of North Wales, was usur- 
pation, in common at first with his brother, Rhiwallon, who fell 
in the battle of Mechain ; and the whole was then his own. 2 A - D - 
From his father, Cynfyn ab Gwerystan, he had no claims ; by 
his mother, the daughter and heiress of Maredudd ab Owain, 
Prince of South Wales, he was half brother to Gruffudd ab 
Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, the preceding Prince of North Wales, 3 who 
was himself an usurper also ; moreover on the death of Owain 
ab Edwyn, Bleddyn accumulated the sovereignty of South Wales, 
again uniting the whole dominion of his maternal ancestor 

1 Angharad was the grandaughter and heiress of Merfyn, the third son of Roderic 
the Great, in whose favour his father gavelled off the Principality of Powys, which 
comprehended Montgomeryshire, parts of Shropshire, and parts of the present 
Counties of Brecknock, Denbigh, and Radnor. 

2 " Bleddyn ab Cynfyn bob cwys, 

Ei hun bioedd hen Bowys." Rhys Cain. 

3 This warlike Prince was put to death by his own subjects, and his head sent to 
Harold, who commanded the armies of the Confessor Edward with success against our 
countrymen. Harold brought Gruffudd's widow out of Wales, and married her ; she 
was sister to the powerful Saxon Earls, Edwyn and Morcar, the sons of Algar, and 
grandsons of Leofric, Earl of Mercia; which latter led an army against Swane, King 
of Denmark, in 1003, and died in 1057, being the husband of the famous Godiva, who 
freed Coventry from an heavy tax, and gave rise to the well-known story of Peeping Tom. 


Roderic ; and like him gavelling his lawful inheritance, he 
divided Powys between his sons Maredudd and Cadwgan. 1 

It remained not long separate, but was reunited in Maredudd 
on the murder of his brother Cadwgan, 2 (a superior person of 
that time, whom Camden calls "the renowned Briton,") by 
their nephew Madog, the son of Ririd, the fifth son of Bleddyn 
ab Cynfyn ; and the extinction of his nephews the sons of 
Cadwgan, by Maredudd himself. 

The story of our country under its native Princes is a wretched 

calendar of crimes ; of usurpations, and family assassinations ; 

and in this dismal detail we should believe ourselves rather on 

the shores of the Bosphorus (things oddly coincident 3 ), than the 
banks of the Dee. 

1 In 1073 Bleddyn was slain in battle, as some say, but according to others 
treacherously murdered in Powys Castle by Rees ap Owen ap Edwin and the Gentlemen 
of Ystrad Tywi, having worthily governed Wales thirteen years. Bleddyn according 
to Powel was "verie liberall and mercifull, and loved iustice and equitie in all his 
reigne." He is said to have built Dolforwyn Castle, between the years 1065 and 1073. 
He had other sons besides Maredudd and Cadwgan, namely, Llywarch, Madog, Rhirid, 
and lorwerth. His arms were, Or a lion rampant gules, armed and langued or. Ed. 

2 Cadwgan was killed in an ambush by Powys Castle, which he was then erecting. 
Powel of Ednop in his PentarMa, a wild, incorrect Latin MS. poem, in James the 
First's time, thus describes his Coat of Arms, [Or a. lion rampant azure armed and 
langued gules] : 

Aurea magnanimi Cadugani parma leonem, 

Coeruleum, rapidumque, cruentis faucibus effert. Tracts of Powys, p. 2 nole. 

3 The Celts or Gauls were descended from Gomer, the eldest son of Japhet, who was 
the eldest son of Noah, and from the Provinces of the Upper Asia they migrated to the 
countries on the Lake Meotis, on the North side of the Euxine Sea ; and, as they were 
called Cimmerians in Asia, so they communicated their name to that famous Strait, 

Our Law of distribution, the custom of gavelkind, 1 had the 
the same ill effect, applied to the succession as the freedom of 
the State ; it balanced the power and raised the competition of 
the younger branches against the elder ; a Theban war of Welsh 
brethren ending in family blood, and national destruction. Nor 
was the elder more delicate, accumulating again by every means 
his broken patrimony. It might apply to the colonization of new 
countries, and was in this, the only manner of portioning our 

which has been since called Cimbrian or Cimmerian Bosphorus. Here they had not 
continued long, when the increase of their progeny made it necessary to penetrate 
farther into the country, and, as it is supposed they fell down the Danube, along whose 
banks they encamped, as their manner of life was, for the convenience of their cattle ; 
and so shaping their course Westward, entered Germany, from whence they advanced 
into France ; for the Inhabitants of France, as Josephus tells us, were anciently called 
Gomerites, as being descended from Gomer ; and from France they came at length into- 
the Southern parts of this Island. And therefore we find that the Welsh, the ancient 
proprietors of Britain, called themselves Gomeri or Cymry, and their language 
Cymmraeg ; which words bear so great analogy to the original appellation, from 
whence they are derived, that we may reasonably conclude the true ancient Britons, or 
Welsh, to be the genuine descendants of Gomer, the eldest son of Japhet. But this will 
be farther evinced from the affinity between the Celts or Gauls, and the ancient Britons,, 
with respect to religion, language, laws, and customs. Owen's History. 

1 "What aggravated this mischief," says Lord Lyttelton, "was another ancient 
custom which prevailed among the Chieftains and Kings of Wales, of sending out 
their infant sons to be nursed and bred up in different families of their principal Nobles 
or Gentlemen ; from whence it ensued, that each of these foster fathers, attaching 
himself with a strong paternal affection to the child he had reared, and being incited 
by his own interest to desire his advancement above his brothers, endeavoured to procure 
it by all the means in his power. Thus, as most of their Kings cohabited with several 
women who generally brought them many children, several parties were formed among 
their Nobility, which breaking out at their deaths, involved their kingdoms in blood 
and confusion. Minors were never allowed to reign ; but it often happened that when 
a Prince, excluded in his infancy, attained to manhood, he then aspired to the throne he 
had lost on account of his nonage, and found a party to assist him in those pretensions." 1 



children. It is yet distinguishable in Welsh lands ; and still 
intermixing them, may sometimes interfere with a compact demesne, 
and the pleasures and space of modern gardening and home 
improvements, but the liberal spirit of our gentry hath much 
lessened, by reasonable exchanges, these last inconveniences of 
this ancient distribution. The term gafel, in the Welsh, implies 
an holding, because each son held a share in his father's land, 
and the youngest had a claim to the paternal residence. 

Maredudd ab Bleddyn, to quote our dry monk, and historical 1 
collector, Caradog of Llancarfan, " under severe contrition for his 
hellish practices against his brothers and nephews," died in 1132. 
He was, notwithstanding a man of spirit and abilities, but his 
ambition to unite Powys, led to great cruelties and oppression. 
His conduct and courage, when attacked by Henry the First of 

1 Our most ancient British History is called Brut y Brenhinoedd, or the Chronicle of 
the British Kings, because it concludes with Cadwaladr the last King ; and to distinguish 
it from the continuation by Caradog, which is called Brut y Tywysogion, or the 
Chronicle of the Princes. It begins with the Trojan colony, and ends with the reign of 
Cadwaladr, the abdicated King of the Britons. It hath gone among us under the name 
of Tyssilio, a bishop, the supporter of the British Church against the usurpations of 
Austin the monk, and the son of Brochwel Ysgithrog ;* but he seems to have been only 
the continuer of it,t from the Roman conquest to his own time, about the year 660. 

A.D. * Brochwel commanded the Britons at their memorable defeat near Chester, which led to the massacre of 

the Monks of Bangor Monachorum. His son Tyssilio, besides his Welsh work, wrote an Ecclesiastical 
History of Britain, which Archbishop Usher said he had seen. There is also a short dialogue in Welsh verse 
between two Monks extant, which is ascribed to Tyssilio. From Ysgithrog are many descendants, chiefly in 
Montgomeryshire, and I have given in the Appendix with truth the character of one of then-, whom I had the 
pleasure of knowing well. Appendix xv, Blayney. 

+ This is the history so miserably mangled by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Latin translation. "If 
Geoffrey," says Mr. Morris, "had worded the exploits of Corineus and Arthur, as the original history in the 
British tongue required, there would not have been that air of fable in his translation." Most of the 
objections of Camden, Milton, Burton, Nicholson, &c., took their rise from their falling foul of a bad 
translation, instead of an Original, which they had never seen. 


England and deserted by Gruffudd ab Cynan, the reigning Prince 
of North Wales, does him credit. He defended the passes into A .o. 
Powys with judgment and success ; and Henry, endangered in 1 1 
these defiles, was struck by an arrow, that his armour resisted, 
which he said came not from a Welsh, but an English bow ; 
and offering terms to Maredudd withdrew his army on the 
receipt of a small sum of money and a thousand cattle. 

Maredudd died fourteen years after, in entire subjection to the A D 
English Prince. He had married two wives; by his first, Ir 3 2 
Hunydd, the daughter of Eunydd 1 ab Gwernwy, the founder of 
the Tribe of Dyffryn Clwyd and Allington, and one of the 

It was afterwards continued to the death of Cadwaladr, by some other hand. Caradog, 
of the Abbey of Llancarfan, collected and continued this history to the year 1156. 
The Monks of Conway, and Ustrad-fflur pursued it to 1270, just before the death of the 
last Prince. Humphrey Llwyd translated this book from Welsh into English, adding 
some things from Matthew Paris and Nicholas Trivet, but died before he published it ; 
and it was left in the hands of Sir Henry Sidney, President of Wales, who recommended 
to Dr. Powel to augment and print it, which he did, and dedicated it to Sir Philip Sidney, 
the son of Sir Henry, in 1584. The Monks of Ustrad-fflur and Conway seem purposely 
to have discontinued their history, unwilling to relate the final conquest of their 
country, and the death of Llywelyn. This part was completed by Humphrey Llwyd 
himself, assisted by the collections of Guttyn Owain. 

1 Eunydd was the son of Gwenllian,* the daughter of Rh^s ab Marchan. This is 
the lady that is commonly styled the heiress of Dyffryn Clwyd. She had great 
possessions in it, having the property of seven townships, in the neighbourhood of 
Ruthin. Bleddyn ab Cynfyn married her to his cousin Gwernwy, and, to make him a 
suitable match for her, and in reward of his military services to himself, bestowed upon 
him seven townships ; Almor, Trefalun, Gresford, Allington, Lleprog fawr, Lleprog 
fechan and Trefnant. Ithel, the son of Eunydd, had six sons, who jointly gave the 

* Gwenll'ian, id est, White Linen. Linen was so rare in the reign of Charles the Seventh of France, who 
lived about the time of our Henry the Sixth, that the Queen of France could boast of two shifts only, of 
that commodity. 


Fifteen [Tribes] of North Wales, he had several children; by 
the second, Eva, the daughter of Blettrws ab Ednowain, and 
granddaughter to Ednowain bendew, one of the Fifteen [Tribes], in 
him first erected also, he had a son, lorwerth goch, or the red 
Edward, who married Maude daughter to Roger de Manley, by 
whom he was father to Sir Gruffudd Fychan, 1 Lord of Crigion 
and Bergedwyn [Burgedin,] ancestor to the several houses of the 
Kynastons. He was called the wild Knight of Caer Hywel, 
from his romantic life, and the seat of his residence of this name 
in Montgomeryshire. 2 

To return to Maredudd. That sole possession, which unhappily 
to himself was obtained in Powys, did he again mutilate and 

land whereon the parish church of Gresford is built ; " this is a fact well known," says 
Lewis Dwnn. The sepulchres of the grandchildren of the said Ithel ab Eunydd are in 
the church of Gresford. Should not the gentlemen of this Tribe carry their 
ancestress's Arms, azure a fess or between three nags' heads, erased argent ; at least 
quartered with their own, since she was so considerable an heiress. [Of Eunydd (or 
Efnydd) ab Gwernwy and his descendants we shall treat more fully under EFNYDD, the 
fourteenth Noble Tribe of North Wales../.] 

1 Sir Gruffudd was a Knight of Jerusalem, originally the Order of the Holy 
Sepulchre there ; whence removing, they were incorporated with the Knights 
Hospitallers or Templars, then resident at Rhodes ; and until this direful French 
visitation, which has plundered their estates, and ruined their commanderies in that 
country, were continued in respect as Knights of Malta. 

2 Caer Hywel is a mansion still known by that name on the banks of the Severn, at 
Edgerley. in the County of Salop, and not far from the ford on the Vyrnwy, designated 
in the Mabinogi of the Dream of Rhonabwy as "Rhyd y Wilure." Among the 
Kynastons we find another " wild Knight," Humphrey Kynaston the Wild, who during 
his outlawry in the reign of Henry the Seventh, inhabited a cave in the bold sandstone 
rock at Ness Cliff, called after him Kynaston's Cave, and concerning whose feats many 
tales are still current in that neighbourhood. lorwerth Goch had also a younger son, 
lorwerth Fychan, the lineal ancestor of the Powys's, Lords Lilford (Burke's 
Peerage.) Ed. 


divide (but it was our custom so to do) between his eldest son 
Madog, and his grandson Owain Cyfeiliog, the son of his younger 
son Gruffudd, who died before him. And here it may be 
necessary and at some length, to mark the partitions since made, 
as the source of families from this Tribe. To the share of 
Madog was the division of Powys given, from him named Powys 
Fadog ; a mutability in initial consonants, to harmonize and vary 
the diction, frequent in our own and not uncommon in other 
languages ; to Owain the upper moiety, which, from his son 
Gwenwynwyn, was called Powys Wenwynwyn. 1 

Madog ab Maredudd, who succeeded as Lord of Bromfield, 2 a 
title taken on the partition by this line of the Powysian Princes, 
was a leading man of those times ; having to his own power 
in Powys united that of his nephew and ward Owain. He was 
the constant confederate of Rondel the Third, and of his son 
Hugh Cyfeiliog, the fourth Earl of Chester. 

Madog was the ally also of Henry the Second in his Welsh 
wars, and commanded his navy in an unsuccessful attempt on 
Anglesey : nor was he more fortunate against his countrymen at 
the battle of Consylt, 3 on the English part. He had been 
offended with Owain Gwynedd, the reigning Prince of North 

1 Pars ea Powysiae de quo cognomine adepta est. Pentarchia. 

2 With respect to this fine Lordship, and in some short observations relative to North 
Wales, may I be allowed to quote myself in a paper I wrote a few years since on the 
subject. See Appendix, xvi. 

3 In this action near Flint, Henry de Essex, hereditary standard-bearer of England, 
threw away the flag, and fled crying aloud, "THE KING is SLAIN." The English 
however rallied, and made an handsome retreat. 


Wales, who claimed his allegiance; yet was this in conformity 
with the rules of Roderic, by which the Princes of South Wales 
and Powys were under sovereignty to the North. 1 

Be this excused to him, his character was good beyond the 
examples of that time; for he was "one that feared God, and 
A.D. relieved the poor." 2 He resided frequently in England, died at 
Winchester, and was buried at Meifod, a church he rebuilt near 
Mathrafael, the seat of these Princes, on the reduction of Shrews- 
bury, 3 their ancient capital, by Offa in the eighth century. 4 He 
married [first] Susannah, the daughter of Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
Prince of North Wales, and founder of our first Royal Tribe. 
By her he had three sons, and a daughter, Marred, the wife of 
lorwerth Drwyn-dwnn, 5 and the mother of our great Llywelyn. 6 

1 The Princes of South Wales were to pay four tons of honey, and the Princes of 
Powys four tons of flour, to the Sovereigns of North Wales. 

2 Powel. 

3 Many of the fields and places near Shrewsbury (then called Pengwern) still retain 
their Welsh Names. It was once again in the hands of the Welsh, and taken by our 
great Llywelyn in 1215. 

* Early in the following century, the able Egbert, who had united the Saxons under 
one kingdom, gained from us the city of Chester, with large maritime dependencies ; 
and would have probably subdued North Wales, but was recalled by a Danish invasion. 
Egbert, during the reign of our Prince, Merfyn frych, had carried his arms into all 
parts of North Wales. 

5 lorwerth Drwyn-dwnn, or Edward with the broken nose, the eldest son of Owain 
Gwynedd, was set aside the succession on account of this deformity. [He resided at 
Dolwyddelan castle, but was eventually compelled to flee for refuge from the cruelty of 
his brother Dafydd, to Pennant Melangell, a celebrated sanctuary in Montgomeryshire, 
near which, at a place called Bwlch Croes lorwerth, he is said to have been killed. Ed.] 

6 Madog married secondly a Norman lady, Maude, daughter of Roese de Verdun, 
his union with whom proved most unhappy, and ended in his ruin. In consequence 
of disagreements, this lady left him and went to Henry the Second, King of England, 


Madog built the Castles of Oswestry, Caer Einion, and Overton, 
where he resided, and which received from him the additional 
name of Madog. 

In the customs of his country, he continued to gavel his 
broken patrimony, and divided his moiety of Powys between his 
sons Gruffudd Maelor, Owain, Eliza [Elissau], [Owain] Brogyntyn, 
Cynfrig [efell] and Einion efell. The three last were illegitimate, 
but it was not unusual to put such, when eminent, in an equal 
succession ; and it is observable, that four of the tribes of Israel 
were of Jacob's natural issue, but appointed to the same distinction 
with the rest. 

Gruffudd Maelor succeeded as Lord of Bromfield, 1 "a man 
wise and liberal ; " 2 nor was he less brave, or less a friend to 
his country. He was valiantly engaged at the head of the men 

who summoned the prince to Winchester to state his case, at the same time requesting 
him not to bring more than four and twenty horse with him, the lady Maude not to 
bring any more with her. On the appointed day Madog came with his four and twenty 
horsemen. Maude came also with twenty four horses, but two men on each horse, 
whereupon Madog was overpowered and cast into prison at Winchester, where he died. 
While in prison he was compelled to settle the lordship of Oswestry upon his wife, and 
the heirs of her body by whomsoever begotten. After Madog's death, Maude married 
John Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, by whom she had a son, John Fitz Alan, Earl of 
Arundel, and Baron of Oswestry and Clun. Thus the English obtained the lordship 
of Oswestry. ( ' Cae Cyriog MS., quoted in Hist, of Powys Fadog, vol. i., pp. 119-120.) 
Madog's arms were, argent a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules. Ed. 

1 In Welsh Maelor, so called from Maelor ab Gwran ab Cunedda Wledig, to whose 
share this district fell, on the general division of North Wales among the sons and 
grandsons of Cunedda in the sixth century. 

2 Powel. 

of Bromfield in the battle of Crogen 1 or Chirk, whence the 
second Henry, with considerable loss, made a difficult retreat, 
and was in imminent danger from an arrow, that had been 
critically aimed, but intercepted by Hubert de Clare, the Constable 
of Colchester, who stepped before him, and, at the price of his 
own life, 2 preserved that of his friend and master. Gruffudd died 
in 1191, and was buried at Meifod. By his wife Angharad, 3 the 

1 It has been erroneously said, that the term Crogens was used in contempt and 
derision of the Welsh ; but that was not the truth : the English meant to express by 
it animosity, and the desire of revenge. It alluded to this action, where Henry was 
worsted, and in great personal danger. Many of the English were slain, and buried in 
Offa's Dyke, below Chirk Castle ; and the part so filled up is to be seen, and forms a 
passage over it, called to this day, Adwy'r Beddau, or the Pass of the Graves. 

2 Lord Lyttelton places this event at the siege of Bridgnorth ; our histories state the 
fact as I have done. 

3 On account of consanguinity, she being his first cousin, Madog was divorced from 
A.I), her, on the persuasion of Archbishop Baldwyn, when he visited North Wales. " At 
1187 this time," says Giraldus, " Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, the reigning Prince of North 

Wales, had no other part of the principality, save Rhuddlan Castle, and the adjacent 
territory, which he held with a garrison of English, and where Archbishop Baldwyn 
lodged one night to visit the King's* sister Emma, the wife of Dafydd." A spirit of 
enmity generally existed between the people, as well as the Princes of South and North 
Wales. When Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of the North, had honorably 
received some fugitives from the South, his courtiers insisted that it was too much con- 
descension in him to favor the subjects of a rival Prince, who would not shew the least 
respect to any of his. Dafydd upon hearing this swore a great oath, that he would not 
rest until he would be satisfied, whether the Lord Rhys of South Wales, would not 
honorably receive some messenger, sent by him to his Court. He was some time before 
he could meet with a person who would undertake the trial. At length Gwgan of Caer 
Einion in Powys land set off on the embassy ; and arriving at Lord Rhys's Court 
found him in a furious temper, beating his servants and hanging his dogs. Gwgan 
knowing it was not a proper time to appear, delayed his message until the following 
day ; and then in a long speech, still extant in MS. he let the noble descendant of Rhys 

* Henry the Second. 


daughter of our great Prince, Owain Gwynedd, he had one son, 
Madog, 1 who inherited his estates entire. Him I find serving 
under John in two Welsh expeditions. From the first the King 
of England retreated with loss and disgrace ; in the second he 
was successful, and reduced Llywelyn of North Wales, his son- 
in-law, to hard conditions ; who submitted to pay the charges of 
the war, to do homage for his dominions, and, in favor of his 
revolted feudatory Madog, to renounce for ever the paramountship 
of Powys. 

The year following Llywelyn and Madog were reconciled, and A-D- 

12 12 
uniting their force they took all the English garrisons in North 

Wales, excepting Rhuddlan and Deganwy, and these fell after ; 
and corrupting the third Innocent, a venal Pope, he dispensed 
with their oaths of allegiance taken to John, then under an 

ab Tewdwr mawr know that he came from Dafydd ab Owain of North Wales, of the 
stock of royal Cynan, to pay his friendly respects to him ; and if he was well received, 
he had commission from his Prince to thank the Lord Rhys ; if not, he had commission 
to act on the reverse. The Lord Rhs asked Gwgan, in what could his honorable 
reception exist. Gwgan answered, in giving me a horse better than my own to carry 
me home ; in giving me five pounds in money, and a suit of clothes ; in giving my 
servant who leads my horse by the bridle, a suit of clothes and one pound. Come in 
said the Lord Rhys, I will give thee the noblest steed in my stud, for the sake of thy 
royal master ; and above thy demand, I will double the sums, and treble the suits of 
apparel. Which promise was performed, and Gwgan returned to the mutual satisfaction 
of both Princes. 

1 Gruffydd Maelor had four sons and three daughters. The sons were Madog, his 
successor, Maredudd, Roderick, and Owain ; and the daughters, Christina, Catherine, 
and Gwenllian Fechan. His arms were argent, four pales gules, a lion salient sable,. 
armed and langued azure. Ed. 



interdict, 1 and a Nuncio was sent into Wales for this purpose. 
" They were moreover put under the pains of cursing, if they 
failed to annoy and trouble him to the utmost of their power." 2 
John returned with an army to Powys, and had gained some 
ground, and demolished the Castle of Mathrafael, which was not 
restored, when he was recalled by the revolt of his English 

A.D. The last service, in which I find Madog, was in South Wales, 

121 5 i n concert with our great Llywelyn, when they reduced and 

ruined many of the English Castles ; and returned home with a 

large booty, no light object in the warfare of those times. He 

built the Cistertian Abbey of Llanegwest, of the Cross, or de 

A n Valle Crucis, one of the last founded, and first dissolved ; and 

I2 3 was buried in the church of his own Monastery [there]. By 

his wife Gwladys, 3 the daughter of Ithel ab Rhys ab Morgan 

of Ewias, ab Morgan hir, ab lestyn ab Gwrgant, the fourth 

Royal Tribe, he had one son Gruffudd, who had the fortune to 

inherit his estates entire 4 

The great interests, with the good abilities of this Lord ren- 
dered him considerable, and he took an active share in these 
turbulent times. He was strictly attached to Henry the Third, 

1 This assumption of the Court of Rome was first practised in England against 

2 Powel. 

8 Or, as some say, Ysota. Ed. 

4 Madog had four sons : Gruffydd, his successor ; Maredudd, Lord of Rhiwabon 
(killed in 1 240 by Prince David ab Llywelyn) ; Hy wel, who left no male issue ; and Madog 
Fychan who also died without issue. Ed. 

whom he pressed into North Wales, and joined there, to effect 
the release 1 of Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, who was kept in close 
prison by his brother Dafydd, the reigning Prince. 

In the succeeding reign of Llywelyn, the son of Gruffudd, he 
engaged himself with equal attachment to the Prince of England, 
Edward, who possessed the Earldom of Chester, with large 
maritime Welsh dependencies. He assisted him (but without 
effect) in his first attempts on our country, for Edward was 
driven back 2 by Llywelyn, co-operating with the rebel force of 
Montford ; 3 of both he took ample revenge 4 afterwards. 5 

1 This was accomplished ; but the unfortunate Gruffudd, being delivered to Henry, 
did but change his confinement from the Castle of Cruccaith, to the Tower of London ; 
whence attempting his escape he perished by a fall from the ramparts [and his head 
first meeting the pavement, being a very bulky man, was driven into his body, between 
the shoulders and collar bones. Matt. Paris.'} On this event, Henry the Third 
declared his son Edward, Prince of Wales, in preference to his nephew Dafydd, the 
reigning monarch. And it is observable, that Edward never departed from this claim, 
since after his conquest in 1282, he annexed to himself, by the statute of Rhuddlan, 
only "Terrain de Snowdon," holding the rest of the country, as his own, and declares 
Llywelyn not an enemy but a traitor. 

2 Of one of these Welsh expeditions,* in his father Henry's time, there is a letter 
preserved by Matthew Paris, from a soldier of fashion, describing the distresses of the ^46 
English army in very spirited terms. "We lie here," says he, "watching, praying, 
fasting, and freezing ; we watch for fear of the Welsh, who beat up our quarters every 
night ; we pray for a safe passage homeward ; we fast, for hardly have we any food, 

the halfpenny loaf being raised to five pence ; and we freeze for want of warm clothing, 
and having only a linen tent to keep out the cold." 

3 Llywelyn had a conference at Hawarden Castle, with Montford, where they 
established peace between Cheshire and Wales, in order to promote their several and 1264. 
respective designs ; and on June the twenty-second in the year following, Montford 
obliged his captive, the English monarch, to make an absolute cession to the Welsh 

* Apud Gannoe, i. e. Diganwy. 


Bromfield was laid waste to punish Gruffudd, and Powys fell 
to the victor ; who on his submission restored him to his estates. 
A.D. He died in his Castle of Dinas Bran, 1 and was buried with his 
father in the neighbouring Abbey of Llanegwest. 2 By his wife 
Emma, the sister 3 of James, Lord Audley, an English captain, 
terrible to the Welsh, with his German cavalry, which they 
destroyed afterwards, he had four sons ; to Madog the elder, he 

Prince, not only of his fortress, but of the sovereignty of Wales, and the homage of its 
Barons, heretofore paid to Henry ; and in the treaty of Montgomery, it was agreed 
between Henry and Llywelyn, that the Dee should be the boundary from Wirrall in 
Cheshire, to Holt in Denbighshire, and thence in a direct line to Pengwern, or 

4 At Evesham and Buellt. 

6 " On the occasion of the conquest, and the death of Llywelyn, two ecclesiastical 
poets," says Knighton, " one a Welshman, and the other an Englishman, wrote as 


" Hie jacet Anglorttm torfor, tutor Venedorum, 
Princeps Wallorum Leolinus, regula morum, 
Gemma coctvorum, Jlos re gum prceteritorum, 
Forma futurorum ; dux, laus, lex, lux populorum" 


" Hie jacet errorum princeps, et prcedo virorum, 
Proditor Anglorum, fax lucida, secta reorum, 
Numcn Wallorum, trux dux, homicida piorum, 
Fcex Trojanorum, stirps mcndax, causa malorum." 

1 Regibus Anglorum fuit hie Griffmus amicus, 
Aversatus herum Leolinum, cujus ob iram 
Se bene munitum Castello semper in illo 
Continuit latitans, nomen locus indidit inde ; 
Orbati teneris nati linquuntur in annis. Pentarchia. 

1 This is the last event related in the British copy of our History ; what remains to 
the conquest of Wales, by Edward the First, was added by Humphrey Llwyd. 
Or, as Powel and others say, daughter. Ed. 



gave the Lordships of Bromfield and lal, with the reversion of 
Moldsdale, Hopesdale, and Maelor Saesneg, 1 his mother's jointure, 
and so called from her nation ; to Llywelyn the Second, the 
Lordships of Chirk and Nantheudwy ; the Third son Gruffudd, 
had Glyndyfrdwy, but from the interests and remorse of Earl 
Warren only, who obtained for him from Edward this lot of his 
inheritance, and the grant which conveys it is dated from Rhuddlan, 
the tenth of his reign. He held this Lordship under the King 
of England in chiefty, and was called by the Welsh, y Barwn 
gwynn, the white Baron. He was father to Madog grupl, or 
the cripple, the great great grandfather to Owain GlyndvVr, who 
succeeded lineally to these estates. The fourth son Owain was 
intended for the church, but died a natural death in his youth, 
and his portion Cynllaeth, from him called Cynllaeth Owain, 
came to his brother Gruffudd who survived him, and so in 
descent to GlyndvVr, and was forfeited to Henry the Fourth. 

From this disposition of Powys Fadog, will be missed the 
Cwmmwd's 2 of Dinmael, Edeyrnion, Merffordd, Croes Oswallt, 
Mochnant is Rhaiadr, and the Lordship of Whittington. To 
two of his legitimate children, Owain and Elisa, Madog ab 
Maredudd had given Mechain is Coed, in the upper Powys, and 
lands in the neighbourhood of Chirk Castle. Dinmael and 
Edeyrnion had been parcelled off by him 3 to his natural son 

1 Maelor Saesneg, i. e. Saxon or English Maelor, the detached part of Flintshire. 

'- Commot or Cwmmwd, was the third of a Cantref, which contained fifty townships. 
From Cwmmwd we derive Cymmydog, a neighbour. 

3 Our histories do not notice another son of Madog ab Maredudd, Llywelyn. He 
probably died before his father, and before the division of his estates among his 


Owain Brogyntyn. He had portioned upon Powys Fadog, two 
other of his natural sons, Cynrig and Einion efell j 1 the first 
was stiled Lord of Eglwys Egle, held lands in Moldsdale and 
the township of Treuddyn ; Einion was Lord of Cynllaeth, had 
Croes Oswallt or Oswestry, where his father had built a Castle, 
and the Lordship of Whittington. The Cwmmwd of Merffordd 
had been given by Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, in reward of military 
services, to his cousin Gwernwy, the father of Eunydd the 
[founder of one of the Fifteen] Tribes. 2 

The relations and friends of the family contended with Emma 
for the direction of the children ; sensible, should they be 
brought up by their mother, their affections must be lost to 
their country. She had the custody of the two elder, but 
keeping with difficulty the possession of them, and of the lands 
of her Welsh jointure, threw both to the care of Edward, 
alleging that their ancestors had sworn allegiance to the Kings 
of England, and they were feudally in his wardship. The King 
accordingly took the children, and committed the charge of them 
and their estates, Madog the elder to John Earl Warren, and 
Llywelyn to Roger Mortimer, who strengthened their trusts with 

surviving sons ; he is however celebrated by Cynddehv, our British Homer, in several 
Poems : in one he thanks him for a stag which his hounds had killed by Cynddelw's 
door ; in another he enumerates the several battles fought by Madog ab Maredudd, his 
father ; at last the Bard deplores the fall of Llywelyn, saying his house on the banks of 
the Dee was left desolate. [Llywelyn ab Madog, " the hope of all Powys," was slain 
just after his father's death in 1160. Ed.~] 

1 Efell signifies twins, from the Latin Gemelli, the Latin M being always expressed in 
Welsh by the letter F. 

2 See under EFNYDD the Fourteenth Noble Tribe of North Wales, post. Ed. 


two strong Castles ; Chirk, built by Mortimer, and Holt, 1 by 
Warren ; and as might happen, the wards were missed and no 
more found. 2 

Tali curanies arte pupillos^ 

Rursus ut ad patrios nunquam rediere penates. 

Tradition says they were drowned in the night, in the Dee, at 
Holt. They perished no doubt by some secret and violent death, 
at the hands of their Guardians, who by the grants of Edward 
succeeded generally to their estates. But it is observable, the 
King took a part in the spoil, but he might not share in their 
destruction ; for in his grant to Warren, the Castle* and Demesnes 
of Hope are reserved to himself; and he had given Emma .a 

1 This Roger was more than once justice of North Wales ; was the second son of 
Roger, Lord Mortimer of Wigmore, and uncle to Roger the Minister, Earl of Marche. 
He was summoned to parliament, as Lord Mortimer of Chirk, by Edward the Second, 
and was one of the Lords who gave sentence of banishment against the two Spencers ; 
for which his nephew and himself were imprisoned in the Tower ; and where it is said 
this Roger died. 

2 The author has here copied a mistake previously made by Powel and other 
historians. The four sons of Gruffydd ab Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor were witnesses to 
the Settlement made by him on his wife Emma, and after his death in 1270, the four 
joined in a renewal and confirmation of it, which proves that they had arrived at the 
state of manhood. These settlements were among the Sebright MSS., and are quoted 
by Pennant (Tours in Wales, 1883 ed., vol. i., p. 266). The children who were 
murdered were Llywelyn and Gruffydd, sons of the Madog named in the text, and 
grandsons of the lady Emma. The foul deed was perpetrated in 1281. Ed. 

3 Ednop, like the French writers of Latin verses of that time (James the First) has 
no regard to quantity. The Frenchmen professed it ; Nos Gallici non curamus 
quantitatem syllabarum. 

* In this Castle of Hope, commonly called Caergwrle, Edward the First and his 
Queen Eleanor, lodged on their journey to Carnarvon, and whilst they were there the 
Castle was by some accident set on fire, and burnt. The little village of Hope (in 
Welsh Estyn) is called Queen Hope, from Eleanor's visit. 


temporary composition in land for her jointure of- Maelor Saesneg, 
which on her death should have reverted to her family, but 
which Edward kept and annexed to Flintshire, 1 under pretence 
that the heirs were rebels. And here seems set in violence, 
ingratitude, and a cruel breach of trust, a wretched instance and 
example, dreadfully copied afterward in the persons of two of 
his descendants, Richard of York, and the Fifth Edward, both 
as to their lives and fortune. 2 

Thus ended the Madocian line of the Powysian Princes : that 
rag of Powys, which descended to Glyndwr, was in point of 
power manerial matters only. Glyndyfrdwy is at present [1799] 
the possession of Edward Williames Vaughan Salesbury Esquire, 
second son of the late Sir Robert Howel Vaughan, of Nannau, 
and had been forfeited in Glyndwr's rebellion, and sold by Henry 
the Fourth to a second son of the Salesburys of Bachymbyd, 
a younger branch of Llyweni. Through the Salesburys, the 
Pughes of Mathafarn, 3 and the Prices of Gogerddan, it rests in 
Mr. Salesbury. 4 

1 The four ancient North Welsh counties were Anglesey, Carnarvon, Merioneth and 
Flint. In South Wales Glamorgan and Pembroke were made Shires so early as Henry 
the First, on his importation of Flemish, and the common Law of England planted 
in them. 

2 Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque futurae, 
Et servare modum, rebus sublata secundis ! 
Turno tempus erit, magno cum optaverit emptum 
Intactum Pallanta ; et cum spolia ista diemque 

3 Dafydd ab Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab Gruffudd, Lord of Mathafarn, wrote in verse the 
Legend of Tydecho, one of our most capital Saints. This illustrious Bard had a great 


I come next to Powys Wenwynwyn, the other division. Bleddyn 
had gavelled Powys between his sons, Maredudd, and Cadwgan. 
It reunited in Maredudd, who accumulated the whole by the 
family slaughter of that period. He divided it again between 
his son Madog, whence the Fadog division, and his grandson 
Owain Cyfeiliog, 1 whose son Gwenwynwyn gave name to this 
moiety. Gruffudd the second son of Maredudd died before his 
father. He had submitted with him to Henry the First, and 
was called by this Prince to his baronial Parliaments. I find 
nothing more interesting respecting him, but he took his share 
in the family feuds and fightings of that season. He married 
Gwerfyl, daughter to Gwrgenau ab Hywel ab Jeuaf ab Cadwgan 

hand also in bringing in Henry the Seventh, by feeding his countrymen with 
prophecies, that one of them was to deliver Wales from the English yoke ; by which 
many thousands were induced to rise under Sir Rhys ab Thomas, and join Henry at 

4 Mr. Salesbury was a colonel in the Guards. He died in 1807, and left the estate to 
his brother. Eventually it descended to his nephew Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, the 
third Baronet, of Nannau, who died without issue in 1859, and by whose Will, the Rhug 
estates (comprising Glyndyfrdwy) came into the possession of the Hon. Charles Henry 
Wynn, second surviving son of Lord Newborough, the present owner, who claims 
descent from the Salesburys, or Salusburys, of Lleweni, through Robert Salesbury, Esq., 
of Plas issa, Llanrwst. This is supposed to have influenced Sir Robert Vaughan in 
devising the estate to him. The Salesbury family produced many distinguished men, 
one of the most eminent being William Salesbury, the translator of the New Testament 
into Welsh, who was second son of Foulk Salesbury of Plas issa, where he was born 
early in the sixteenth century. Ed. 

1 His surname, Cyfeiliog, he took from a district so called in Montgomeryshire, 
containing five parishes. The ruins of his Castle are still seen at Tafolwern in 
Cyfeiliog. [There are now no ruins to be seen, but the site may be easily distinguished. 
Tafolwern is in the parish of Llanbrynmair, Montgomeryshire. 



ab Elystan Glodrudd, 1 the founder of our fifth Royal Tribe, and 
-died in 1128. His son Cyfeiliog, who enjoyed his estates entire, 
was a man of more eminence, and a busier actor in the constant 
contentions of that restless time. He bore an honorable share 
in the battle of Crogen, from which the second Henry retreated 
with considerable loss and personal danger. In 1176 he attended 
the summons of Henry, to meet him at Oxford, and to confer 
with him on Welsh affairs. 

I next find him in a business of family pillage, in which he 
plundered lorwerth goch, his father's half-brother, of his estates 
in Powys. This drew upon him the justice of Owain Gwynedd, 
Prince of North Wales, and of Rhys ab Gruffudd, of the South ; 
and together they drove him from his country, which with the 
assistance of the English he recovered in part; but was reduced 
"by Rhys after the death of Owain, and again restored on proper 
concessions. He married Gwenllian, the daughter of Owain 
Gwynedd ; by her he had one son, Gwenwynwyn, who inherited 
his estates entire, excepting the Cwmmwds of Llannerch hudol 
and Broniarth, which his father had parcelled off in favor of his 
natural son, Caswallon. Cyfeiliog founded the Cistertian Abbey 
of Ystrad Marchell, 2 and died a very aged man in 1197. He 

1 Elystan or Athelstane Glodrudd was godson to the Saxon King, Athelstane. 
Tracts of Powys, p. 1 6 note. 

2 Virginis et nitidum Marcellae struxit Asylum. Pentarchia. This once famous 
abbey (Strata Marcella) stood on the banks of the Severn, about two miles below Welsh- 
pool, but not a vestige of it now remains. It was founded according to Bishop Tanner in 
the year 1170. Owen Cyfeiliog died and was buried there, having previously taken 
upon himself the habit of religion. His arms were Or a lion rampant Gules armed azure ; 
or, as some say Gules, a lion rampant or. Ed. 


was a distinguished Bard 1 also, as what he left 2 may testify ; 
and in our Augustan 3 age of Welsh poetry. The Saxons, at 

1 Mr. Andrews has well observed, that the tale of Edward the First's cruelty to the 
Bards, in the next century, has no foundation, but an obscure tradition, and a hint in 
the Gwydir history. Edward hath been also accused of having destroyed all the 
ancient records and writings in Scotland. This is ably refuted by Sir David Dalrymple. 
But an order at that time subsisted to silence the Welsh Bards. Our countrymen were 
more severely treated by the Fourth Henry, when the Welsh were rendered by an act 
of Parliament incapable of purchasing lands, or of performing any office in any town, 
or of having any Castle or house of defence. English Judges and Juries were to decide 
disputes between English and Welsh : Englishmen that married Welshwomen* were 
disfranchised, and no Welshman might bind his child to any trade, nor breed him up to 
literature. The absurdities of these ordinances counteracted their virulence ; and the 
moderation of the Fifth Henry having laid them to sleep ; if not repealed, they were 
at least forgotten. 

2 His poem, called HIRLAS OWAIN (finely translated into English verse by the 
Reverend Mr. Williams of Fron), affords a specimen of his martial spirit, as well as of 
his poetic talents. 

3 Poetry and good language was in greater perfection in Wales, a little before and a 
little after the Norman Conquest, than it hath been since ; and the historical part of 
our Poems is a great light to Historians, both English and Welsh, Irish and Scotch. 
Goronwy Owain on this subject says, "I find the old metres were, what all compositions 
of that nature should be, that is, Lyric verses adapted to the tunes and music then in 
use. Of this sort were the several kinds of Englynion, Cywyddau, Odlau, Gwawdodyn, 
Toddaid, Trybedd y Myneich and Clogyrnach, which appear to have in their com- 
position the authentic stamp of genuine Lyric poetry, and of true primitive antiquity. 
As to the rest, I mean Gorchest y Beirdd, Huppynt hfr and byr, being the newest, 
they were falsely thought the most ingenious and accurate kind of metres. But I look 
upon them to be rather depravations than improvements in our poetry. What a 
grovelling, low thing that Gorchest y Beirdd is ? And I would have an impartial 
answer, whether the old, despised, exterminated Englyn Milwr hath not something of 
antique majesty in its composition. Now, when I have a mind to write good sense in 
such a metre as Gorchest y Beirdd, and so begin, and the language itself does not afford 
words that will come in to finish with sense and Cynghanedd too, what must I do ? 

* Henry no doubt was jealous of the charms of our countrywomen, and fearful of their influence on his. 
English subjects. 


least for some time, were no poets ; they landed here, without 
an alphabet. The Normans had their Jongleurs, 1 Troubadours, 
and Provencial songs, the Monks jingled their Latin doggrel ; 
but until the days of Gower, Chaucer and Lydgate, native 
English numbers were in a manner unknown ; 2 the scholar since 
hath excelled his master; 

Nosque ubi primus equis Oriens afflavit anhelis, 

Illinc sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper, 

Why, to keep Cynghanedd (i. e. the alliteration) I must write nonsense to the end of 
the metre, and cramp and fetter good sense ; whilst the dictionary is overturned and 
tormented to find out words of a like ending, sense or nonsense ; and besides, suppose 
our language was more comprehensive and significant than it is (which we have no 
reason or room to wish) what abundance of mysterious sense is such an horrid, jingling 
metre of such a length able to contain ! In short as I understand that it and its fellows 
were introduced by the authority of an Eisteddfod, I wish we had an Eisteddfod again, 
to give them their dimittimus to some peaceable acrostick land, to sport and converse 
with the spirits of deceased Puns, Quibbles, and Conundrums of pious memory ; then 
would I gladly see the true primitive metres reinstated in their ancient dignity, and 
sense regarded more than a hideous jingle of words, which hardly ever bear it." 

The Welsh poetry had a great compass and variety. Dr. John David Rhys the 
physician and grammarian, who took his degree in Italy, introduces a comparison 
between the Welsh and Italian poetry, and inserts a whole Italian poem, marked in the 
manner he has done the Welsh. In Metastasio is a poem similar to a very favorite 
measure in Welsh poetry ; viz. 

Sopra il santissimo. Natale Ode, Vol. 9. 

In this, the end of the first line rhimes to the middle of the second, and the end of the 
second to the middle of the third. 

1 This species of Minstrels ended in the conjuring art ; hence our Jugglers. 
2 We must not wonder, if the English verse in those early centuries appear uncouth. 
The bard had to do with a harsh, though nervous language, frowned on by the 
Court, neglected by the Gentry, and disguised by a most unintelligible mode of 
spelling. J. P. A. 

The son of Owain Gwynedd, Hywel (who fell in the contention for his father's 
throne) brother to Madog the navigator, hath written his own battles in verse, and some 


The Britons had taught the Saxons to read, and given them 
the first of all things in Christianity itself, which they spread 
and adorned with ten Cathedrals. 1 

Gwenwynwyn began early the career of his family ; and in 
the life of his father, with his base brother Caswallon, he made 

love verses in a most elegant manner, of which we have several copies in Wales. Our 
Princes and chieftains continued this custom of writing their own actions, as late as 
Henry the Second's time, the age of Hywel. Poetry was so sacred with these people, 
that they never suffered invented fables, the chief ingredient in heroic poetry, to have 
a footing in it, which is the reason that neither the Gauls, Britons, Irish, Picts, Cornish 
or Armoricans, ever had to this day a poem in the nature of the Iliad or Eneid. 
" Poetry," says Mr. Morris, hath been with us the sacred respository of the actions of 
great men ; and it hath been so, from the most ancient times, in other nations ; as the 
song of Moses, among the Jews, of the defeat of the Egyptians. Taliesin's historical 
poem of the Tombs of the Warriors of Britain is a noble piece of antiquity, and strikes 
great light on the events of those times, when compared with the Triades, the Brut y 
Brenhinoedd, and the succeeding writers. The book of Triades, in British Trioedd 
Ynys Prydain, or the Threes of the Island of Britain, seems to have been written about 
the year 650, and some parts of it collected out of the most ancient monuments of the 
kingdom, but not from the same fountain as Brut y Brenhinoedd ; as there are facts 
and matters in the Triades not to be found in the Brut, and also several things which 
the author of the Brut never would have omitted, if he had met with them. The 
Triades hath always been quoted by our British poets from age to age, though Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, the Latin translator of Tyssilio, never saw it, or else he would have 
embellished his translation with its contents, instead of the ridiculous things which he 
hath added to it from Myrddin Emrys, and oral tradition." It is called by some 
writers, and by the translator of Camden, the Book of Triplicities. The Britons, as 
well as other nations of old, had a particular veneration for odd numbers, and especially 
for that of Three. Their most ancient poetry consists of Three lined stanzas, called 
Englyn Milwr, the Warrior's Verse. Their most remote history is divided into sections, 
being combinations of some Three similar events. All men of note, whether famous or 
infamous, were classed together by Threes ; Virtues and Vices were tripled together in 
the same manner ; and the Druids conveyed their instructions in moral and natural 
philosophy to their people, in sentences of Three parts. 

1 Canterbury, Rochester, London, York, Hereford, Lincoln, Lichfield, Norwich, 
Worcester and Durham. Tracts of Powys, p. 18, note. 



a predatory excursion by night, and took and plundered the 
Castle of Carreg Hwfa, 1 and put to death their Welsh uncle, 
their father's first cousin, Owain ab Madog, then an old man, 
whom they found in it. 

His next exploit had a better aspect. He recovered his Castle 
of Powys, 2 on the terms he had lost it, from Archbishop Hubert 
of Canterbury, who commanded the armies of Richard the First 
against the Welsh, and held the administration in England, 
whilst that Prince was absent in Palestine. 3 He next assisted 
the wicked 4 Maelgwn to surprize and imprison his brother 
Grufiudd, Lord of South Wales; and his person being delivered 
to Gwenwynwyn, he gave him up to the English. Two years 
A ' U 'o after he conceived a great design ; the liberty and extension of 
his country to its ancient limits. With views so popular he 
raised a large army, and besieged William de Breos in his 
Castle of Payn in Radnor. He lay three weeks without effect 
before it, whilst Breos had time to collect assistance, and was 

1 The Castle of Carreg Hwfa was taken and despoiled by the two cousin-germans r 
Owain Cyfeiliog and Owain ab Madog, in the year 1162 ; which latter kept possession 
of it twenty-five years, when he was besieged in it, and slain in the night by Gwen- 
wynwyn and Caswallon, sons of Owain Cyfeiliog, his former colleague in plunder and 
devastation. [This castle stood near the banks of the Vyrnwy, in the parish of Llan- 
ymynech, Montgomeryshire. There are no ruins or even traces of it now to be seen. Ed.~\ 

2 Gwenwynwyn sanguinis hseres, 

Ante obitum patris, totam subjecit Arustli ; 
Inde Polae Castrum, quod vi possederat Anglus, 
Conditione pari, qua perdidit ante, recepit. Pentarchia. 

3 Richard was but eight months in England, during a reign of ten years. 

4 Powel gives him another character ; but I look to his actions, as I find them 


reinforced by the Justiciary of England, Jeffrey Fitzpeter, 1 who 
had released the Lord of South Wales, his prisoner, and put 
him at the head of his countrymen, who joined him in great 
numbers. Gwenwynwyn engaged the whole, and in the open 
plain near the Castle, and was defeated. 

Yet unsubdued, he refused allegiance to his sovereign Llywelyn, A.D. 

T 2O2 

but was again reconciled, and took the same oaths of fidelity 
to him, as he had before done to the King of England ; from 
the last, he had been discharged by a dispensation from Rome. 
And here it should seem he had some hardship ; he was detained 
a prisoner at Shrewsbury, whither he went to consult the English 
Council ; and however an offence this to his own Prince, who '_' 
seized his country, it was an ungrateful return from England. 
He was restored to his liberty by John, three years after ; by 
whose assistance he recovered his possessions ; and he attended 
him in an unsuccessful expedition into Wales the year following. 

The next year [1211] he is in arms on the part of Llywelyn, 
and with other great men of Wales, they drove John with 
disgrace from the country. He kept his faith but five years ; 
deserted once more to John, was pursued by Llywelyn, his 
country taken, and himself driven within the walls of Chester. 
Reviewing his character, little good is to be found in it ; but 
he was a man of spirit in the field. He had moreover, in a 

1 Fitzpeter was an eminent character. He was dreaded by John, who yet dared not 
to remove him from his great office. When John heard of his death, he exultingly 
cried, "And is he gone then ? Well, let him go to hell, and join Archbishop Hubert. 
By God's foot I am now for the first time King of England." Matthew Paris. 


religious sense, improved his father's foundation of Ystrad Marchell. 
By his wife Margaret, daughter of Lord Rhys of South Wales, 
he left one son Gruffudd. 1 

AD Him I find, with other leading men of Wales, soliciting the 

1241 third Henry to release Gruffudd, the brother of Dafydd, the 
reigning Prince ; an event already related. Two years after he 
was restored to his estates (forfeited to Dafydd) by Henry, who 
exercised this power as Sovereign of Wales, and to whom 
Dafydd had made his entire submission. He steadily for a 
time adhered to the English, and was alone among his country- 
men in that particular, refusing to join Dafydd; again he returned 
to his allegiance, during the life of that Prince. 

I find him next in exile, and his estates confiscated by the 
succeeding Prince, Llywelyn ; but again he temporized, and 


1 Before I part with Gwenwynwyn, let me relate from Giraldus an incident which 
1 1 88 passed between his father Cyfeiliog and our Henry the Second. "We had excommu- 
nicated," says the historian, " Owain Cyfeiliog, because he was the only one of the 
Princes, that hJd not paid proper respect in person to us. This Owain was the most 
eloquent of all the Welsh, and governed his part of the country with great prudence. 
He had contracted an intimate friendship with Henry, and sided with him generally 
against his countrymen. In consequence of this, some time after, sitting at table with the 
King at Shrewsbury, Henry handed him a piece of his bread, as a mark of his Royal favor. 
Owain immediately cut it into pieces, as it were eleemosynary bread, or that which is 
given among different people ; and then removing it at some distance from him, and 
again bringing it nearer to him, he ate each piece separately. Upon the King desiring 
to know the reason of this, Owain with a feigned smile replied, " I show my master by 
this manner of breaking the bread, how he ought to conduct himself in ecclesiastical 
matters ; " alluding to the King's keeping in his own hands the vacant preferments 
longer than he ought to have done, and not distributing them among the persons proper 
to take the care of them. [Gwenwynwyn's arms were, Or a lion's gamb dexterways 
erased gules, armed azure. Eyton (Antiquities of Shropshire, vol. vii., p. 15) says that 
Gwenwynwyn's wife, Margaret, was the daughter of Robert Corbet, lord of Caus, not 
of the Lord Rhys as above stated. Ed.~\ 


again joined his Welsh Sovereign ; and as the test of his 
sincerity, he took and demolished the Castle of Mold, 1 a frontier 
English garrison. He must have still changed, for it is matter 
of complaint, 2 on the part of Llywelyn, that Edward the First 
had received and protected his rebel subject Gruffudd ab Gwen- 
wynwyn. He [Gruffudd] married Margaret 3 the daughter of 
Hywel y Pedolau, 4 and had six sons, among whom his lands 

1 Mold in Welsh is called Wyddgrug,= conspicuous. [Gwenwynwyn was living in 
1246, as appears from a deed, dated 22 April, 30 Hen. III. (Dwnn's Vis. ii., 124 note.jf 

2 Many causes of animosity subsisted between Edward, Llywelyn, and the Welsh,, 
previous to the final rupture. In the year 1277, the Barons of Snowdon, with other 
Noblemen of Wales, had attended Llywelyn to London, when he came thither at Christ- 
mas to do homage to Edward, for the four Cantreds of Rhos, Rhyfoniog, Tegengl, and 
Dyffryn Clwyd ; and bringing, according to their usual custom, large retinues with 
them, were quartered at Islington, and the neighbouring villages. These places did not 
afford milk for such numerous trains ; they liked neither the wine nor the ale of 
London ; and, though plentifully entertained, were much displeased at the new manner 
of living, which did not suit with their taste : they slighted the English bread, and 
their pride too was disgusted by the perpetual staring of the Londoners, who followed 
them in crowds to gaze at their uncommon garb. " No," cried the indignant Britons, 
"we never again will visit Islington, except as conquerors ;" and from that instant they 
resolved to take up arms. Carte from a MS. in the Mostyn collection. 

8 Or, according to fDwnii's Vis. ii., p. 242), Gwenllian. In the Hist, of Powys Fadog 
(vol. v., p. 43), Gruffudd is stated to have married Hawys, daughter of Sir John 
L'Estrange of Ness Strange and Cheswardine, Knight. ITe died in 1289, and was. 
buried in the church of the Franciscans, or Grey Friars, Shrewsbury. He bore Or r 
a lion rampant Gules. Ed. 

4 Sir Hywel y Pedolau was son of Gruffudd ab lorwerth ab Maredudd ab Methusalem 
ab Hwfa ab Cynddelw, one of the Fifteen Tribes contemporary with Owain Gwynedd. 
Sir Hywel was so strong a man, that he could, it is said, straighten horse shoes with his 
hands ; whence his name y Pedolau, i. e. of the horseshoes. His mother was King 
Edward the Second's nurse ; and he being a foster-brother to the King was in great 
favor, and was knighted by him. And here I am led to doubt the policy of Edward 



were divided. To Owain 1 the eldest were given the Cwmmwds 
of Arustli, Cyfeiliog, Llannerch hudol, and the half of Caer 
Einion ; Llywarch 2 the second, had Mochnant uchaf, and Mechain 
uwch coed ; John the fourth part of Caer Einion ; William or 
Wilcock, as the Welsh call him, Mowddwy ; Gruffudd Fychan 
had Deuddwr, Ystrad Marchell, and the Tairtref, 3 or three towns 
on the borders, which came to the family by the marriage of 
their great great grandfather, Gruffudd ab Maredudd, with the 
heiress of the house of Elystan Glodrudd ; Dafydd the Sixth 
and youngest had the remaining fourth of Caer Einion. Owain 
married Hawys, the daughter of Philip Corbet, Baron of Caus, 
and by her had an only daughter, Hawys gadarn, or the hardy. 

the First in making his second son Edward a Welshman, and bringing his Queen for 
that purpose to lie in at Carnarvon, his elder son Alphonsus being then alive ; and since 
the union of England and Wales was a great object, and for which eventually we are 
much obliged to him,* it seemed to be made more difficult by this measure, as the 
Welsh might not have easily resigned their countryman and adopted King. [For a 
fuller account of Sir Hywel y Pedolau and his descendants, see under HWFA AB 
CYNDDELW, the first Noble Tribe of North Wales, post. Ed.] 

1 Owain ab Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn was summoned to a parliament at Shrewsbury, 
where he acknowledged his lands to be held under the Crown of England in capite, 
under the tenure of free Baronage, and resigned to the King and his heirs the 
sovereignty of Powys. Rhys of South Wales had done the same at an earlier period. 
The Sovereigns of North Wales preserved their title of Princes till 1282, on the death 
of the last Llywelyn. The kingly title ended with Gruffudd ab Cynan. 

2 Or, Llywelyn according to Powel. Ed. 

5 Tair Tref lies in the Parish of Myfod, adjoining Mathrafael, the seat of these 
Princes of Powys. (Tracts of Powys, p. 23, note.) Ed, 

" I confess," says Vaughan of Hengwrt, " we have reason to bless God for his mercy to us in our happy 
establishment under one Monarch. We may well say we were conquered to our gain, and undone to our 
advantage." Periissemus nisi periissemus. 

6 7 

Her uncles (Wilcock excepted, whence was saved to his des- 
cendants this lot of his inheritance, and the lordship of Mowddwy 
is to this day, through the De Burghs, in his heirs general, 
the Myttons of Halston) 1 contended by the gafael, that she 
could not as a female inherit her father's land; forgetful that 
from such Powys was first derived to their family; and her 
uncle John raised a force to support his claims, and besieged 
his niece and her husband in the Castle of Pool [Powis Castle]. 
They were relieved by Roger [Mortimer] the Minister Earl of 
Marche, 2 and for this service Mortimer had grants from them in 

> Since this was written, the lordship of Mawddwy, and most of the other possessions of 
the Myttons of Halston, have passed into other hands, chiefly through the reckless 
impnmdence of the celebrated "Jack Mytton who spent the whole of his fine property 
that was not out of his reach by entail, including /6o,ooo cash. Of timber alone it 
is said, that he sold 80,000 worth. He died in the King's Bench Prison, in March 
1834, m his thirty-eighth year, and was succeeded by his son, John Fox Mytton, who' 
died in February, 1875. After John Mytton's death, Halston was sold to the late 
Edmund Wright, Esq. Sir Edmund Buckley, Bart., is the present lord of the Manor 
of Mawddwy. Ed. 

* There were twenty Lord Marchers, of whom this powerful Peer, with the title of 
Earl of Marche, was one. They sat among the English Lords, and had the titles of 
those places they had won from the Welsh. They had originally regal jurisdiction in 
their several Baronies, where the King's writs did not run. This was intended as a 
strength against the neighbouring enemy, but Edward the First, in his statute of 
Rhuddlan, withdrew this power, for he was able of himself to rule our countrymen 
None were erected after that period : they held of the King immediately, that is, in 
capite, and were accordingly bound to him in personal suit and service, and to find him 
a certain number of soldiers. In the third of Edward the Second, for the Scotch war I 
find the Barony of Powys had to send four hundred; Rhos and Rhyfoniog, that is, 
Denbigh, two hundred; Ruthin two hundred; Dyffryn Clwyd one hundred ; Nant- 
heudwy and Glyndyfrdwy, two hundred ; Bromfield and 141, two hundred ; numbers 
ing the present Militia proportions.* Henry the Eighth finally reduced their 
* I believe there is little doubt, from these comparative proportions, that North Wales had considerably 
inhabitants than it hath at present, many, as in these times, being necessarily drawn off by trade, and 
other engagements. 


Powys. The cause was then taken before Edward the Second, 
the feudal Judge of the controversy, and whilst yet before him, 
he seized and imprisoned the uncles in the Castle of Harlech. 
They had lost their Court patron, Thomas Earl of Lancaster, 1 
then without favor and soon without his head, at Pomfret 
[Pontefract]. The King decided that her issue, whether male or 
female, should inherit her estates, and if her uncles who litigated 
left no male issue, their lands should accumulate to her also ; 
and this was afterwards the case. Moreover he had given her 
an husband in Sir John Charleton, a gentleman of his chamber, 2 
who was summoned by writ 3 to Parliament in the seventh year 
of this King, as Lord Powys ; whence a Barony in fee was 
created, descendable to his heirs general. And here I get within 
the land of dates ; land seldom to be found in the latitiides of 

broken power. Many of these Baronies had fallen to the Crown from purchase, 
inheritance, or forfeiture. He resumed all or most of the jurisdictions that were left, 
and deprived the Marchers of the same, leaving them in effect but as Lords of Manors 
in England. He then ordained Justicest of Assize himself, and Justices of the Peace, 
Sheriffs, and other Officers ; and divided the country more correctly into counties ; and 
erected Great Sessions and other Courts for its government, by Officers of his own, and 
according to the Laws of England, and left little or no authority to the Lords Marchers. 
The former policy, and presents of the Kings of England to their Nobles, had continued 
from the Norman Conquest until Edward the First ; insomuch that at that time Wales 
was almost come into the possession of divers English Lords, who held the same of the 
Kings of England, and not of the Princes of Wales. 

1 Lancaster possessed the Lordship of Denbigh in virtue of his marriage with the 
heiress of the Lacys. 

2 Valectus Regis. Hence Valet. 

! There was no representation in the Commons-house from Cheshire or Wales till 
the Welsh incorporating acts of Henry the Eighth. 

t Henry the English gave us but four Judges to the whole Principality ; the Puisnes were added by 
lizabeth. Only eight Justices of the Peace were allowed to each Shire by Henry, who formed the new 
Counties of Monmouth, Denbigh, Montgomery, Brecknock and Radnor. 

6 9 

Welsh genealogy, where such things were usually forgotten. 
This first Lord of an English house (Appley, in Shropshire,) 
the son of Sir Alan Charleton, was a man of civil and military 
talents, had attended his Sovereign, moreover, as his Chamber- 
lain, in his frequent and unfortunate northern expeditions. He 
followed for a time then the reforming factions of Lancaster, 
the refuge and receptacle of all that were distressed and dis- 
contented; was defeated, and taken with them at Boroughbridge, 
but escaped the proscriptions which ensued ; came again into favor, 
and suffered in the insurrection against the King, when his house 
was pillaged by the London mob. I find him next in early 
employments and in great consideration with Edward the Third, 
who sent him on his service to Brabant, and afterwards to 
Ireland, as Justice or Chief Governor; and he took with him 
thither his brother Thomas, Bishop of Hereford, as Chancellor 
of that kingdom. Our old books speak of him in high esteem 
for his fidelity, prudence, and valour ; nor amidst his greater 
employments had he neglected the interests and accommodation 
of his countrymen ; and he obtained from Edward the Second 
two weekly markets at Pool and Machynlleth, and two fairs in 
the year at each place. 1 He died at the age of eighty-five ; A - D - 
his wife, the Powys heiress, some time before him ; and as I 
learn from Dugdale and John Salisbury of Erbistock, she lies 
buried in the dissolved house of the grey Friars of her own 
foundation at Shrewsbury. John their son, who succeeded, 2 was 

1 Clarum et venerabile nomen 

Gentibus, et nostras multum quod profuit urbi. Lucan. 

2 This, the second John de Charleton, married Maud, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 
first Earl of March (see Mont. Co//., i. 259). He died Aug. 30, 1360. Ed. 


summoned to Parliament, from the twenty-eighth to the forty- 
seventh of Edward the Third ; was Chamberlain of the house- 
hold to this King, as his father had been to his predecessor ; 
attended him in that useless and expensive expedition to France 
in 1339, as did his son [John de Charleton, the third of that 
name], the Black Prince, in the same kingdom, and to the same 
effect, in 1370. [The last named John de Charleton] died [July 
13, 1374,] leaving by his wife Joan, daughter of Ralph, Earl of 
Stafford, 1 John his son, then under age, and a younger son 

1 Ralph Bagot, Lord Stafford, a great soldier and one of the founders of the Garter, 
was created Earl of Stafford in the twenty-fifth of Edward the Third, and died in the 
forty-sixth of that reign. He was the son of Edmund, Lord Stafford, who died in the 
second of Edward the Second, the son of Nicholas, who was killed by the fall of 
Droselan Castle, which he had undermined, and was besieging in Wales, in the tenth 
of Edward the First. He was the younger brother of Henry, who died without issue, 
the two sons of Henry Lord Stafford, who first relinquished his paternal name of Bagot, 
and assumed his mother's name of Stafford. His father, Harvey Bagot, was a collateral 
ancestor and a younger brother of Lord Bagot's house ; and marrying Millicent, the 
daughter and heiress of the Staffords, possessed in her right the title and estate of that 
great family. To return to Ralph, the first Earl. He left issue, Hugh, his son and 
heir, who died in the ninth of Richard the Second, leaving issue, Thomas. Thomas 
died without issue, the sixteenth of that reign, having married Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, murdered at Calais ; but on 
account of their tender age, they never lived together. He was succeeded by his 
brother William, who dying unmarried four years after, was succeeded by his brother 
Edmund, who married this Anne, the widow, if so she might be called, of his elder 
brother Thomas ; and fell, on the part of Henry the Fourth, in the battle of 
Shrewsbury, leaving by her Humphrey his son and heir, then very young. In him 
were concentred the great Earldoms of Buckingham, Hereford, Stafford, Northampton 
and Perche. He was also Lord of Brecknock, Caus and Holderness, and in the twenty- 
third of Henry the Sixth was advanced to the Dukedom of Buckingham. [His portrait 
is here given.] He fell in the battle of Northampton, on the part of that King, in 1460 ; 
as his eldest son, the Earl of Stafford, had fallen on the same side, in the first battle of 
St. Alban's. His grandson, the Earl of Stafford's son Henry, was restored and succeeded 


Edward. John was Justice of North Wales, had summons to 
Parliament from the sixth of Richard the Second to the third 
of Henry the Fourth, when he died 1 leaving no issue. He was 
succeeded by his brother Edward. This Lord was a sufferer in 
Glyndwr's 8 rebellion, and obtained pardon for his tenants in 
Powys, who submitted, and had been engaged in it. He was 
warmly attached to Henry the Fourth, who gave him the Garter. 
In the succeeding reign, he took an active part with the Clergy 
against the sectaries of that season, persecuted the Lollards, 
discovered and seized Sir John Oldcastle in Powys where he 
had been concealed, and who was sacrificed 3 by our fifth Henry 

his grandfather ,but afterwards lost his head at Salisbury, on the orders of Richard the 
Third. He was succeeded by his son Edward, restored again by Henry the Seventh, and 
executed by his cruel son Henry the Eighth. He was succeeded by his son Henry, restored 
to the barony of Stafford ; Henry by his son Edward ; Edward again by his son Henry. 
Henry died unmarried in 1637, and was succeeded in this fee barony by the heir general, 
his sole sister Mary, created afterwards Countess of Stafford. She married Sir William 
Howard, Knight of the Bath, the second son of Thomas Earl of Arundel, the virtu 
Lord. Sir William was created Viscount Stafford, and lost his head very unjustly 
amidst the cruel parties of Charles the Second's time. His family was again restored, 
and the male line became extinct in the last reign [George the Second] only. What 
claims remain in heirs general to the barony, I am not competent to say ; but Earl 
Gower left the title open, being created Marquis of Staffordshire, and not of Stafford. 
[Sir George William Jerningham, Bart., in 1824, obtained the reversal of the attainder 
of Viscount Stafford, and claimed for himself the ancient barony of Stafford as lineal 
heir of his great grandmother, Mary Howard, wife of Francis Plowden, Esq., grand- 
daughter of Viscount Stafford. In this he was successful, the House of Lords resolving 
6th July, 1825, that he had made out his claim. He died 4th October, 1851. The 
present peer is his grandson. ( ' Burke's Peerage.) Ed.~\ 

1 This Lord had met the Duke of Lancaster at Leominster, when on his inarch from 
Bristol to Chester, after, his landing at Ravenspurg. 

2 Owain had burnt the suburbs of the town of Pool. Carte. 

3 Lord Cobham," says Lord Orford, " was the first author, as well as first martyr, 
among our Nobility ; a man, whose virtues made him a reformer, whose valor a 

his old friend and wild companion,) to an ecclesiastical bribe 1 

martyr, whose martyrdom an enthusiast." He was suspended by a chain fastened 
round his waist over a slow fire. This torturing death he bore with constancy ; and 
with his last breath he conjured Sir Thomas Erpingham, that if he should see him rise 
from the grave in three days, he would then intercede with the King in favor of his 
brethren, the Lollards. The Lordship of Broniarth was granted to the family of Tanad 
of Aber Tanad, the fifth of Henry the Fifth, for the assistance they gave in the 
apprehension of Oldcastle ; in it is a field, called to this day Lord Cobham's garden. 
Sir Gruffudd Fychan, Lord of Byrgedwyn, Treflydan, Garth and Caer fawr, in the 
opening of the fifteenth century, with his elder brother Jeuan, are parties to a deed in 
the possession of Mr. Mytton of Garth ; whereby Edward Charleton, Lord of Powys, 
grants them several privileges for assisting in taking Sir John Oldcastle, in the third of 
Henry the Fifth, when the King himself was absent in France. From Dafydd Lloyd, 
eldest son of Sir Gruffudd, are descended the Lloyds of Llai, of Harrington, and Welsh 
Pool ; from Cadwaladr, the second son, the Lloyds of Maes mawr, of Rhandir, and 
Humphrey ab Roger of Treflydan. Reinallt, his third son, under his claim as the 
youngest, had the family house at Garth. His grandson, John ab Gruffudd ab Reinallt, 
was the first who took the name of Wynn, pure or white ; whether from the flaxen 
colour of his hair, the paleness or delicacy of his complexion, or from some amiable 
qualities of his mind. " Humphrey Wynn, son of John Wynn of this House, was 
living in the year 1560." The sixth in descent from Humphrey married Dorothy, 
daughter of John Powel Esquire of Worthen, and had issue an only daughter Dorothy, 
married to Richard Mytton Esquire of Pont is Cowryd, who had issue Devereux 
Mytton Esquire, the present. [1799] worthy possessor of Garth and Pont is Cowryd. 
[Mr. Mytton died in 1809, and (his eldest son Richard having died in his lifetime) was 
succeeded by his grandson, the Rev. Richard Mytton, LL.B., whose son Richard 
Herbert Mytton Esquire succeeded him. The last named gentleman died in May, 
1869, and his eldest son, Devereux Herbert Mytton Esquire, is the present owner of 
the estates. The above statements with reference to the grant of the lordship of 
Broniarth are not quite correct, the author having committed the error of ascribing to 
the family of Tanad the original grant, instead of to their predecessors. From documents 
at Brogyntyn, it appears that the lordship was granted to leuan and Sir Griffith Vaughan, 
the two sons of Griffith ap leuan ap Madog ap Wenwys, by Sir Edward Charleton, on 
loth March, %th Henry the Fifth (1420), being about three years after the capture of 
Lord Cobham. leuan Llwyd ap David, of Abertanad, by his marriage with Maud, 
granddaughter of the above-named leuan, acquired half of Broniarth, and his grandson 
Thomas Tannatt, in the reign of Elizabeth, purchased the other moiety of Humphrey 
Lloyd, a descendant of Sir Gruffudd Vaughan. (Mont Coll. iv., p. 366.) Ed.~\ 

1 Archbishop Chicheley had earnestly forwarded this French war, which that country 


for his French war. Charleton sent his son-in-law, Sir John 
Grey, to bring him a prisoner to London ; and for this service 
Lord Powys had the thanks of Parliament. He was summoned 
as a Peer, from the third of Henry the Fourth to the eighth 
of Henry the Fifth, and died in 1421, leaving issue, by his wife 
Eleanor, the widow of Roger Mortimer Earl of Marche, 1 two 

itself then deprecated ; and it gives Mr. Andrews very good room to doubt the tennis- 
balls story, said to have been sent by the Dauphin to Henry at that time. Chicheley 
dreaded lest Henry should lend an ear to his Parliament, who still harped on the vast 
advantages which might be gained by seizing the possessions of the Church, and wished 
to amuse him with war ; and, by way of composition, the Abbey lands, which depended 
on foreign Monasteries, and which had been given to the English Clergy, were yielded 
to the King by the Priesthood, and he complimented them again, by persecuting 
the Lollards. 

1 By Mortimer she was mother of Anne, Countess of Cambridge, the heiress of 
England and Wales, and to whom our gracious Sovereign, in every rule of right, the 
Catholic line necessarily excluded, is lawful heir and lineal successor. 

[Victoria, daughter and only child of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of] George 
the Third, the eldest son, by Augusta of Saxegotha, of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the 
son of George the Second, the son of George the First, the son of Ernest Augustus, 
Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, the daughter of Frederick Elector Palatine, and 
Elizabeth, the daughter of James the First, the son of Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen 
of Scotland, the daughter of James the Fifth, the son of James the Fourth by Margaret, 
the eldest daughter of Henry the Seventh by Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward 
the Fourth, the eldest son of Richard Duke of York, the son of Richard of Conisburg 
Earl of Cambridge, by Anne daughter and heiress of Roger Earl of Marche, the son of 
Edmund, Earl of Marche, by Philippa daughter and sole heiress of Lionel Duke of 
Clarence, the third son of Edward the Third. This Edmund was the son of Edmund 
Mortimer, the son of Roger, the first Earl of Marche of this family, the son of 
Edmund, the son of Roger, the son of Ralph by Gwladys Ddu, or the Black, the 
heiress of her brother Dafydd ab Llywelyn, the son of Llywelyn ab lorwerth, or 
Leolinus Magnus, Prince of North Wales, the eldest son of lorwerth Drwyn-dwnn, 
the eldest son of Owain Gwynedd, the son of Gruffudd ab Cynan, the son of Cynan, 
the son of lago or James, the son of Idwal, the son of Meurig, the son of Idwal foel r 
the son of Anarawd, the eldest son of Rhodri fawr, or Roderick the Great, the son of 



daughters, Joan and Joyce. Joan married Sir John Grey of 
Heton, 1 who had the moiety of her estate, of which the Castle 
and Lordship of Powys were a part. He was, in the language 
of our Chroniclers, a man of great action, of great descent also, 
the son of Sir Thomas Grey of Berwick by Jane, daughter of 
John Lord Mowbray. He distinguished himself in the Fifth 
Henry's French war ; had large grants from this Prince in that 
kingdom, with the Earldom and Castle of Tankerville ; but it 
does not appear he held English privileges, from his foreign 
honor ; and his grandson seems to have discontinued the title. 
He remained in service in France, and Henry gave him the 

Merfyn frych, and Esyllt, the daughter and heiress of the last Prince Cynan Tindaethwy, 
the son of Rhodri Molwynog, the son of Idwal iwrch (or the roe) the son of Cadwaladr, 
the last King of the Britons, who abdicated, and died at Rome in 688. Her present 
gracious Majesty is right heir, in lineal succession, to the British, Cambro-British, Anglo- 
Saxon, Anglo-Norman, English and Scottish Kings. 

I would just observe here that the last Prince of Wales, Llywelyn, and his brother 
David, Lord of Denbigh (be their father legitimate or not), left but each a daughter ; 
and Edward the First compelled both to become Nuns to prevent their having issue, 
to create him or his successors any disturbance ; so that in no case do this family stand 
in the way of our present gracious [Queenjs regular succession to Wales. Tracts 
of Powys, p. 30, note. 

1 Of the house of Heton, in Northumberland, was Sir Thomas Grey, who fell in that 
strange unintelligible plot at Southampton with the Earl of Cambridge, in the second 
year of Henry the Fifth. Shakespeare has told this story pathetically, but I conceive 
unjustly to the sufferers. They were put to death, and their crimes rather declared 
afterwards to the people, than proved to public satisfaction before their execution. 
Cambridge had married the heiress of the Crowns of England and Wales. Shakespeare 
has heightened another scene, and marries Anne, the daughter and coheiress of Warwick 
(the widow, as he states her, of Edward Prince of Wales) to Richard Duke of Gloucester, 
who murdered her husband; whereas Anne was never married to Edward, but 
betrothed to him only. 


Garter, till with the Duke of Clarence, 1 and other distinguished 

Qui multum fleti ad superos, belloque caduci, 

he fell in the unfortunate action at Bauge in 1421. By his 
wife Joan he left a son, Henry de Powys, who is styled Earl 
of Tankerville. He was a child at his father's death, and in 
the sixth of Henry the Sixth was knighted with his young 
Sovereign at Leicester by the regent Duke of Bedford. He 
married Antigony, the illegitimate daughter of Humphrey, the 
regent Duke of Gloucester, and died in the twenty-eighth of 
Henry the Sixth, leaving issue Richard and Humphrey, and a 
daughter Elizabeth married to Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordley; 
whence a claim in that family to this fee Barony. 2 

1 Clarence had been deceived by false intelligence. He thought the van of the Scots 
had been separated from the main body, and attacked them with his cavalry alone. 
Finding his error, he fought desperately to redeem it ; but numbers overpowered him. 
A Knight, named Swinton, wounded him in the face, and the mace of Lord Buchan 
deprived him of life. In the battle, besides Clarence, the Lords Roos and 
Tankerville were slain ; the Earls of Dorset, Somerset, and Huntingdon, were taken 
prisoners. Buchan, who had been made Constable of France for this service, lost both 
life and victory, four years after, in the battle of Vernueil against Bedford, the younger 
brother of Clarence. Petrarch attributes the defeat suffered by the French, about this 
time, to their drunkenness. Their success under Dumourier of late is said to have 
arisen from it. 

2 The barony of Powys which fell into abeyance on the death of Edward Grey, in 
1551-2, has been the subject of some litigation. It was claimed in 1584, by Henry 
Vernon, Esq. of Stokesay, in the County of Salop, in right of his grandmother, Anne, 
cousin and coheir of Edward the last Lord Powys, but the claim was not prosecuted. 
In 1731, it was again formally claimed by John Kynaston, Esq., of Hordley, in the 
County of Salop, whose claim was opposed on behalf of the Vernon family, by Sir 
Nathaniel Curzon, Bart, (ancestor of the present Lord Scarsdale). The petitions and 
documents in support thereof on both sides were referred to the [Lords'] Committee of 

7 6 

To return to Richard. He shared in that contentious time, 
and was attainted in the Parliament at Coventry in the short 
interval of Henry's, or rather his Queen's, success, in 1460. 
I find him next restored, and at the siege of Alnwick with the 
Earl of Warwick, in the second of Edward the Fourth ; and 
in the sixth of that king he died, leaving by his wife Margaret, 
the daughter of James Lord Audley, a son John, then six 
years old. He was a soldier also, as most men in that time, 
of his station, seem to have been. He served under the Earl 
of Oxford at the siege and sack of Ardres. He 'had summons 
to Parliament from the twenty-second of Edward the Fourth, by 

A - D - the style of Grey de Powys, to his death. At the former 

Privileges, but Mr. Kynaston dying in 1733, no decision was given. In 1800, Mr. 
Kynaston's grandson, John Kynaston Powell, Esq., of Hardwick, in the County of Salop, 
again claimed the barony. Counter petitions were presented to the House of Lords, 
and referred to their Committee of Privileges, by Lords Scarsdale, Lilford, and Powis. 
The Committee having been informed that there were then living coheirs of John, 
Earl of Worcester (who died in 1470), the son of John Lord Tiptoft, by Joyce de 
Charleton, coheiress with Joan de Charleton, wife of Sir John Grey (Earl of Tankerville), 
and lineal ancestor of the said Edward Grey, directed notice of the claim to be given 
to them as possible coheirs of the barony, whereupon Mr. Kynaston Powell ceased to 
prosecute his claim. (See account of Proceedings in Mont. Coll., 5., pp. 362-423.) Ed. 

In or about the year 1447, Henry Grey, at the instigation it is said of the Queen 
(Margaret of Anjou) under some pretence, summoned Sir Gruffudd Fychan, of 
Guilsfield (who as we have seen, ante p. 72 note, had taken an active part in the arrest of Sir 
John Oldcastle), to appear before him at the castle of Pool. He at first demurred, but 
receiving what he considered " a safe conduct," he resolved to comply with the summons. 
No sooner, however, had he arrived at the court-yard of the castle, than he was 
apprehended, and, in the presence of Henry Grey, beheaded on the spot. Several 
Welsh poets wrote pathetic elegies upon his death. Sir Gruffudd had been knighted, 
it is said, on the field of Agincourt for his distinguished exploits in that battle. (Mont. 
Coll., i., p. 335, and ii., p. 139.) Ed. 


period he was just come of age; but the Barony was his own 
since the attainder and execution of Tiptoft, the learned but 
temporizing Earl of Worcester, 1 during the short restoration of 
Henry the Sixth, when the abeyance ceased. John married 
Anne, the daughter of William Herbert Earl of Pembroke, the 
first of that name, and left a son John. He died at the age 
of nineteen, leaving by his wife Margaret, daughter of Edmund 
Lord Dudley, a son Edward, aged one year. Edward married 
Anne, one of the daughters 2 of Charles Brandon, Duke of 
Suffolk. By her he had no issue; but by Jane Orwel, daughter 3 
of Sir Lewis Orwel, he left four illegitimate children, Edward 
Grey, and three daughters. The last Lord served in France, 
and attended his father-in-law, Suffolk, in the campaign of 1524, 
when some French towns were taken, but nothing very memor- 
able done, or perhaps in the way of conquest should be 
attempted. 4 He died in 1551. He suffered a recovery of his 

1 The first Earl of Worcester of the name of Tiptoft was son to Joyce, the younger 
sister and coheiress of the Charletons. " When he fell," says Caxton, the axe did 
then at one blow cut off more learning than was left in the heads of the surviving 

2 By his second wife Anne. Suffolk's third wife was Mary, sister to Henry the 
Eighth, and widow of Lewis the Twelfth of France. 

3 " Nothing is more frequent in the Knightly ages," says Mr. Andrews, " than to 
find the daughters of Barons, living unmarried with Kings and Noblemen. So 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester married Eleanor, daughter of Reginald Lord Cobham, 
whom he had long kept as his mistress. In like manner the Cardinal Beaufort had left 
an illegitimate daughter by Alice, daughter of Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel." 

1 The Parliament of 1421 presented an address to Henry the Fifth, in which they 
observed that the conquest of France would be the ruin of England ; and the reasons 
are obvious. In 1420 they had presented two petitions to the same effect. 


estates, and by feoffment, will and codicil, settled the same in 
default of lawful issue on Jane Orwel for her life, remainder 
to Edward Grey, his natural son by her, in tail. In I568 1 this 
Edward Grey conveys the manor of Plas dinas to Edward 
Kynaston of Hordley, still in the family, in consideration of his 
relinquishing his claim to the other estates, as heir at law to 
the last Lord. In the twenty-ninth of Elizabeth the same 
Edward Grey conveys the Lordship and Castle of Powys to 
Sir Edward Herbert, the second son of that able statesman, 
fine scholar, and eminent soldier, William Herbert, Earl of 
Pembroke, 2 the second of his name and title, who flourished 

1 This date was wrongly given in the text as 1560 ; it should be 1568, being the 
tenth Elizabeth. See Tracts of Powys and Mont. Coll., i., p. 378. Ed. 

2 Sir John Price in an Epistle Dedicatory to this Lord, with his Latin defence of the 
British History against Polydore Vergil, the last collector of the Peterpence in England, 
compliments Pembroke as a scholar and critic. Sir John did not live to publish 
this book, which was printed by his son, Richard Price, in 1573, about twenty years 
after the father's death. Sir John first published the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and the 
Ten Commandments in the Welsh tongue [in 1546], and gave us the topography of 
Wales, which was augmented by Humphrey Llwyd, and stands at the head of our 
earlier Welsh histories. He had also assisted his friend Leland in his Assertio Arthurii. 
Sir John Price was of Brecknockshire, a Doctor of both Laws, and one of the King's 
Council in the Court of the Marches ; and, says Mr. Morris, " was a man of good 
abilities, and had opportunities of understanding the history of the Ancient Britons, 
being one of the Commissioners employed by Henry the Eighth to survey the 
Monasteries, that were to be dissolved. By his defence he does not appear to have 
carefully perused the British copy of Tyssilio, interrupted perhaps by the hurry of 
business ; for he hath not urged all that he might have said to the matter in dispute, 
provided he had carefully compared the original with the translation, and if he had 
also had a thorough knowledge of our Ancient British Bards, who best knew the use 
of words, and whose works were indeed the root and foundation of the Ancient British 
History ; the histories of the origin of most nations being on the same footing." 


under four Princes, 1 of different aspects, and in difficult times. 
Sir Edward died in 1 594, having restored the Castle ; and had 
sepulture at [Welsh] Pool. He married an heiress of the 
Stanleys of Hertfordshire, the daughter of Thomas Stanley of 
Standon, Master of the Mint, and was succeeded by his son, 
William, made Knight of the Bath, at the coronation of James the 
First, and by his son, Charles, created Lord Powys. 2 He married 
Eleanor, the daughter of Henry Percy, the eighth Earl of 
Northumberland, and had one son, Percy, who succeeded him. 
Percy had been made Knight and Baronet, his father then 
living, by James the First, in his rage of Knighthood 3 and 
Baronetism. He died in 1666, and was buried at [Welsh] Pool, 
leaving issue by his wife, Elizabeth, sister of the first Earl of 

1 Henry the Eighth, Edward, Mary and Elizabeth. 

2 In his time, Powis Castle was besieged and taken by the Parliament army, under 
Sir Thomas Myddelton, on the 2nd October, 1644, and Lord Powis was taken prisoner, 
and sent to London upon his parol, where he remained at his lodging in the Strand ; 
his estates being sequestrated, and ^"4 per week being allowed him for his maintenance 
by the Committee of Sequestrators. Besides his son Percy, he had two daughters, 
Katherine, wife of Sir James Palmer ; and Lucy, wife of William Abingdon, Esq. Ed. 

3 This ceremony, and so often repeated, must have been disagreeable to James. Sir 
Kenelm Digby tells us, " he hated a drawn sword, since the fright his mother was in, 
during her pregnancy, at the sight of the swords, with which David Rizzio, her 
Secretary, was assassinated in her presence ; and hence it came," says Sir Kenelm, 
" that her son had such an aversion all his life to a drawn sword.* I remember," 
proceeds he, " when he dubbed me Knight, in the ceremony of putting a naked sword 
on my shoulder, he could not endure to look upon it, but turned his face another way ; 
insomuch that, in lieu of touching my shoulder, he had almost thrust the point into my 
eyes, had not the Duke of Buckingham guided his hand aright." I remember to have 

* James is said to have been painted abroad with a scabbard without a sword, and with a sword, which 
nobody could draw, though several were pulling at it. Passim. 


Craven, one son, William, 1 who was created Earl by Charles 
the Second, and by his brother James Marquis, and finally after 
his abdication Duke of Powys. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of the Marquis of Worcester, and died in the Court of St. 
Germain's in 1696. He was succeeded by his son, William, 
who was restored to the Earldom and Marquisate. He married 
a co-heiress of the Prestons of Furness in Lancashire, and by 
her had two sons, William and Edward, and many daughters. 
Lady Mary, the eldest, 2 fell under the lash of Pope. The last 
Marquis, William, died without issue, and left his estates to 
Henry Arthur Herbert of Oakley Park, created Earl Powys by 
George the Second, who afterwards married Barbara, niece to 
the Marquis, and daughter of his brother, Lord Edward. The 

heard, that when he knighted old Sir William Morice of Clenenneu in Carnarvonshire, 
and turning upon him, after he quitted his sword, " By Christ," says the King, " I fear 
I have knighted an old woman," and Sir William's picture justifies the notion. James 
was personally not unknown to the Welsh. He had progressed to Chester in 1617, and 
was attended by great numbers of our countrymen, who came out of curiosity to see 
him. The weather was very dry, the roads dusty, and the King almost suffocated. 
He did not know well how to get civilly rid of them, when one of his attendants, 
putting his head out of the coach, said, " It was his Majesty's pleasure, that those, who 
were the best Gentlemen, should ride forwards." Away scampered the Welsh ; and 
one solitary man was left behind. " And so, Sir," says the King to him, " and you are 
not a Gentleman then ? " " Oh yes, and please hur Majesty, hur is as good a Shentle- 
man, as the rest ; but hur Ceffyl, God help hur, is not so good." 

1 He had also a daughter Mary who married George, Lord Talbot. Ed. 

2 But nobler scenes Maria's dreams unfold, 

Hereditary realms, and worlds of gold. 

She went to France with a large sum of money, got in the Mississippi bubble, with a 
view of marrying the Pretender, and she had a notion also of going as an adventurer 
to the South American Gold Mines. 


present Earl 1 is the son of this alliance, and is descended from 
Sir Richard Herbert, who, on their defeat at Banbury, 2 was 
taken and beheaded with his brother, the Earl of Pembroke, 3 
by the rebel army, and in retaliation of similar cruelties, par- 
ticularly in North Wales, committed by their own. Richard, 
the second son of Sir Richard, who died at Banbury, was great 
grandfather to the historical, the philosophical, that right whimsical 
Peer, Edward Herbert, first Baron of Cherbury ; the man at once 
and together, the negociator, the scholar, statesman, soldier; the 
genius and absurdity of his time and nation. 1 

1 This was George Edward Henry Arthur Herbert, who died unmarried, in 1801, when 
the title became extinct. The estates passed to his only surviving sister, Lady Henrietta 
Antonia, wife of Edward, second Lord Clive, who in May, 1804, was created Earl of Powis 
the first of the present line. He died May i6th, 1839, and was succeeded by his son, 
Edward, second Earl of Powis, who died January iyth, 1848. Upon his death, 
Edward James, the present Earl, inherited the title and estates. Ed. 

2 At the above mentioned battle, Sir Richard mowed his way through the whole 
army of Northern men, with his poleaxe, twice and back again ; a deed of strength 
and valour hardly credible ! When ordered for execution, Pembroke asked not for 
his own life, but wished his brother, Sir Richard, might be spared, as he was a soldier, 
he said, fit to serve any Prince in Christendom. Sir Richard was higher by the head 
than any one in the army. Life of Lord Herbert. 

8 Pembroke beheaded Thomas ab Robin of Cochwillan, of the Tribe of Marchudd, 
near the castle of Conway, for that he was a follower of the House of Lancaster ; and 
his wife, it is said, carried away his head in her apron ; and, adds Sir John [Wynn] of 
Gwydir, " Earl Herbert's desolation consumed the whole borough of Llanrftst, and all 
the Vale of Conway, to cold coals,* whereof the print is yet extant, the very stones of 
the ruins of many habitations carrying yet the colour of the fire." 

4 This first Lord of Cherbury, in his early youth, had spent some short time in the vale 
of Clwyd. Thus he speaks in respect to that matter. " After I had attained the age of 
nine, during all which time I lived in my grandmother's house at Eyton, my parents 
thought fit to send me to some place, where I might learn the Welsh tongue, as 

* Cinders. 


To proceed with the descendants : The Kynastons, of whom 
were various branches, seated at Stocks, Morton, Walford, Shotton, 

believing it necessary for me to treat with my friends and tenants, who understood no 
other language. Whereupon I was recommended to Mr. Edward Thelwal, of Plas y 
ward in Denbighshire. This gentleman I must remember with honor, as having of 
himself acquired the exact knowledge of Greek, Latin, French, Italian and Spanish, 
and all other learning, having for that purpose neither gone beyond seas, nor so much 
as had the benefit of any Universities. Besides, he was of that rare temper in 
governing his choler, that I never saw him angry during the time of my stay there, 
and have heard so much of him many years before ; when occasion of offence was given 
him, I have seen him redden in the face, and after remain for a time silent ; but when 
he spake, his words were so calm and gentle, that I found he had digested his choler ; 
yet I confess I could never obtain that perfection, as being subject to choler and passion 
more than I ought, and generally to speak my mind freely, and indeed rather to imitate 
those, who having fire within doors chuse rather to give it vent, than suffer it to burn 
the house. I commend much more the manner of Mr. Thelwal ; and certainly he, 
that can forbear speaking for some while, will remit much of his passion ; but as I 
could not learn much of him in this way, so I did as little profit in learning the Welsh, 
or any other of those languages that worthy gentleman understood, having a tertian 
ague for the most part of the time, being nine months, I staid in his house." From 
comparing dates it must have happened, that, whilst young Herbert was at Plas y 
ward, the lady of the house, Catherine of Beren, was living. She had married Edward 
Thelwal to her fourth husband. She was a singular character ; and I wonder Herbert 
should not have noticed her. By Thelwal she had no children ; by her first husband, 
Salisbury, the heir of Lleweni, she had Thomas Salisbury, who was executed in 
Babington's Plot the twenty-first of September, 1587. Her second son, Sir John 
Salisbury the Strong, succeeded at Lleweni. Her estate at Beren had followed the 
heiress of the Lleweni house into the Combermere family, and was sold by the present 
[1799] Sir Robert Cotton to the late Honourable Thomas Fitzmaurice. Catherine's 
second husband was Sir Richard Clough ; by him she had two daughters ; one married 
to Wynn of Melai ; the other to Salisbury of Bachegraig, whence is descended our 
ingenious country-woman, Mrs. Piozzi.* Her third husband was Maurice Wynn of 
Gwydir ; her daughter by Maurice married Simon Thelwal, the eldest son of her last 
husband by a former marriage. Simon's son, Edward Thelwal, married Sidney, the 
daughter of William Wynn of Garthgynan, the fourth son of Sir John [Wynn] of 

* Hester Lynch Salisbury, Dr. Johnson's friend, better known as Mrs. Thrale (her first husband's 
surname). She died at an advanced age in 1821. Ed. ., 



Bradenheath, Otley, 1 Hordley, Hardwick, Bryngwyn, 2 Trewylan, 3 
Lee, Kinersley, Knockin, Ryton, Llwyn y Mapsis, and Pant y 

Gwydir, the historian ; and their daughter and heiress married Sir William Williams 
of Llanforda, the eldest son of the Speaker. Hence the connection with Sir John 
Wynn of Wynnstay, who was first cousin to Sidney, and who left his great property to 
Mr. Williams, her grandson, afterwards Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, the grandfather 
of the present [1799] Sir Watkin Williams Wynn. Catherine died in the life of 
Thelwal, and was buried at Llanufudd without a monument, notwithstanding her 
numerous descendants ; from which she was called Mam Cymru, the mother of 
Wales. [It is related that after the funeral of her first husband, Catherine left the 
church in company with Maurice Wynn who proposed to her, but he was too late, Sir 
Richard Clough having done so and been accepted on the way to the graveyard. She 
promised him, however, that in case there should be another opportunity, he should be 
her third husband, and he was. The portrait here given is of her when a young and 
blooming woman. At the Wrexham Exhibition, in 1876, the Rev. R. H. Howard 
exhibited one taken of her in old age. Ed.~\ 

1 Of the House of Otley was Sir Francis Kynaston, of whom and his wife an 
alabaster monument remains in the church of Ellesmere. He died in 1590. There 
was another and later Sir Francis of the same House, an Esquire of the body to 
Charles the First, who translated the loves of Troilus and Cressida from Chaucer into 
Latin. Otley came to the Kynastons by the marriage of Kynaston of Stocks to 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress to William Otley of Otley. [The Kynastons of Otley 
or Oteley, became extinct in the male line, on the death in 1781, without issue, of 
Edward Kynaston, when the estate passed to his nephew, the Rev. Charles Mainwaring, 
whose descendant, S. K. Mainwaring, Esq., is the present owner. (Burkc's Landed 
Gentry.) Ed.~\ 

2 Bryngwyn is in the parish of Llanfechain, County of Montgomery. Mary Kynaston, 
heiress of Bryngwyn, conveyed the estate on her marriage to William Mostyn, Esq., 
of the ancient Flintshire family of Mostyn. Their son, William, assumed the 
additional name of Owen on succeeding to the estate of Woodhouse, County of Salop, 
and represented the County of Montgomery in four Parliaments, namely, from 1774 to 
1795, the date of his death. The heavy costs of contested elections, amounting it is 
said to ^"70,000, necessitated the sale of Bryngwyn, and it now belongs to the coheiresses 
of the late Martin Williams, Esq. (Mont. Co//., v., p. 255). Ed. 

3 Trewylan is in the parish of Llansantffraid, County of Montgomery. Edward 
Kynaston, Esq., the last male heir of this branch, died without issue in 1778, having 
by his Will entailed this estate upon the male issue of his cousin, Catherine, the wife 


byrsle, 1 descend from a common ancestor, Sir Gruffudd Fychan of 
Caer Hywel, the son of lorwerth, the son of Maredudd, the son 
of Bleddyn, the founder of the Tribe. The family of Hordley 
and Hardwick is still extant. 2 It descends from Sir Roger 
Kynaston of Hordley, fourth son of Gruffudd Kynaston of Stocks. 
Sir Roger was an eminent soldier and partizan of the House 
of York, and distinguished in the battles of Blore, Banbury, 
and Barnet. On occasion of the first were given him the Arms 
of Audley, the enemy's general, who fell in the fight, and, as 
the family papers inform me, by Sir Roger himself. 3 I conjecture 
his crest, an armed hand, in the act to strike, issuing from a 
sun in full glory, is derived from Barnet battle, and allusory to 
the accident which gave Edward the victory. 4 Sir Roger was 

of ... Moody, Esq., upon condition that they took the surname of Kynaston. 
Her great grandson, Edward Kynaston Kynaston, Esq., is the present owner of the 
estate. (Mont. Coll., iv., p. 154.) Ed. 

1 John Salisbury, in 1660, records an Arthur Kynaston of Pant y byrsle, then living 
as a famous and faithful genealogist. His correspondence with Mr. Robert Vaughan of 
Hengwrt is still extant in manuscript. [The Kynaston family of Pant y byrsle ended in 
an heiress, Catherine, who married Richard Jones of St. Martin's. (Hist. Powys 
Fadog, iv., p. 94.) Ed.] 

2 Sir John Roger Kynaston, Bart., who died unmarried, yth March, 1866, was the 
last lineal male representative of this stock. Upon the death of his sister Amy, widow 
of the Rev. Evelyn Sutton, on igth October, 1867, the Hardwick estates passed by 
devise to her grandnephew, the Rev. Walter Charles Edward Owen, who has taken the 
name of Kynaston. Ed. 

3 The descendants of Sir Roger bear the Audley Arms in their first quarter. 

4 The devise on the Arms and Ensigns of the Earl of Oxford, a Lancastrian, was a 
star shooting forth rays, and Edward's was a sun. Warwick's men, seeing the star 
advancing through a fog, mistook it for Edward's standard, and fell upon their friends 


Constable of Harlech Castle, thrice Sheriff of Shropshire, and 
once of Merioneth ; an office then of trust and emolument. 
He married, first, Elizabeth, the daughter of Lord Cobham, and 
widow of Lord Strange; by her he had one son, Sir Thomas 
Kynaston, who died without issue. Sir Roger died the eleventh 
of Henry the Seventh. His second wife was Elizabeth, daughter 
of Henry Grey, Earl of Tankerville, by Antigony, daughter of 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester. By her he had Humphrey, 
called the Wild ; a gentleman remembered by many strange 
pranks ; still the talk of the neighbouring peasantry. The cave 
in the rock at Ness cliff, called Kynaston's cave, was the retreat 
of himself and mad companions. He was outlawed the sixth 
of Henry the Seventh, pardoned the next year, and died in 
I534- 1 

To return to the common ancestor, Sir Gruffudd Fychan. He 
was father to another Gruffudd Fychan, the father of Gruffudd 
Fychan of Stocks, the father of Philip, the father of Madog who 
first took the name of Kynaston, the father of John, Steward 
of Ellesmere in the thirteenth of Richard the Second, the father 
of Madog Kynaston of Stocks, killed in the battle of Shrews- 
bury, who married Isolda, daughter of the Earl of Northum- 
berland, and was father of John Kynaston, who had his pardon 
from Henry the Fourth, the father of Gruffudd Kynaston of 

with such fury, that they were broken and dispersed, before the Earl of Oxford could 
rectify the error. These last, believing themselves betrayed, fled towards the enemy 
with great precipitation. 

1 See note, p. 44, ante 


Stocks, Steward of Ellesmere in the ninth of Henry the Sixth, 
father of Sir Roger of Hordley his fourth son the soldier, who 
was the father of Humphrey the Wild, the father of Edward 
Kynaston, who died the thirty-fourth of Elizabeth, the father of 
Roger Kynaston, the father of Edward Kynaston, the father of 
Roger Kynaston, the father of Edward Kynaston, member for 
Shrewsbury, the father of John Kynaston, who sat for Shrop- 
shire in many Parliaments, the grandfather by his son Roger of 
my worthy friend, John Kynaston Powel Esquire, the present 
[1799] member, to whom I am particularly indebted for his 
liberal communications. 1 

From Cynrig efell, Lord of Eglwysegle, 2 the twin son of 
Madog ab Maredudd, and great grandson of the founder of 
the tribe, are descended the Davieses of Llannerch or Lleweni 
fechan, and Gwasanau ; the last, it is said, is a corruption of 
Hosannah, and allusory to the Alleluiatic 5 victory gained over 
the Saxons and Picts beneath it. This old mansion was 

1 In 1818, in consideration of his descent from the ancient and noble family of Grey, 
Lords of Powys, a baronetcy was conferred on Mr. Kynaston Powell, with remainder to 
his brother, the Rev. Edward Kynaston, who succeeded him on his death in 1822. The 
Rev. Sir Edward Kynaston died in April, 1839, leaving besides a daughter, one son Sir 
John Roger Kynaston, of Hardwick, the third Baronet, who died unmarried in March, 
1866, when the title became extinct. Ed. 

2 Eglwysegle is a division of the Lordship of Bromfield, and contains the townships 
of Trebibisham, Broughton, Stanstye villa, Acton, Morton Wallicorum, and Erddig. 

3 " The Victoria Alleluiatica, fought in 420 between the Britons, headed by the French 
Bishops, Germanus* and Lupus, and a crowd of Pagan Picts and Saxons, who were 
carrying desolation through the country. This event happened in Easter week, when 

* Quid taceam, Germane, tuam sine sanguine palmam, 
Victaque Cambriacis Saxona tela sonis? Passim. 


garrisoned in the civil wars, and taken from the royalists by 

the Parliament General, Sir William Brereton. Llannerch came ',, 

ie >45 

to the family on the marriage of Robert Davies, 1 of Gwasanau, 
with Anne, the eldest daughter and heiress of Sir Peter Mutton, 
Chief Justice of North Wales. The last of the male line at 
Llannerch was John Davies, who died a bachelor in 1785, and 
was succeeded by his sisters, coheiresses ; the elder, Letitia of 
Llannerch, married to Daniel Leo, Esquire ; 2 the younger, Mary 

the Christian army, wet with their recent baptism in the river Alun, were led by their 
holy commanders against the Pagan host. Germanus instructed them to attend to the 
word he gave, and repeat it. Accordingly he pronounced that of Alleluia. His soldiers 
caught the sacred sound, and repeated it with such extatic force, that the hills 
resounding with the cry struck terror into the enemy, who fled on all sides ; numbers 
perished by the sword, and numbers in the adjacent river."t Pennant. 

1 This Gentleman was grandfather by his son Mutton Davies to Robert Davies of 
Llannerch, an able naturalist and Welsh antiquary ; and several of his letters to men 
eminent in the same studies remain. He collected the valuable library of MSS. that were 
at Llannerch.* His grandson, Robert, the father of the last gentleman, was of a very 
hospitable turn ; almost daily he had a led horse taken with him to St. Asaph, ready 
saddled, to bring home to Llannerch any friend that might not be so immediately ready 
to start with him. The old gardens at Llannerch are within my memory ; they were 
made by Mutton Davies in the foreign taste, with images and water tricks. Among 
the rest you were led to a sun-dial, which as you approached, spouted in your face ; on 
it was written : 

Alas ! my friend, time soon will overtake you ; 
And if you do not cry, by G d Pll make you. 

2 Llannerch is now the property of the Dod family, the late Whitehall Dod, Esq., 
having succeeded to the estate on the decease in 1841 of his grandmother, Mrs. Leo's 
cousin, Anne Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Peter Davies, Esq., of Llannerch, and 
wife of the Rev. George Allanson, the last representative of the Davies family. Ed. 

f The river at present would not drown a puppy. It might happen in a great flood. 

* Five volumes of these are now at Owston in Yorkshire, and the same number have been presented to 
the library of Jesus College, Oxford. Davies died May 22nd, 1728, aged 44; and a superb monument has 
been erected to his memory in Mold church. Ed. 

of Gwasanau, to Philip Puleston, 1 of Hafod y Wern, 2 Esquire. 

The Eytons of Coed Llai, or Leeswood, have the same 
source from Cynrig. They are represented in the Reverend 
Hope Wynn Eyton, Vicar of Mold. 8 His ancestor, Gruffudd 
ab Nicholas ab Deicus, married Margaret, the daughter of the 
old Bosworth soldier, John ab Ellis Eyton, who lies buried at 
Rhiwabon ; and although her husband was descended from 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, and her father from Tudor Trevor, she 
called all her children after his name of Eyton, and all her sons 
John, in affection to him also. 

From Cynrig descended the Wynnes of Tower. The line 
ended in Roger Wynne, the younger and surviving brother of 
that facetious old Gentleman, Dr. William Wynne. Roger died 
without issue, and left the Tower estate to his widow, who gave 
it to her niece, the lady of the Reverend Hope Wynne Eyton, 
the present [1799] worthy possessor. 4 An odd circumstance hap- 
pened in this house. During the wars of York and Lancaster, 

1 The only issue of this marriage was a daughter Frances, who married Bryan 
Cooke, Esq., whose grandson Philip Bryan Davies Cooke, Esq., of Owston and 
Gwysanau, is the present owner. Ed. 

2 leuan ab Hywel ab Maredudd, the fourth in descent from Rhodri, Lord of 
Anglesey (the brother of our Prince, Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd) had a third daughter 
and coparcener, that married Hywel ab Gronw ab Hywel of Maelor, and by him had 
two daughters, viz., Gwerfyl, married to Tudor ab Hob y dili ; and Alice, married to 
John Puleston, a younger son of Emral : She brought Hafod y Wern into that 
family. Gwydir History. 

;l He died in 1822, having been thirty years Vicar of Mold, and was succeeded in the 
estate by his eldest son, the late John Wynne Eyton, Esq., who died without issue 
about 1857. Ed. 

4 See note supra. 

8 9 

the place belonged to Reinallt 1 . ab Gruffudd ab Bleddyn, one of 
the six gallant Welsh captains, 2 who defended Harlech Castle 
against the fourth Edward. He and his people had continual 
frays with the citizens of Chester. In 1465 a considerable 
number of the latter came to Mold fair ; a fight ensued and 
much slaughter on both sides, but Reinallt had the advantage ; 
took prisoner Robert Byrne, linen-draper, Mayor of Chester, led 
him to his Tower, and hung him with his own halter in the 
hall, where the iron staple, to which he was suspended, still 

remains. 3 

1 In Reinallt's time the people of Chester so cordially hated the Welsh, that they 
would not permit any of that nation to inhabit among them unmolested. Lewys 14-0 
Glyn Cothi, a noted bard of that age, and a sharer in the wars and fortune of Jasper 

Earl of Pembroke (uncle to Henry the Seventh) intended to settle in Chester, and to 
that end married a widow there ; but the next day the citizens, under some pretence or 
other, took from him all his household furniture, and insisted on his quitting the city. 
This treatment so much enraged him, that he immediately wrote a poem, which is still 
extant, and sent it to Reinallt of the Tower, petitioning his assistance to revenge the injury 
done him by the men of Chester. Reinallt, being ripe for the enterprize, collected his 
people, went to Chester, and put the citizens, as many as fell into his hands, to the 
sword ; and if we can credit another poem sent to Reinallt from a Bard of Meirionydd, 
called Tudur Penllyn, to thank him for that day's work, he had driven several of them, 
like a flock of sheep, to be drowned in the river Dee. 

2 Another of these valiant Welshmen was Dafydd ab leuan ab Einion, who baffled for 
a long time all the endeavours of Pembroke to take the Castle. " I held a tower in 
France," said he, " till all the old women in Wales heard of it, and now the old women 
of France shall hear how I defended this Welsh Castle." Gwydir History. 

8 Another story is told of Reinallt. Four cousins having met at an inn, began to 
boast of their various exploits. The first was David ab Siancyn ab David Crach of 
Nant Conwy who began, " This is the dagger with which I slew the Red Judge on the 
bench at Denbigh." The second, David ab leuan ab Einion (referred to supra), said 
"This is the sword and this the ashen spear with which I slew the Sheriff at Llandrillo." 
The third, Reinallt ab Gruffudd, said " This is the sword' with which I slew the Mayor 


I 5 88 



The Parrys of Plas newydd in Denbighshire, and of Warfield 
in Berkshire, are of the ancient stock of Cynrig efell. They 
are very respectably represented in Richard Parry Esquire. His 
ancestor, Richard Parry, Bishop of St. Asaph, 1 succeeded Morgan 
in the See. Morgan, encouraged by Archbishop Whitgift, had 

of Chester when he came to burn my house." Then they inquired of the fourth, 
Gruffudd Fychan ab leuan ab Einion, a quiet and peaceable man, "What daring deed 
he had ever performed?" when he replied, "This is the sword with which, had I 
drawn it in dishonour, I should have accomplished as much as the best of you did." 

In two Pedigrees' at Nannau, it is recorded that Reinallt died at the age of twenty- 
eight, at Llandderfel near Bala, in 1466 two years before the surrender of Harlech 
Castle (Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 233-5) I but this can hardly be correct, as his name 
appears in the printed Rolls of Parliament as one of the defenders of the Castle. Ed. 

1 Bishop Parry was the son of John Parry, Esq., of Pwll Halawg, Dyffryn Clwyd, 
and Elen his wife. He was born in 1560, and died in 1623. His father was tenth in 
descent from Cynrig Efell, and so to Bleddyn ab Cynfyn ; his mother was ninth in 
descent from lorwerth Foel, lord of Chirk of the house of Tudor Trevor ; while his 
wife, Gwen, the daughter of John ab Rhys Wynn, of Llwyn Yn, was a descendant of 
Edwyn ab Goronwy, founder of the twelfth Noble Tribe of North Wales. On the 
27th September, 1624, the Bishop's widow married Thomas Mostyn, Esq., of Rhyd, 
and on the same day her eldest son and heir, Richard Parry, of Pwll Halawg, married 
Mr. Mostyn's daughter Mary ; and Mr. Mostyn's son and heir, Thomas Mostyn, married 
Bishop Parry's youngest daughter Ann. The last Richard Parry, of Llwyn Yn and of 
Warfield, who died in 1834, was lineally descended from the Bishop Parry. He devised 
this ancient patrimony to his nephew, Col. Francis Haygarth, the present owner. 
( Dwnn's Vis., ii., p. 320, note, and Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 223.) Ed. 

2 Morgan was of the Tribe of Nefydd hardd or the handsome ; was of St. John's, 
Cambridge ; Vicar of Welsh-Pool, and afterwards had Llanrhaiadr mochnant. He 
was made Bishop of Llandaff in 1595, and translated in 1601 to St. Asaph, where he 
died in 1604. Morgan in his great work, the Welsh Bible, acknowledges therein his 
obligations to Dr. Powel, the historian, Bishop Vaughan* of London, Archdeacon Prs, 

* Dr, Richard Vaughan was a native of Carnarvonshire, of St. John's College, Cambridge, Chaplain to 
Elizabeth, and successively Bishop of Bangor, Chester, and London. His merit was universally allowed to 
be equal to his dignity in the Church, but none of his writings were ever printed. Fuller tells us, in his usual 
style, that he was a very corpulent man, but spiritually minded ; and Owen, his countryman, has addressed 
to him one of his best complimentary epigrams. Granger. 

published the Welsh version of the old and new Testament ; 
the latter he had corrected only from the former translation of 

and to Dr. Gabriel Goodman, Dean of Westminster. Goodman was a pious, profitable,, 
and learned man ; a native of Ruthin, where he founded the school, and an hospital. He 
supported Camden in his peregrinations, who through his interest was made Under- 
master of Westminster school. Dr. Goodman translated into English, as we now have 
it, the first Epistle to the Corinthians. He was forty years Dean of Westminster, and 
died in 1601. His nephew, Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, was a man of 
learning also, but in many respects a strange character. He died a Roman Catholic, as 
he professes himself in his extraordinary will.t He wrote a panegyric on Cromwell, 
who ejected him of his preferments. "He was," says Echard, "the only Apostate 
Bishop since the Reformation, and was the only Bishop, that left children to beg their 
bread ;" whereas he was never married, or had any. He died in 1655, and was buried 
by his directions near the font in St. Margaret's, Westminster. To revert to Camden. 
The accounts of Wales in his Britannia have but little information. We have a 
tradition, that he came no further into North Wales than Corwen, was taken there for 
an English spy, and insulted by the people. This put an end to his Welsh travels. 
Mr. Morris complains of this great man bitterly, in his correspondence with Mr, Richard. 
" Have you heard," says he, " what success my reveries had, in converting the Doctor 
(Philips) and his friend Pegge from the Camdenian faction ? I am now, at my leisure 
hours, drawing out some heads on the same subject for the Cymrodorion, who talk of 
publishing memoirs, in the nature of those of the royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. 
All that I am afraid of is, that we shall draw so many English antiquaries about our 
ears, by these mountain antiquities, that we shall be borne down by the noise, like a 
poor fellow with a good cause, whose rich antagonist had fee'd all the Council on the 
Circuit against him. Neither truth nor reason can withstand the madness of a mob, 
composed of all languages, and all manner of learning. It requires the knowledge of 
a Selden or an Usher, to stop the current of such a monstrous stream, and to bring 
truth into its old channel. If such a person as you had a paper war with a powerful 
party, you can call to your aid old Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, etc. etc., whose very names 
would make a London bookseller to tremble. But there is a set of these people in 
London engaged in the publication of Camden's Britannia, as rich as Jews, and would 
search all the garrets in town for writers, if their darling Diana of the Ephesians was 
touched ; and they would mind no more to hear of Taliesin, Aneurin Gwawdrydd, and 
the Triads, than if they were Hottentots from the Cape of Good Hope, and would get 
affidavits inserted in the public papers, that these were three infidels, that came over 

t See Appendix xvii. 


William Salesbury 1 and Bishop Davies. 2 In 1620, Bishop Parry, 

with the last India Ships, to the great danger of the Church and Constitution. You 
then, who have such powerful auxiliaries from the coasts of Greece and Italy at your 
back, should break the ice, in publishing something on this head, and I wish you would. 
You will see, in reading Camden's Britannia, room enough to animadvert upon him, 
without any great stock of British antiquities. A Cambro-Briton, with a sharp eye 
and sound judgment, would make such remarks upon him, as would make an English 
reader wonder, where his own eyes have been all the while. Attack him with your pen 
and ink. It is not barking at a lion, it is standing a friend to truth. Attack this great 
Goliah in his heel, or some vulnerable part, and you will, like little David, give a good 
account of him bye and bye. The Edition, I think, you have of him is his first, 
A.D. 1585, where you have him unguarded, and without armour. Begin with his 
Celtic words, which he endeavours to explain by the Welsh, and you will see that he 
knew nothing of the matter, tho' positive as he is about our etymologies and antiquities. 
Why should we bear abuse, if we can defend ourselves and ancient authors ? Ask him 
how he came to use the fallacy of deriving Servius's Gessi, viri fortes, from Gwas dewr ; 
for the comparison is, Gessi and Gwas, and so on ; and room enough for you to play 
your great guns against the enemy. Do'nt flinch from attacking Camden : I will send 
you an account, when I have leisure, of some parts of his body, that are not 
invulnerable ; not about his heels, but his head. His Britannia is the great oracle of 
the English, and is swallowed without chewing, because the pill is gilt. Take off the 
gilding, and you will find sad stuff under it. The design was great, the structure 
magnificent, but the performance or execution poor and shabby, notwithstanding that 
it was covered with great learning and industry. But the case is, the foundation was 
bad, and truth has suffered to serve a national pride. The memory of the ancient 
inhabitants is endeavoured to be darkened and their names obscured, and every occasion 
of shadow is taken to revile them, and their writers, and noble actions in war, whilst 
the Conquerors and ruling Nation are cried up where there is little colour for it.'' 

1 Salesbury was a Denbighshire man, brought up a lawyer, of Thavies Inn. He had 
composed and dedicated a Welsh dictionary to Henry the Eighth ; had written a 
Welsh treatise on Rhetoric, and first published in Welsh the Epistles and Gospels for 
the whole year, in Edward the Sixth's time. It is a doubt whether an almanac, printed 
in the time of Henry the Eighth, and the first that came out in Welsh, was by 
Salesbury or Sir John Price. [Salesbury's Welsh Testament was published in 1567. 
It is now one of the rarest of books. In 1886, Mr. Quaritch, the well-known bookseller 
asked 100 guineas for a copy. Ed."} 

2 [Dr. Richard] Davies was in exile for his religion in Mary's reign, was restored to 
his country on the accession of Elizabeth, and successively Bishop of St. Asaph, and 


with the assistance of Dr. John Davies 1 of Mallwyd, corrected 
and republished Morgan's bible, which is the version, and a most 
excellent one it is, with little variation, now in use. A version 2 
of the Psalms, in the four and twenty Welsh metres, was made 

St. David's. He was of the Tribe of Ednowain Bendew, and was employed, with other 
eminent scholars, by Elizabeth to translate the Bible into English ; and he translated 
all that part from the beginning of Joshua to the end of Samuel. He translated also 
parts of the new Testament into Welsh, particularly some of the Epistles. Ob. 1581. 
[aged 80. He also translated the Liturgy into Welsh, assisted by W. Salesbury. He 
was also a good Welsh poet. Ed.~\ 

1 Dr. [John] Davies was an universal scholar, the son of a weaver of the parish of 
Llanferres in Denbighshire, of the Tribe of Marchudd, and brought up under Bishop 
Parry in the school at Ruthin, and was afterwards his Chaplain. Davies was author of 
the Welsh grammar and dictionary, and translated the thirty-nine articles and Parson's 
(the Jesuit's) Resolution into elegant Welsh prose. Thomas ab William,* the 
Physician, who lived at Trefriw near Llanrwst, had begun a Welsh and Latin dictionary, 
which Davies, at the request of the Gwydir family, completed and published. In his 
church of Mallwyd, in defiance of Archbishop Laud, he removed again the Communion 
table from the east end to the middle of the church, where it still remains.t He built 
three public bridges at his own charge, and did other charities at Mallwyd, where he 
resided. He was a Justice of the Peace and an useful Magistrate, and universally 
beloved and esteemed in his country. Ob. 1644. He left no family. His wife was a 
daughter of Rhys Wynn of Llwynynn, and sister to Bishop Parry's wife. 

2 The metrical version of the Welsh psalms, now in use, was made by Edmund Prys, 
Archdeacon of Merioneth, in the time of Elizabeth. He was an eminent scholar and 
poet, of the Tribe of Marchudd, and had assisted Bishop Morgan in his biblical Welsh 
translation. He was Rector of Maentwrog in Merionethshire, where he lies buried. 
He outlived eighty years, for at that age he addressed some excellent hexameter Latin 
verses to Dr. Davies of Mallwyd, on the publication of his grammar in 1621. There 
are fifty-four controversial poems between the Archdeacon and a contemporary Bard, 

* Thomas ab William was of the Tribe of Ednowain Bendew. He is commonly known by the name of 
Sir Thomas ab William, having probably taken his Bachelor's degree. He was born, as he says himself, at 
the foot of Snowdon. He wrote a book of medical directions and receipts; also a book of Pedigrees, 
and an Herbal in Latin, Welsh and English, still extant in MS. He was reputed a papist, and is supposed 
to have known something of the gunpowder plot ; as it is said, he persuaded Sir John Wynn, the historian, 
not to go up to that Parliament. 

t The table has lately been restored to its former place in the east end of the chancel. Ed. 


William Myddelton, a younger branch of the house of Gwaenynog, 
a Captain in Elizabeth's navy, and who had served in her 
armies. This versification is one of the most ingenious com- 
positions in the Welsh language, and it may be said of the 
Captain, in the words of Bishop Fell, that he was a pupil of 
Minerva, as well as Pallas. It is pleasant a soldier should so 
well dispose of his leisure hours. Some of his Psalms were 
penned in the West Indies, some on the Atlantic ocean, and 
others in his native country. In his Welsh correspondence he 
stiles himself Gwilym Ganoldref, or Middle-town. He wrote also 
Barddoniaeth, or the art of Welsh poetry, which is added to 
the appendix of John Dafydd Rhys's 1 grammar. 

It was a distinguished family of nine sons and seven 
daughters ; 

longo ordine nati, 

Clari omnes, patriot pariter virtute suaque. 

called William Cynwal, extant ; both holding a conspicuous seat in the first class of 
the Welsh poets of that age. It is said moreover that Cynwal fell a victim to the 
poignancy of the Archdeacon's satire. The last poem of the fifty-four is a most 
pathetic elegy, composed by the Archdeacon, when the news was brought him of the 
death of his rival. 

1 John Dafydd Rhys took his Doctor's degree in Physic in Italy. He undertook and 
published his grammar, to assist in understanding Dr. Morgan's translation of the bible 
into Welsh, then just completed, and he took great pains to preserve and communicate 
the true sound of the Welsh letters. Had the ancients done the same, we should have 
been nearer in our pronunciation of the Latin and Greek. To acquire the pronunciation 
with precision in any language, frequent exercise of the voice, accompanied by frequent 
corrections of the ear, is necessary. The Doctor has left a treatise on the orthography 
and pronunciation of the Italian language. 

2 The father, Richard Myddelton, was Governor of Denbigh Castle in the reigns of 
Edward the Sixth, Mary and Elizabeth. He was descended from Ririd Flaidd, and 


From Cynrig come the Williamses of Fron, or Arddynwynt. 
They are represented in the Reverend Richard Williams, Rector 

was the fourth son of Foulk Myddelton, the third brother of Roger Myddelton,* of 
Gwaenynog. The eldest son of Richard the Governor, was Richard, whose second son, 
Roger, married the heiress of Cadogan. This estate had been forfeited by Edward 
Jones Esquire, but restored to this lady, his descendant. Jones suffered in Babington's 
plot. The second son of Richard Myddelton the Governor, was Simon ; the third 
William, distinguished in both elements ; as a sea officer, he had done good service in 
apprizing his Admiral, the Lord Thomas Howard, in time to avoid the superior force 
Spain had sent off the Azores to meet him ; and he escaped with the loss of that 
memorable person, Sir Richard Grenville, his Vice-Admiral. The captain is said to 
have been the first who smoked tobacco in London, for Raleigh was too good a courtier 
to have disgusted his Sovereign in that particular. Sir Thomas, the fourth son of 
Richard the Governor, was bred in London a merchant, traded chiefly with Antwerp, 
made a great fortune, and purchased Chirk Castle from the Lord St. John of Bletso, in 
the year 1595. He was Sheriff of London in 1603, and having married a young wife 
in his old age, gave occasion to the song, " Room for cuckolds, here comes my Lord 
Mayor." The fifth son, Charles, succeeded his father in the government of Denbigh 
Castle. The sixth son was that eminent Philosopher and Engineer, Sir Hugh 
Myddelton, who brought the New River to London, then called Myddelton's waters. 
He served in six parliaments for Denbigh, and was made a Baronet in 1622, and died in 
1631. The seventh son, Robert, was a Master of Welsh prosody, and left a treatise on 
that subject. The eighth son, Foulk, married the heiress, Wynn, of Bodlith, and was 
sheriff of Denbighshire in 1610, and the heiress of this branch married Thomas 
Meredith Esquire of Pentrebychan. Pierce Myddelton was the ninth and last son. 
The Lord Mayor was father to Sir Thomas Myddelton of Chirk Castle, a distinguished 
character in the Common-wealth [whose portrait is given in this volume]. The latter 
was Member for the county of Denbigh and took the field on the part of the Parliament, 
when he was near sixty years of age, was Sergeant Major General to the forces in North 
Wales, and in conjunction with Sir William Brereton in 1643 took the Castle of Holt. 
In 1644 he relieved Oswestry, and beat the King's forces in a sharp action at Mont- 
gomery, for which he had the thanks of the House. I find him in 1648 among the 

* Roger was the eldest son of Dafydd Myddelton of the Myddelton's of Myddelton, descended from 
Ririd Flaidd. Dafydd his father is styled Receiver of Denbigh, and Valectus Domini Regis, the second year 
of Richard the Third. As a picture of the barbarous times in which it happened, there is a story of this 
Dafydd Myddelton, that having gained the affections of Margaret Done of Utkington, in Cheshire, but not 
her parents consent, she was bestowed upon another ; which D,ifydd not brooking, met the groom leading 
his wife out of church and killed him on the spot. He then carried off his mistress and immediately married 
her ; so that she was a maid, a wife, a widow, and a wife again, in the same day. 

9 6 
of Machynlleth ; a gentleman who has embellished our Welsh 

secluded members, and bound in a bond of twenty-thousand pounds not to disturb the 
government. In 1659 with Sir George Booth, he declared too precipitately for Charles 
the Second, when his Castle was besieged, and taken by Lambert, and one side 
demolished, and the trees in his Park cut and sold. He died at the age of eighty in 
1666, having survived his son, Sir Thomas Myddelton made a Baronet at the Restoration. 
The last mentioned Sir Thomas, was father to another Sir Thomas, who by his second 
wife, Charlotte, daughter of Keeper Bridgman, had an only daughter, Charlotte, first 
married to the Earl of Warwick, and afterwards to Mr. Secretary Addison, by whom 
she had a daughter lately deceased, who left her estate to her relations, the Bridgmans. 
Sir Thomas, leaving no male issue, was succeeded by his brother Sir Richard, repeatedly 
Member for Denbighshire, and father of Sir William, who died unmarried in 1718. 
The Baronetage extinguished, but the estate followed the entail to Robert Myddelton, 
the eldest son of Richard Myddelton of Llysfasi, the third son of the old soldier, Sir 
Thomas the Knight. Robert died without issue, and was succeeded by his brother 
John, succeeded by his son, Richard, the father of Richard, the last gentleman, who 
died unmarried in 1796, leaving his three sisters coheiresses.* To return to Sir Thomas 
Myddelton, the first Baronet. By his second wife, sister to Sir John Trevor of Bry nkinallt, 
Master of the Rolls, and Speaker of the House of Commons, he left a posthumous son, 
Thomas, born in 1663. This gentleman was bred to the law, and the favourite at the 
Chancery-bar of his uncle Trevor,t then first Commissioner ; but this great lawyer 
being used to treat the Counsel with extraordinary freedom, something he dropped of 
this nature to his nephew, was said to go so near his heart, that it brought his life to a 
period, who for his age was an ornament to the profession. He died in 1696. Among 

* Namely Charlotte, Maria, and Harriet. Charlotte, who had the Chirk Castle estate, married Robert 
Myddelton Biddulph of Ledbury, Herefordshire, and their grandson Richard Myddelton Biddulph is the 
present owner. Maria, who had Ruthin Castle, married the Hon. Frederick West, third son of Earl 
Delawarr, and their grandson William Cornwallis West is the present owner. Ed. 

t Trevor had been first Commissioner of the Great Seal, Master of the Rolls, and Speaker of the House 
of Commons, whence he was expelled for corruption. This made the Wits observe, " That Justice was 
blind, but Bribery only squinted ; " for Trevor squinted abominably, as his picture [here given] shews. [So 
little abashed was he by his expulsion, that soon after, on meeting Archbishop Tillotson, he muttered loud 
enough to be heard, "I hate a fanatic in lawn sleeves ;" to which the Archbishop replied "And I hate 
a knave in any sleeves." He continued Master of the Rolls for twenty-two years after his expulsion, and 
possessed a high reputation as a lawyer. He died May 20, I7l7,t his house in Clement's Lane, London, 
and was buried in the Rolls Chapel. His grandson Arthur Hill, was created Viscount Dungannon in the 
peerage of Ireland. He was also the ancestor of the Marquises of Downshire. On the death of Lord 
Dungannon in 1862 (when the title became extinct), Lord Arthur Edwin Hill, his kinsman, succeeded to 
the Brynkinallt estate, and thereupon assumed the surname Trevor in addition to his patronymic Hill. EJ.] 

.,., ! ..- : .,.v.ww;a | .'.Mi w . V:S ^^ 

. tml I ' 'Rill' 



his other virtues Trevor was an economist. He had dined by himself one day at the 
Rolls, and was drinking his wine quietly, when his cousin Roderic Lloyd was unexpect- 
edly introduced to him from a side door. " You rascal," said Trevor to the servant,. 
"And you have brought my cousin Roderic Lloyd Esquire, Prothonotary of North 
Wales, Marshal to Baron Price, and so forth, and so forth, up my back stairs. 
Take my cousin Roderic Lloyd Esquire, Prothonotary of North Wales, Marshal to 
Baron Price, and so forth and so forth ; take him instantly back, down my back stairs, 
and bring him up my front stairs." Roderic in vain remonstrated, and whilst he was con- 
veying him down one, and up the other stairs, his Honor removed the bottle and glasses. 
Another adventure befell Roderic at the Rolls. He was returning rather elevated from 
his club one night, and ran against the pump in Chancery lane. Conceiving somebody 
had struck him, he drew, made a lounge at the pump, and the sword entering the spout, 
the pump being crazy fell down. Roderic concluded he had killed his man ; left his- 
sword in the pump, and retreated to his old friend's house at the Rolls. There he was 
concealed by the servants for the night. In the morning his Honor, having heard the 
story, came himself to deliver him from his consternation and confinement in the coal- 
hole. Trevor was consulted by Jame.s the Second and his Ministers, and had the virtue 
to tell Jefferies, on the very violent proceedings against Cornish,* "That if he pursued 
that unfortunate man to execution, it would be no better than murder ;" but his advice 
was not taken. Trevor was first cousin to Jefferies. The latter was certainly a great 
lawyer, however bad a man ; and the reportst published by Vernon were without doubt 
the work of Jefferies, but his name was too unpopular to be put to them. He had a 
vicious profuse way of speaking and debating from the Bench. In the sad business of 
Mrs. Lisle's trial he throws a sneer at his countrymen. Bullying a witness that he 
thought would not speak out, he says, " Look thee, if thou can'st not comprehend what 
I mean, I will repeat it again, for thou shalt see what countryman I am by my telling 
my story over twice : Therefore I ask thee once again." " Hold your tongue," said he 
one day to a Counsel, who seemed forward in magnifying his success in untying a 
knotty point in a cause ; " You are too troublesome : You are exactly like a hen ; if 
you lay an egg, you must cackle over it." The youngest brother of Jefferies was Canon 
of Canterbury, and grandfather to Dr. Jefferies now living [1799], the Residentiary of 

* This anecdote I had from the late Mr. Lloyd of Tyddyn, whose mother was Cornish's daughter. The 
anecdote of Jefferies's smiling at Williams, on the trial of the Bishops, I heard from Lord Chancellor 

t We had another of our countrymen a very able lawyer and reporter of that time, Sir John Vaughan, 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas ; the ancestor of the Earls of Lisburne, and the friend and executor of 
the learned Selden. [His portrait is here given. He died in 1674, and was buried in the Temple church, 
r.ear the grave of his friend, Selden, under a marble monument. His grandson John Vaughan, was created 
Viscount Lisburne in the peerage of Ireland, and the latter's grandson the fourth Viscount was advanced to- 
an Earldom of Lisburne in 1776. Ed.] 



poetry by his elegant and harmonious English versions. He 
is moreover a good Latin poet. 1 

The Kyffins of Maenan, Bodfach, and Glasgoed, descended 
from Einion efell, 2 who resided at Llwynymaen [near Oswestry], 
was Lord of Cynllaeth, and died in 1196. The surname of 
Kyffin was first taken by Madog, the fifth in descent from 
Einion, to distinguish him from his father, Madog goch, then 
living. Madog, the son, had been nursed at Kyffin, and thence 
the appellation. The male line of Maenan ended, in our times, 

St. Paul's. The Canon died young, it is said, broken-hearted with the sad conduct and 
character of his brother, the Chancellor. There was a picture at Acton of their father 
in mourning for his seventh son, the Canon. The old man outlived all his sons. suorum 
idtimus. [George Lord Jefferies, whose portrait is here given, was perhaps the very 
worst judge that ever disgraced the English Bench. He was born at Acton, near 
Wrexham, in 1648 ; was created Baron Jefferies of Wem, May I5th, 1685, and died 
April 1 8th, 1689. Macaulay has told the story of his infamous career in words that 
make one's cheek burn at the thought that he was a Welshman. Ed.~\ 

1 Subsequently he became Rector of Llanferres. The elegant translation of " Hirlas 
Owain," and others bearing his initials in Pennant's Tours in Wales, are by him. 
Several pieces of his translation also appear in Jones's Relics of the Bards. He died 
suddenly, 4th June, 1811, and the estate passed to his wife's family in Cheshire. 
(Cam. Briton, i., p. 263.) Ed. 

- Einion bore parted per fess, sable and argent, a lion rampant, counterchanged of the 
field, armed, langued, gules. Cynrig bore gules on a bend argent, a lion passant sable ; 
whence the arms of their several descendants. Mr. Vaughan, in his " Antiquities 
Revived," tells us, " That the illegitimate lines of the Princes of Wales were not generally 
tolerated to bear their father's arms ; and if permitted, yet not without difference, as 
may be observed," says he, " in the arms of Dafydd goch, the natural son of Dafydd, 
Lord of Denbigh, and in those of Einion and Cynrig, twins, the natural sons of Madog 
ab Maredudd, Prince of Powys." [In an old Pedigree at Brogyntyn, the addition is 
made to Einion efell's arms of " on a canton argent a tower gules." (Mont. Coll., xiii., 
p. 117.) 




in Sir Thomas Kyffin Knight, whose three daughters, coheiresses, 
were married, Elizabeth to William John Lenthall Esquire, des- 
cended from the Speaker of his name; Anne to the Reverend 
John Wynn, the second son of Maesyneuadd ; Ermine to Richard 
Hughes Kenrick (the younger) Esquire, of Nantclwyd. 

The Kyffins 1 of Bodfach ended in an heiress, Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Kyffin, married to Adam Price of Glan- 
Miheli; and the heiress of the Prices to the late Bell Lloyd 
Esquire of Pontruffudd. 2 Glascoed 3 also ended in an heiress, 
Margaret, 4 daughter of Watkin Kyffin, married to Sir William 

' Kyffin is nearly the same in sound, but exactly the same in signification, with 
Confine, and every place of that name is always near some boundary. 

He afterwards lived at Bodfach, near Llanfyllin. His son Edward Pryce Lloyd 
succeeded to a baronetcy on the death of his great uncle, Sir Edward Lloyd, Bart and 
was subsequently in 1831, raised to the peerage as Baron Mostyn. He died in 1884 
and was succeeded by his grandson, Llewelyn Nevill Vaughan. the present peer. Bodfach 
was sold about fifty years ago by the late Lord Mostyn, to Sir John Wilson, K.C B and 
by h.m again in 1854 to John Lomax, Esq., father of the present owner. Ed. 

:! Maurice Kyffin of this house, in 1588, translated Terence's Andria into English 
and B,shop Jewell's Apologia Ecclesia Anglicans into excellent Welsh in 1595 [He 
was also a good poet, both in Welsh and English. A poem by him, printed in i;8 7 
entitled The Blessednes of Brytainc, was reprinted in facsimile by the Cymmrodorion 
Soaety in ,885. According to a Pedigree in Hist. Jfry, Fadog, v ., p. 374 , he was 
the direct ancestor of Edward, William, and Frank Lenthall, three brothers living 
together unmarried at Bessels Leigh Abbey, Berkshire, in 1884, descended paternally 
rom Mr. Speaker Lenthall. Maenan Hall belongs to this family. Ed] 

Williams, on one of his Welsh circuits, danced with this lady, and got her leave to 

propose h.mself to her father : And what have you," said the old gentleman pretty 

roughly to h,m ? " I have, Sir," says Williams, a tongue and a . He obtained 

idy, a, founded the flourishing families of Wynnstay, Penbedw, and Bodelwyddan. 

Cedant arma togce, conccdant omnia lingua: . 


Williams, Speaker 1 of the House of Commons in the two last 
short Parliaments of Charles the Second, and Solicitor General 
to his brother James. To the latter office he was raised in 
the room of Powys, who had succeeded Sawyer as Attorney 
General, and for the same purpose, the trial and conviction of 
the Bishops. Williams used much pains without effect ; and on 
their Lordships' acquittal, there was a great shout in the Hall. 
Jefferies, then sitting in the Court of Chancery, being told the 
reason, was observed to put his face in his nosegay to hide a 
smile, and as if to say, "Mr. Solicitor! I keep my seal;" for 
Tie knew it had been promised to Williams, had he carried that 
cause. Sir William was the son of Hugh Williams, Doctor of 
Divinity, of Nantanog in Anglesey, a younger branch of the family 

1 The Speaker had licensed the votes, which had in them matters of scandal relating 
to some Lords (Dangerfield's Narrative of the meal-tub plot) so an information was 
"brought against him in the King's Bench ; he was found guilty and fined ten thousand 
pounds, of which he paid eight. "This was driven against him" says Burnet, "by the 
Duke of York's party, on purpose to cut off the thoughts of another Parliament, since 
it was not to be supposed, that any House of Commons could bear the punishment of 
their Speaker for, obeying their own orders." Sir William continued the practice of the 
law, and to great profit, throughout his life, and I had an opinion of his (which as a 
curiosity I gave to my Lord Chief Justice Kenyon) after he had left the Speaker's 
Chair* and the Solicitor Generalship. Pemberton, who had been Chief of both Benches, 
had done the same ; and his opinion is also to the same case. The late Chancellor, 
Charles Yorke, had so much respect to the memory of the latter, that he repaired his 
monument, then in decay, in Highgate Chapel. 

* We had three of our countrymen, not distant neighbours, Speakers of the House of Commons, within 
a short time of each other ; Williams, Trevor, and Hanmer. The last was a stiff man ; 
" Not all were flowers, when pompous Hanmer spoke," 

Sir Thomas Hanmer left no family : He had married an old woman for love, and a young one for money, 
and was not very fortunate in either of them. His epitaph by Dr. Freind, Master of Westminster School, 
was composed in Sir Thomas's life time, and was found in his edition of Shakespeare after his death, and 
thence supposed to have had his approbation, and was accordingly put on his monument. Ob. 1746. [His 
portrait is given in this volume ; also his epitaph in Latin, and an English paraphrase of it, see Appendix 
xviii and xix. Ed. 

R JO] 



of Chwaen (descended from Cadrod hardd, or the handsome, 
the brother of Nefydd hardd, the Tribe) by Emma Dolben, 
niece to Bishop 1 Dolben of Bangor. Sir William was of Jesus, 
Oxford ; removed to Gray's- Inn ; from thence was called to the 
Bar, and became Recorder of Chester ; which city he represented 
in two Parliaments, when he appeared in opposition, and a warm 
exclusionist. He sat afterwards for the borough of Beaumaris, 
and the county of Carnarvon, and died at his chambers in 
Gray's-Inn in July 1700, at the age of sixty-six, and lies buried 
at Llansilin in Denbighshire. 2 He left two sons ; the elder, 
Sir William Williams, was grandfather by his third son, Richard, 
to Watkin Williams Esquire of Penbedw ; and great grandfather 
by his eldest son Sir Watkin Williams Wynn of Wynnstay, to 
the present gentleman of that place. 3 The Speaker's younger 
son, John, was an eminent provincial lawyer, practised at Chester, 
and was great grandfather to the present Sir John Williams of 
Bodelwyddan. 4 

1 Dolben was of the family of Segroit, where he was born. He became Vicar of 
Hackney, which he resigned on his promotion to the Bishopric of Bangor. He died in 
November 1633 at his Palace in Shoe-lane, and was buried in the Chancel of Hackney 
church, where is his monument with the Arms of the See of Bangor, empaling his 
own of Dolben. 

2 His portrait is given in this volume. Ed. 
3 See note, p. 1 1 , ante. 

4 He was created a Baronet 24th July, 1798, and on his death in October, 1830, was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Sir John Hay Williams. He died in September, 1859, 
and was succeeded by his brother, the late Sir Hugh Williams, upon whose death in 
May, 1876, the title and estates devolved upon his eldest son, Sir William Grenville 
Williams, the present Baronet. Ed. 


The Maurices of Lloran descend from Einion. They are 
represented in Edward Maurice Corbet Esquire of Ynysymaen- 
gwyn, an estate he inherits in right of his maternal grandmother, 
a Corbet, the heiiess of the place. 1 And here we have an 
instance of gavelkind ; the younger brother inheriting the family 
house. Jeuaf ab Cyhelyn ab Rhun ab Einion efell, who died 
in 1242, made this disposition of his estates; Lloran to Madog 
Goch, his elder son, and Llwynymaen, the paternal inheritance, 
to Jeuaf fychan the younger. The house of Lloran was rebuilt 
in 1230, as we learn from some Welsh verses, which signify, 
that the years from the incarnation of the Son of God were 
twelve hundred and three tens, when Cyhelyn founded an huge 
and high house of wood and stone : " He erected," says the 
Bard, " on the Banks of Barrog, an house that will outstand 
the world : Let songs be sung to the amiable Chief in the 
halls of Lloran." 

From Einion were descended the Tanads 2 of Abertanad : 
Rhys Tanad died in 1661, having had by his wife, Margaret, the 

The Phillips's of Gwern-haulod, also descended from Madog Kyffin. They ended in 
an heiress, Mary, daughter of William Phillips, married to Thomas Lloyd Esq. of 
Halchdyn, from whom has descended Phillips Lloyd Fletcher, Esq. of Nerquis Hall. 
(Hist. Powys Fadog, iii., p. 356.) Ed. 

1 The Corbets of Ynysymaengwyn, became extinct on the death in 1878, of Athelstan 
John Soden Corbet, Esquire. The greater part of the estate was purchased by and now 
belongs to John Corbett, Esq., M.P. for Droitwich. The late James Maurice, Esq. of 
Ruthin, and his brother Price Maurice, Esq. of Bath (living in 1872), also belonged to 
the family of Maurice of Lloran. Ed. 

2 They took their name from the river Tanad which falls into the Vyrnwy, near 
their seat at Abertanad, for the same reason, as the Mostyns, the Glynns, Erddigs, 
Sontleys, &c., &c., to save the redundancy of Aps. 


sister 1 of the memorable Sir John Owen, five sons and six 
daughters, whereof six survived him ; two sons and four daughters. 
Owen Tanad, the younger of the sons, and the last heir male of 
the Tanads. died in 1668, in his eighteenth year, and in default 
of issue to the elder sisters he was succeeded by his youngest, 
Susannah : She married Colonel Sydney Godolphin, Governor of 
the Islands and Garrison of Scilly, and Auditor of North Wales. 
They had issue one son [Francis] Tanad Godolphin, and five 
daughters. The son died of a fever in Flanders, before he was 
of age, and when he had served seven campaigns; 

Dum numeral palmas, credidit esse senern. 

The first, third, fourth, and fifth daughters, died unmarried, and 
the second, Mary, had the inheritance : She married Dr. Godol- 
phin, Provost of Eton, and Dean of St. Paul's and brother to 
the Treasurer. They had issue, the last Lord Godolphin and 
the late Mrs. Owen of Porkington. Lord Godolphin had no 
family, and gave those estates by will to Lord Francis Osborne, 
second son of his Grace the Duke of Leeds. Mrs. Owen left 
two daughters ; the elder of Porkington married to Owen 
Ormsby Esquire, by whom she had a daughter, 2 the right heir 
and lineal descendant of Abertanad. 

1 Her father in some pedigrees is called John Owain Walsingham ; I conclude, as 
being Secretary to the Great Minister of that name. I remember, Mr. Roberts of 
Chester, Secretary to Mr. Pelham, was called Pelham Roberts. 

2 Mary Jane Ormsby, whose son John Ralph Ormsby Gore, by her husband William 
Ormsby Gore, Esq., was in 1876 created Baron Harlech, and upon his death in the same 
year, was succeeded in the title by his brother, William Richard, the present peer. See 
ante, p. 17, note. Ed. 

The Tanads of Blodwel descended also from Einion. The 
heiress of the house, Jane, married John Matthews of Court ; 
and the heiress of the Mathewses, Ursula, married Sir John 
Bridgeman, grandson to the Keeper, Sir Orlando, and Ancestor 
to the present Lord Bradford, who enjoys the estate. 1 

The Robertses of Llangedwyn descended from Einion : The 
heiress, Catherine, daughter of Maurice Robert of Llangedwyn, 
married Owen Vaughan of Llwydiarth ; and these estates, with 
those of the Vaughans of Caergai and Glanllyn (who had 
married the heiress of Llwydiarth and Llangedwyn), united in 
Anne, daughter to William Vaughan, who left them to her hus- 
band, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn of Wynnstay; and they remain 
in his grandson, the present gentleman of that place. 2 

The Merediths of Glantanad were of the race of Einion. 
Margaret, the daughter and heiress of Andrew Meredith, married 
Edward Thelwal of Plasyward ; and the estate was again con- 
veyed by marriage, through the great heiress of that house, to 
Sir William Williams, the eldest son of the Speaker, and belongs 
to Wynnstay. 

The Lloyds of Aston descended from Einion. The heiress 
of the house, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Lloyd, married 

1 Sir Orlando Bridgeman, whose portrait is here given, was a lawyer of great 
eminence, having been successively Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, Lord Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. He was created a 
Baronet, yth June, 1660. His great great grandson was in 1794 created Baron Bradford, 
and his son Orlando, second Baron, was created Viscount Newport, and Earl of Bradford 
in November, 1815. His grandson Orlando George Charles is the present peer. Ed. 

" See ante, p. n, note. 






Foulke Lloyd of Foxhall, or the hall of Foulke, and was great 
grandmother to the Reverend John Robert Lloyd, Rector of 
Whittington and Selattyn, both in his advowson, the present 
possessor of Aston. 1 The name of the Foxhall family was 
Rosindale, when they came first from the north. To a younger A D 
branch, settled at Denbigh, we owe our learned countryman, I2 97 
Humphrey Llwyd. He was of Brazen-nose, Oxford, studied 
Physic, and lived as family Physician in the house of the last 
Earl of Arundel of the name of Fitzalan, the Chancellor of 
that University. He sat in Parliament for his native town of 
Denbigh, and died there in the forty-first year of his age, and 

was buried in the parish church with a coarse monument, a dry A - D - 

epitaph, and a psalm tune under it. 2 He made the map of 

England for his friend, Ortelius, to whom he dedicates his 
Commentariolum Britanniae, and his Epistle De Mona Druidum 
Insula, antiquitati suse. restituta. He left a Chronicon Walliae a 
rege Cadwaladero, and the History of Cambria, now called 
Wales, in MS. He printed a Latin paper De Armamentario 
Romano, and turned some Medical Treatises from Latin into 
English. He collected many curious books for Lord Lumley 

1 The present owner and occupier of Aston Hall is R. T. Lloyd, Esq. Ed. 

2 The character of the "tune" may be judged from the first couplet, which is 
as follows : 

" The corps and earthly shape doth rest here, tomy'd in your sight, 

Of Humphrey Llwyd, Master of Arts, a famous worthy wight." 
A copy is here given of the original portrait of him preserved at Aston, near 
Oswestry. His hair was red, but his countenance was remarkable for its manly beauty, 
and highly intellectual expression. Ed. 



{whose sister he married), 1 which form at this time a valuable 
part of the Library in the British Museum. One of his sons 
was settled at Cheam in Surrey, whose great grandson, Robert 
Lloyd, was Rector of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and contended, 
but without effect, for the Barony of Lumley. 

From Einion were the Lloyds of Bodlith. The heiress of 
that house married Foulk Myddelton, the eighth son of the 
Governor, Richard Myddelton of Denbigh ; and the heiress of 
the Myddeltons married Thomas Meredith Esquire of Pentre- 
bychan, the grandfather to the present gentleman, Richard 
Meredith Esquire," of that place. 2 

The Vaughans of Golden-grove, Carmarthenshire, were des- 
cended from Einion. John Vaughan, the son of Walter Vaughan 
of this house, served under Robert, Earl of Essex, Lord Deputy 
of Ireland, and was knighted by him for his services in that 
country ; was made Comptroller of the house-hold to Prince 
Charles, and by James the First created Lord Vaughan of 
Molingar, and Earl of Carbery in that kingdom. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Gelly Meyrick (who suffered in Essex's 

1 Barbara, sister and heir of John Lord Lumley, survived her husband, Humphrey 
Lhvyd, and afterwards married William Williams, Esq. of Cochwillan, Carnarvonshire. 
(Dwnifs Vis. ii., p. 169.) Ed. 

2 He died without issue, whereupon his sister Margaret inherited his estates. She 
married Joseph Warter, Esq. of Sibberscott, Salop, and had issue a son, Henry, who 
assumed the name and arms of Meredydd by royal sign manual in 1824. The latter 
married Elizabeth, a daughter of Mungo Park, the traveller, and by her had a son, the 
present Lieut. Col. Henry Warter Meredydd of Pentrebychan, Denbighshire. (Hist. 
Poviys Fadog v., p. 280.) Ed. 


rebellion), and was succeeded by his son Richard. Richard was 
made Knight of the Bath at the Coronation of Charles the 
First, who created him Baron of Emlyn in England ; and after 
the Restoration was Lord President of the Marches in Wales, 
and a Privy Counsellor. 1 His son, Lord Vaughan, who married 
Rachel, the coheiress of the virtuous Southampton, died without 
issue before his father. She became after the distinguished wife 
and pious widow of Lord [William] Russell. 

From Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of Dinmael and Edeyrnion, the 
natural son of Madog, the son of Maredudd, the son of 
Bleddyn, the founder of the Tribe, descended the Rhyses of 
Rug. The heiress of the house, Margaret, married Piers Sales- 
bury of Bachymbyd, a younger son of Lleweni. Through the 
Salesburys, the Pughs of Mathafarn, the Prices of Gogerthan 
(from the alliance of his grandmother of Nannau with the first 
house), it now belongs to that spirited good Officer, Captain 
Edward Williames Vaughan Salesbury of the Guards. 2 

1 Jeremy Taylor, afterwards Bishop of Down and Connor, was harboured by this 
second Earl of Golden Grove during the time of Cromwell, and where it is said he 
wrote Holy Living and Dying ; The Golden Grove; and other works. The Earldom 
of Carbery became extinct in 1712, on the death of John third Earl, whose daughter 
and heiress Anne became Duchess of Bolton, but died without issue in 1751, leaving 
the Vaughan estates to her kinsman John Vaughan of Terracoed, who bequeathed them 
to his friend John Campbell, afterwards created Earl of Cawdor, in whose descendant 
they are still vested. (Arch. Cam. 4th ser. xii., p. 283.) The late John Lloyd 
Vaughan Watkins, Esq. of Pennoyre, M.P. for Brecon, was a descendant of the 
Vaughans of Golden Grove, in the female line, his mother, Susanna Eleanora being 
the granddaughter and ultimate heiress of the above-named John Vaughan of Terracoed. 
(Blake's Landed Gentry.) Ed, 

2 See ante, p. 57, note. Ed. 


From Brogyntyn were the Maesmors of Maesmor. 1 Their heiress, 
Catharine, married Peter Morris Esquire of Hafod y maidd, and 
conveyed the estate into that family, 2 but the male line was 
continued in Nicholas, her first cousin, and is still extant. 

The Lloyds of Dolglessyn are from Brogyntyn: Their property 
was not long since alienated to Rug, to which it is contiguous. 

The Hughes's of Gwerclas descended from Brogyntyn : 8 Hum- 
phrey Hughes Esquire, of that place, living in 1681, was 

1 In the pedigree of this house Robert ab Gruffudd, father of Robert Wynn, marries 
Margaret Salesbury of Lluesog, and has by her fifteen children ; and it is whimsical to 
observe the surnames which these adopted, so different from their parents and from 
each other : Robert Wynn, leuan Wynn, Dafydd Llwyd, Morys and Hugh Maesmawr, 
Sir Rhys Wynn, John Llwyd, Gwenhwyfar Llwyd, Lowri, Angharad Wenn, Margaret 
Wenn, Gwen Llwyd. 

2 Their granddaughter Catherine heiress of Maesmor, married first John Kyffin, Esq. 
of Ucheldre, who died without issue, and secondly Edward Lloyd, Esq. of Trefnant, 
County Montgomery, descended from lestyn ap Gwrgant, founder of the fourth Royal 
Tribe of Wales, of which marriage there was issue, a daughter and heiress, Catherine 
Maria Margaretta who married first John Lewis Parry, Esq., Royal Marines, who died 
8th May, 1822 ; and secondly Lieut. General John Manners Carr. (Arch. Cam. 4th, 
scr. viii., p. 195.) Ed. 

3 Owain Brogyntyn was the illegitimate son of Madog ab Maredudd by a daughter of 
the Maer du, or the black Mayor, of Rug in Edeyrnion. His father granted to him 
that Lordship, with the honor of Dinmael. Owain had three sons, Gruffudd, Bleddyn 
and lorwerth ; Gruffudd, the elder, had one moiety of Edeyrnion, lorwerth the other, 
and Bleddyn had Dinmael, Gruffudd ab Owain ab Bleddyn ab Owain Brogyntyn 
assigned over the Royalty of the Lordship of Dinmael to Lacy, Earl of Lincoln ; that 
was, all felonies except forfeitures. Prior to this, malefactors were usually executed at 
a place called Bryn y Crogwr, or the Hangman's Hill, in Maesmor. The children of 
Gruffudd ab Owain aforesaid were, Owen hen, Llywelyn Offeiriad, Hywel, and a 
daughter, Generis, who ended her life in retirement at a place since called Muriau 
Generis in Dwyfaen. The said Llywelyn Offeiriad, or the Priest, in a disagreement 
with his brothers, Owain hen and Hywel, sold his lands to the Earl of Lincoln, and 
accepted a grant from the Earl of thirteen pounds of land for the yearly rent of 


twelfth in descent from Owain. The heiress of the Hughes's 
married the Lloyds, the present possessors. 1 

From Cadwgan, 2 the second son of the founder of the Tribe, 
descend the Nanneys of Nannau. The elder daughter and 

thirteen pair of gloves, which parcels of land his descendants still possess in the quality 
of Freeholders. Owain Brogyntyn married, first, Jonet, the daughter of Hywel ab 
Madog ab Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Athelstan Glodrudd, the fifth Royal Tribe, and had 
no issue by her. He married, secondly, Marred, or Margaret, the daughter of Einion 
ab Seisyllt of Mathafarn, by whom he had Gruffudd, who married Jonet, daughter of 
Sir William Say, Knight. From Gruffudd was descended Madog of Hendwr, father of 
Dafydd, father of Gwion Llwyd, &c., &c. Gwion Lloyd Esquire of Hendwr, in my 
memory, left Edeyrnion, and bought and settled himself at the lower Gwersyllt, since 
purchased by my worthy old friend, John Cawley Humberston Cawley Esquire.* 
Near Porkington [Brogyntyn], and far from his own country, is a singular entrench- 
ment, called Castle Brogyntyn, a fort belonging to Owain Brogyntyn. His dagger and 
cup are preserved at Rug. The latter, perhaps, hath been most murderous. [Owain 
Brogyntyn was a man of distinguished valour. He was made by his father Lord 
of Dinmael, and after the deposition of his half brother, Elissau, in 1202, he appears to 
have become Lord of Edeyrnion also. He resided at Brogyntyn, near Oswestry, and 
was living in 1215. (Hist. Powys Fadog, i., p. 125.) His arms were, argent a lion 
rampant sable, debruised by a baton sinister gules ( Ib., p. 318), though they are 
generally given without this difference. Ed.~\ 

1 Dorothea, eldest surviving daughter of Richard Hughes Lloyd, Esq. of Plymog, 
Gwerclas, Kymmer, and Bashall, was married 6th July, 1832, to her relative, John 
Hughes, Esq., third son of William Hughes, Esq., representative in the male line of 
the ancient family of Hughes of Gwerclas, Barons of Kymmer in Edeyrnion thus 
uniting the senior with a junior branch of it. The issue of this marriage was one 
child, Talbot de Bashall Hughes, born i$th December, 1836, an Officer in the Cape 
Mounted Rifles. The armorial ensigns of this eminent house are those of their 
ancestors, the Sovereign Princes of Powys, namely, argent a lion rampant sable " the 
black lion of Powys." (Dwtui's Vis., ii., p. 250, note.) The account of this family, 
compiled, I believe, by that learned antiquary, the Rev. Walter Davies, in Burke's 
Landed Gentry, contains a vast amount of genealogical information relating to other 
Welsh families. Ed. 

2 Cadwgan of Nannau's arms were, Or a lion rampant azure, armed and langued 
gttles. In j no he was suddenly attacked by his nephew, Madog, at Welshpool, and 

* Subsequently sold to ... Atherston, Esq. Ed. 


heiress of the last of the male line, Hugh Nanney, married 
William Vaughan Esquire of Corsygedol ; but no issue remaining 
from this match, the estate hath devolved to Sir Robert 
Williames Vaughan, the grandson of the the twin-sister of his 
great aunt Mrs. Vaughan. Sir Robert has improved the place 
(in itself distinguished) by a good family mansion, which is said 
to have one of the highest situations, of a gentleman's house, 
in Great Britain. 1 

The Wythans of Trewythan descended from Cadwgan. The 
line ended in an heiress, Mary, married to Bowen Jones Esquire 
of Pen yr allt goch, and the issue of the match, the Reverend 
Evan Jones, 2 is the present possessor of Trewythan. 

slain before he could draw his sword and defend himself. According to Brut y Tywysogion, 
he was married five times, namely, first, to Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
by whom he had a son, Madog ; secondly, to Sanan, daughter of Dyfnwal, by whom he 
had a son, Einion ; thirdly, to Ellyw or Ellinor, daughter of Cadifor ab Collwyn, lord 
of Dyfed, by whom he had a son, Morgan ; fourthly, to " the Frenchwoman," a 
daughter of Pigot de Say, by whom he had two sons, Henry and Gruffudd ; and fifthly, 
to Euron, daughter of Hoedliw, son of Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd, by whom he 
had a son, Meredith. (Burke 1 * Landed Gentry.) Ed. 

1 Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, Bart., died without issue in 1859, when the title 
became extinct, and his estates were divided. The Nannau and Hengwrt properties are 
now vested in John Vaughan, Esq., and the Rhug estates were devised to the Hon. 
Charles Henry Wynn, the present owner. The Nanney 's bore Or, a lion rampant 
azure ; the coat of the Vaughans of Nannau was, Or and gules four lions rampant 
counterchanged of the field ; on the centre of the field the Nanney escutcheon. Ed. 

2 Mr. Jones by his lady, the sister of Mr. Alderman Combe, has four children, 
Wythan, Charlotte, Caroline, and Hervey Bowen. [Trewythan, or Trewythen as it is 
generally called, is in the parish of Llandinam, Montgomeryshire. The Rev. Evan Jones 
died loth July, 1827. His eldest son and heir, Wythen Jones, died i6th November, 
1855 ; his only child, Charlotte, having died unmarried before him. By his Will, 


From Cadwgan come the Lloyds of Cwmm bychan, still 
extant. A younger brother of the house was settled, early in 
this century, at Llanarmon in Yale, and was father to my worthy 
friend, that excellent historian and Welsh antiquary, the late 
Reverend John Lloyd 1 of Caerwys. 

The Protector Cromwell was descended from Cadwgan. The 
family name was anciently Williams ; Morgan Williams of Nant- 
church in Cardiganshire married the sister of Thomas Cromwell, 
the Minister Earl of Essex, and was succeeded by his son, 
Sir Richard Cromwell of Hinchingbroke in Huntingdonshire, who 
first assumed the name of Cromwell : He was father to Sir 
Henry Cromwell, the grandfather by his second son Robert, of 
Oliver the Protector. I know nothing of Oliver's partialities to 
Wales ; but he encouraged a small octavo of the Welsh Bible, 2 

Wythen Jones devised his estates to his only brother, Hervey Bowen Jones, who died 
without issue, about the year 1865, having previously sold the estates in 1862. 
Trewythen now belongs to David Davies, Esq. of Broneirion. Ed.~\ 

1 My friend Mr. Lloyd was usually called Blodeu ; signifying, that he was the 
Blodeu, or flower of Llanarmon, where he had spent his younger years with his father. 
[He was the friend also and occasional companion of Pennant in his travels, eighteenth 
in descent from Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. He was the father of the late Miss Angharad 
Lloyd, a lady well known among Welsh literati ; also of the Rev. Robert Watkin 
Lloyd, who died in 1860, leaving two sons, the Rev. Francis Llywelyn Lloyd of Ty yn 
Rhyl, and Edward Lloyd, Esq. of Castellau, in the County of Glamorgan. Pennant 
gives an interesting account of his visit to Cwmbychan in 1776, and of the primitive 
style of living of its then owner, Evan Lloyd, Esq., whose present representative and 
descendant is John Lloyd, Esq. of Cwmbychan. The Lloyds of Blaenyglyn, represented 
by William Wellesley Gordon Lloyd, Esq., and Rev. John Vaughan Lloyd, Vicar of 
Hope in 1858, are a branch of the same family. Ed.~\ 

2 William Tyndal, our countryman, had with great cost and labour printed at 
Antwerp, in 1528, an incorrect impression of the New Testament in English, translated 


when that edition (which from its size was thought useful) was 
scarce ; and an act of Parliament passed for the propagation of 
the Gospel in North Wales. The London Polyglot Bible was 
produced at the same time, and Cromwell ever appears a steady 
friend to the Protestant interests. 1 I do not find, that his 
military occasions brought him to Wales, but he might have 

by himself. Whilst mourning the low state of his finances, which would not enable 
him to amend his book, it chanced that Bishop Tonstal, passing through Antwerp, 
thought he could do no greater service to the Catholic faith, than by buying up Tyndal's 
Testaments, and committing them to the flames. Tyndal received the good Prelate's 
money with rapture, and employed it in printing his Translation correct, which he 
instantly transmitted to England, where it made many proselytes. Sir Thomas More, 
in 1529, expressing his surprize at the frequency of these prohibited books, was 
answered in Council, " That it was owing to the liberal encouragement of Bishop 
Tonstal." Burnet Rcf. 

1 Cromwell had two signal occasions given him so shew his zeal in protecting the 
Protestants abroad. The Duke of Savoy raised a new persecution of the Vaudois : 
So Cromwell sent to Mazarin, desiring him to put a stop to that ; adding, " That he knew 
well they had that Duke in their power, and could restrain him as they pleased ; and 
if they did not, he must presently break with them." Mazarin objected to this as 
unreasonable : He promised to do good offices ; but he could not be obliged to answer 
for the effects they might have. This did not satisfy Cromwell. So they obliged the 
Duke of Savoy to put a stop to that unjust fury : And Cromwell raised a great sum 
for the Vaudois, and sent over Morland to settle all their concerns, and to supply all 
their losses. There was also a tumult in Nismes, in which some disorder had been 
committed by the Huguenots : And they, apprehending severe proceedings upon it, 
sent one over with great expedition to Cromwell, who sent him back to Paris in an 
hour's time with a very effectual letter to his Ambassador,* requiring him either to 
prevail, that the matter might be passed over, or to come away immediately. Mazarin 
complained of this way of proceeding as too imperious ; but the necessity of their 
affairs made him yield. Cromwell had intended a great design to begin his Kingship 
with, had he assumed it. He had resolved to set up a Council for the Protestant 
Religion, in opposition to the congregation De Propaganda fide at Rome. He intended 

* Lockhart was employed afterwards as Ambassador to France by Charles the Second, and said, " That 
he found, that he had nothing of that regard, that was paid him in Cromwell's time." Ibid. 

made a friendly visit there ; for in the old house at Kinmael, 
then belonging to Colonel Carter, 1 an officer in his favour, is 
a room called Cromwell's parlour. 

The Vaughans of Wengraig were descended from Cadwgan. 
The father of Robert Vaughan, the antiquary, married the 
heiress of Hengwrt, 2 the granddaughter of Lewis Owen, the 
Baron, 3 to whom the place had belonged. The antiquary died 

it should consist of seven Counsellors, and four Secretaries for different Provinces. 
These were the first ; France, Switzerland, and the Valleys : The Palatinate and the 
other Calvinists were the second ; Germany, the North, and Turkey, were the third ; 
and the East and West Indies were the fourth. The Secretaries were to have five 
hundred pounds salary apiece, and to keep a correspondence everywhere, to know the 
state of religion all over the world, that so all designs might, by their means, be 
protected and assisted. They were to have a fund of io,oool. a year at their disposal 
for ordinary emergencies, but to be farther supplied as occasions should require it. 
Chelsea College was to be made up for them, which was then an old decayed building, 
that had been at first raised to be a College for writers of Controversy. Burnet " Of 
his own Time." 

1 Carter, before he commenced soldier, was a draper ; and marrying after the heiress 
of Kinmael, a Hollander, the wags said he had chosen (as well he might) the best piece 
of Holland in the country. Kinmael had more anciently belonged to the Llwyds of 
the tribe of Marchudd. Alice Llwyd the heiress of the place and an old maid, leaves 
twenty shillings to her ghostly father, Sir John ab Ellis, the parson of Kegidog, or 
St. George's, the neighbouring church. 

2 She was Margaret, second daughter of Edward Owen of Hengwrt, third son of the 
Baron, but no heiress. Hengwrt was purchased by the Vaughans of Wengraig, from 
the Owens. ( ' Byegones 1872, p. 99). Ed. 

3 Owen was Vice Chamberlain of North Wales, and Baron of the Exchequer at 
Carnarvon. " They were called at that time," says old Sir John of Gwydir, " The 
lawyers of Carnarvon, the merchants of Beaumaris, and the gentlemen of Conway ; and," 
adds the historian, " the records of the King's Court kept at Carnarvon in those days 
were as orderly and formally kept as those in Westminster-hall." I once passed the A R 
place where Baron Owen lost his life. "On the road," says Mr. Pennant, "near 1555 
Mowddwy, Lewis Owen, Vice Chamberlain of North Wales and Baron of the Exchequer 



in 1667, and by his wife, a daughter of Nannau, left a son 
Howel : Howel was succeeded by his son Robert, who married 
Jonet, the younger twin-daughter, but eventually the heiress of 
Nannau. Her son, Sir Robert Howel Vaughan, by the heiress 
Williames of Ystymcolwyn, left three sons ; Sir Robert Williames 
Vaughan of Nannau, Edward Salesbury Vaughan Esquire of Rug, 

at Carnarvon, was cruelly murdered by a set of banditti, with which this country was 
over-run. After the wars of York and Lancaster multitudes of felons and outlaws 
inhabited this country, and established in these parts for a great length of time a race 
of wretches, who continued to rob, burn and murder in large bands, in defiance of the 
civil power ; and would steal and drive whole herds of cattle in mid-day from one 
country to another with impunity. To put a stop to these ravages, a commission was 
granted to John Wynn ab Maredudd of Gwydir (grandfather to the historian Sir John), 
and to Lewis Owen of Hengwrt, the Baron, in order to settle the peace of the country, 
and to punish all offenders against its government. In pursuance of their orders they 
raised a body of stout men, and on a Christmas-eve seized above fourscore outlaws and 
felons, on whom they held a jail delivery, and punished according to their deserts. 
Among them were the two sons of a woman, who very earnestly applied to Owen for 
the life of one of them. He refused ; when the mother in a great rage told him, 
opening her bosom, ' These yellow breasts have given suck to those, who shall wash 
their hands in your blood.' Revenge was determined by the surviving villains. They 
watched their opportunity to way-lay the Baron, as he was passing through these parts 
from Montgomeryshire Assizes, in the thick woods of Mowddwy, at a place called from 
the deed, Llidiart y Barwn, or the Baron's gate ; where they cut down several trees to 
cross the road and impede the passage. They then discharged on him a shower of arrows ; 
one of which sticking in his face he took and broke. After this they attacked him with 
bills and javelins, and left him slain with above thirty wounds. His son-in-law, John 
Llwyd of Ceiswyn, defended him to the last, but his cowardly attendants fled on the 
first onset. His death gave peace to the country, for most vigorous justice ensued, and 
the whole nest of banditti was extirpated ; many fell by the hand of justice, and the rest 
fled never to return." [Baron Lewis Owen lived at Cwrt Plas yn dre, Dolgelley, often 
absurdly called " Owen Glyndwr's Parliament House." The old house was pulled down 
a few years ago and rebuilt at Newtown, Montgomeryshire, by Mr. Pryce Jones who 
had purchased the materials. Evan Lloyd of Blaenglyn, married Mary, daughter of 
Robert Owen, sixth in descent from the Baron, and their grandson, Evan Garnons Lloyd 
of Erwgoed, was living in 1879. Ed."] 

and Griffith Howel Vaughan Esquire of Hengwrt. 1 Robert,, 
the antiquary, published a small tract by the name of British 
Antiquities Revived, dedicated to the first Sir Richard Wynn of 
Gwydir, which was intended to end the controversy, then sub- 
sisting, respecting the primogeniture of the sons of Roderic, 
who on the tripartition of Wales gave the northern parts to 
Anarawd, the southern to Cadell, and Powys to Merfyn. The 
South Welshmen contended that Cadell was the elder brother r 
This is denied with zeal and effect by Mr. Vaughan. He was 
intimate with Usher ; and in the course of their correspondence 
he tells the Primate, that he had translated into English the 
annals of Wales, which he had sent him for his perusal, but it 
does not appear it was ever returned. He left in manuscript 
the topography of Merionethshire, a tour of Wales, and com- 
mentaries on the Triades. 2 He wrote notes also on Gildas [and] 
Nennius, with an explanatory paraphrase on Welsh Chronology. 

In the fifty-third year of his age and the thirteenth of his 
reign, our founder fell by a fate, familiar to that period, and 
was murdered by his subjects in South Wales. Bleddyn was 

1 All of whom died without issue. At the time of his death in 1859, the three 
estates belonged to Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, but after his decease they were 
divided. See note, p. no, ante. Ed. 

2 These papers are preserved from copies made at Hengwrt by that wayward child of 
genius, the late Reverend Evan Evans, before that valuable collection was dissipated. 
This library consisced of 165 MSS. Mr. Vaughan had made an agreement with 
Mr. Jones [of Gellilyfdy in the parish] of Ysgeifiog, an indefatigable collector of MSS., 
that the survivor of them should succeed to the other's library. Jones died first, and 
his collection [which filled upwards of fifty large volumes] came to Hengwrt, [but are 
now at Peniarth, near Towyn, Merionethshire, having been bequeathed to the late 


just and mild in his administration, and framed a system of 
laws on the old constitutions of Moelmutius and Hywel. 1 Our 
historians condemn him for receiving his crown from Edward of 
England, and becoming tributary to that Prince ; but the success 
of the Confessor's General, Harold, 2 at this period over our country- 
men, left little choice in that matter. Bleddyn we are told was 
rich: A Welsh distich 3 is quoted to that purpose, but I understand 
it means no more than that he was Paramount of Powys, and 
that the freehold lands in that principality were held under him 
in capite. He had four wives, and issue by them all; Maredudcl 
by his first ; 4 Cadwgan and Llywarch by the second ; Madog 
and Ririd by the third ; and lorwerth by the last. 

W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., by his kinsman Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, Bart., who 
died in 1859. Ed.~] Vaughan had made many copies of Welsh MSS. from Oxford, 
the Tower, and other places : What authority is due to the destruction by one Scholan 
of the Welsh MSS. in the Tower, I know not ; nor am I given to believe it. It is 
certain, that in the end of Edward the First's reign many Welshmen of rank were 
confined in that prison, engaged in the three unsuccessful insurrections after his 
conquest. It is said they solicited the favour that their MSS. might be sent them out 
of Wales ; that they were indulged in this request, and thence the Tower became the 
principal repository of Welsh literature. [Robert Vaughan wrote many works besides 
those above enumerated. He died in 1666, and was buried at Dolgelley. Ed.~\ 

1 According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Dunwallo Moelmutius was the son of Cloten, 
Duke of Cornwall, and reigned in Britain 441 years before Christ. Our Welsh 
Justinian, Hywel Dha, died at Rome in 948. 

- Harold on his success revived the laws of Offa, that no Welshman should pass that 
ditch, but under the loss and forfeiture of a limb. Harold had built a magnificent 
house at Portyscydd in Monmouthshire, where he entertained his Master, Edward, but 
which was soon after pillaged and destroyed by the Welsh. 

3 See ante, p. 39, note. 

4 His first wife, Haer, was a widow ; very beautiful : She was the daughter and 
heiress of Gillyn, the son of Blaidd Rhudd, or the bloody Wolf, of Gest in Eifionydd. 
By Cynfyn Hirdref, her first husband, she was grandmother to Ririd, who took the 

appellation of Blaidd, or the Wolf, in descent from his ancestor, Blaidd Rhudd, above 
mentioned. The famous Hywel y pedolau was the son of Gwenllian, daughter to Ririd 
flaidd. There is a Welsh poem extant of Cynddehv Brydydd mawr, the great Bard, 
who flourished about the year 1160, returning thanks to Ririd for a fine sword, with 
which he had presented him. 


THE author, it will have been observed, has confined himself to tracing the 
descendants of two only of the founder's sons, namely, Meredydd and Cadwgan, and he 
has left many of those unnoticed. 

In addition to those already named, the following families are descended from 
Meredydd : Pryce of Cyfronydd, Robert Davies Pryce, Esq., Lord Lieutenant of 
Merionethshire, the present owner of Cyfronydd, being twenty-sixth in direct male 
descent from the founder of the tribe (Mont. Coll. xix., p. 132) ; the Maurices of 
Brynygwaliau and Bodynfoel ( Ib. v., p. 266) ; Owens, Trefeilir ( ' Dwmi's Vis. ii., p. 202) ; 
Matthews of Trefnannau (Hist. Powys Fadog, i., p. 108) ; and Rogers of Burgedin 
( ' Ib.), all three extinct ; and Parry of Main, the last representative of which died in 
1827 ( ' Ib. and Mont. Coll. xiii., p. 419). From Cynwrig Efell came the Davies's of 
Glwysegl and Brynbwa (Hist. Powys Fadog, i., p. 128) ; Griffiths, Gwysanau ; Davies, 
Arddynwent and Marrington ; and Parry, Wernddu, near Oswestry ( ' Ib.) From 
Einion Efell, the Wynns of Moeliwrch ; and Edwards of Ness Strange (Dw nit's 
Vis., ii., p. 329) ; the Maurices of Penybont, Trefedrid, &c. ; Swynae of Maenan ; 
Lloyds of Foord and Pentrecoed (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 242) ; Powells of Park, 
Whittington (Ib., iii., p. 405) ; Lloyd's, Moelfre ; Hughes, Llanarmon ; Daniel,, Cefn 
yr Odfa ; Davies, Pentrecae ; Maurice, Cwm Blawty ; and Hughes, Pentrebach ( ' Ib.) 
From Owen Brogyntyn, the Wynns of Pentre Morgan ; and the Lloyds of Ebnall, 
subsequently merged in the Lloyds of Llwynymaen ( Ib., iii., p. 403). Owain Glyndwr 
(ante, p. 53) had six sons, all of whom died without issue, having either fallen in battle, 
or been taken prisoners and mercilessly put to death. He had also five daughters, 
namely : Isabel, who married Adam ab lorwerth Ddu ; Alice, who married Sir John 
Scudamore, Knight, of Kentchurch, in the County of Hereford, whose lineal heir and 
representative, John Lucy Scudamore, Esq. of Kentchurch Court, was living in 1880 ; 
Lucy or Jane, who married Henry Lord Grey de Ruthin, but died without issue ; 
Janet, who married Sir John de Croft, Knight, of Croft Castle, Herefordshire, whose 
present representatives are Archer James Croft, Esq. of Greenham Lodge, Berks., and 
Sir Archer Denman Croft, Bart., of Croft Castle ; and Margaret, who married Sir Richard 


Monnington, Knight, of Monnington, Herefordshire. He had besides these, several 
illegitimate children. His sister Lowry, married Robert Puleston, Esq.of Emral, to 
whose family, on failure of Owain's male issue, his arms descended, and they still 
quarter them, namely, Paly of eight argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable. 
(L. Glyn Cothi's Works, p. 458.) For a long and full account of Owain Glyndwr, see 
Pennant's Tours in Wales, vol. iii., Appendix vii. 

Celynin, who flourished during the first half of the fourteenth century, and who bore 
sable a he-goat passant argent, was sixth in descent from Aleth, King of Dyfed. Having 
killed the Mayor of Carmarthen, he fled into Powysland, and according to Harl. MS. 
1973, fo. 140, married Gwladys, daughter and heiress of Ririd ab Cynwrig Efell, with 
whom he obtained Llwydiarth, but according to the Salisbury MSS. at Wynnstay, she 
was his mother, which is most probable. Dwnn (Vis., i., p. 294) states that Celynin's 
wife was Gwenllian, daughter of Meredydd ab Rhydderch ab Tewdwr Mawr. He was 
the founder of the now extinct families of Llwydiarth and Caergai (ante, p. 104), 
Lloyd of Llanfechain, and Griffiths of Llanfyllin, and of the Lloyds of Dolobran, and 
Davies of Maesmawr and Fronfelen, Montgomeryshire, both still extant, the one being 
represented by Sampson Lloyd, Esq., and others, and the other by John Pryce 
Davies, Esq. 

According to Lewys Dwnn (Vis., i., p. no), Bleddyn by his first wife had, besides 
Meredydd, a son Gwyn, the ancestor of the Bowens of Llwch-meilir. Catherine, the 
coheiress of Richard Bowen of Llwch-meilir, married John Scourfield, Esq., from whom 
are descended the Scourfields of Pembrokeshire. 

Cadwgan was also the ancestor of the following families, in addition to those already 
named by the author, namely, the Wevers of Presteign (Dvimfs Vis., i., p. 258) ; the 
Nanneys of Cefndeuddwr, whose last lineal male representative died in the present 
century, when the estates passed, under his Will, to his nephew, David Ellis, Esq. of 
Gwynfryn, in the County of Carnarvon, who took the name of Nanney, and upon his 
death without issue in 1819, his nephew, Owen Jones, Esq. of Brynkir, who assumed 
the name of Nanney after his own, came into the property (Hist. Powys Fadog, v., 
p. 58) ; the Derwas family of Cemmes, whose present representative in the female line 
is William R. M. Wynne, Esq. of Peniarth ( ' Ib., p. 109) ; and Matthews of Esgair 
Foel Eirin, now represented by Oliver Laurence Ruck, Esq. of Pantlludw near 
Machynlleth. (Mont. Coll., xvii., pp. 58, 63). 

Fourth in descent from Cadwgan, was Cynfelyn ab Dolphyn, lord of Manafon, who 
married Julian, daughter of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, and was the ancestor of 
the Wythens of Trewythen (ante, p. in); the Merediths of Manafon (Dwnti's 
Vis., i., p. 285) ; the Maurices of Llandinam ( Ib., p. 303) ; the Gwynn's of Llanidloes 
(Ib., p. 309) ; the Wynns of Gungrog and Trelydan ( Ib., p. 320) ; Gilbert Jones 
( ' Ib., p. 324) ; Jones, Helygain ( Ib., ii., p. 301) ; Jones, Clegyrddwr, Llanbrynmair 

(Hist. Potvys Fadog, v., p. 54) ; Pryce, Llanllugan ; Hughes, Llanlloddian ; and 
Maurice, Llangurig fib., p. 63), all of whom appear to be extinct. Cynfelyn gave his 
name to the Township of Dolgynfelyn, formerly a detached portion of Manafon parish, 
but a few years ago annexed to the adjacent parish of Llanllugan. His arms were 
azi:re a lion passant argent. 

By his second wife, Bleddyn had also two daughters : first, Hunydd, or Gwladys, 
who became the wife of Rhydderch, second son of Tewdwr Mawr, and a brother of 
Rhys ab Tewdwr, founder of the second Royal Tribe (ante, p. 27). Rhydderch was 
the ancestor of the Lloyds of Forest, Glyn Cothi and Peneint, Carmarthenshire 
( Dunn's Vis., i., p. 222) ; and of the Evans's of Llangeler, in the same County (Cam. 
Journal, 1864, p. 108). Second, Gwenllian, wife of Caradog ab Trahaiarn, by whom 
she was the mother of Owain ab Caradog. ( ' Dwmi's Vis., ii., p. 99). 

Madog and Ririd, the founder's sons by his third wife, were slain by lestyn ab 
Gwrgant, prince of Glamorgan, at the battle of Llechryd in 1087. Ririd, however, 
appears to have left issue, three sons : first, Madog ; second, Cadwgan, the ancestor of, 
among others, the Davies's of Henblas, Llansilin. John Davies of Henblas, was the 
author of the well-known Display of Heraldry, published in 1716 ; and his sister's son, 
John Reynolds of Oswestry, also published a book of pedigrees in 1735. Third, 
Cynwrig, the ancestor of the Foulkes's of Rhiwlas, in the same parish. Both families 
are now supposed to be extinct. (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 232). 

By his fourth wife, Morien, daughter of Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd 
(founder of the fifth Royal Tribe), Bleddyn had two sons, namely : first, lorwerth Goch, 
who was slain at Caereinion by his nephew, Madog ab Ririd, in 1109; and second, 
Llywelyn, or, as he is called in some pedigrees, Rhiwallon ( ' Dwnds Vis., ii., p. 330), 
the ancestor of the Lloyds of Rhiwlas ; and the Gethins of Glasgoed, Llansilin ; both 
apparently extinct in the male line ; and the Davies's of Trewylan, Montgomeryshire, 
still extant. (Mont. Coll., iv., p. 155). 

Llewelyn Aurdorchog (" of the Golden Torque,") Lord of Yale, whose arms were 
azure a lion rampant guardant or, married Eva, daughter, though some say sister, of 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn. Among their descendants were the Evans's of Rhydycarw 
(ancestors maternally of the Owens of Glansevern) ; the Lloyds of Berthlwyd ; the 
Jones's of Garthmyl ; the Hanmers of Pentrepant ; the Lloyds of Conway ; the 
Owens of Ysgrwgan and Trefgeiriog ; the Lloyds of Nantymyneich, Mallwyd ; the 
Walcots of Walcot and Bitterley ; and other Montgomeryshire and Border families, 
mostly extinct in the male line. ( Bur he's Landed Gentry.) 

In the description of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn's arms (ante, p. 40, note), a slight error was 
made. Instead of " Or a lion rampant gules armed and langued or ;" read " Or a lion 
rampant gules armed and langued azure." Ed. 


JESTYN AB GWRGANT, the fourth Royal Tribe, was Lord 
of Glamorgan. 1 He descended in the twenty-ninth generation 
from our great Caractacus f a sorry slip from such a stock. 

The Silurian Prince had defended his country from foreign 
enemies ; his descendant introduced them to enslave it. Fitzhamon 
divided his conquest (as hath been before observed) among his 
twelve Knights, and Jestyn fell a just sacrifice to his own 
treachery and ingratitude ; for Rhys had raised him to a Royal 

Of his descendants I find none extant in the male line. The 
Myttleys of Myttley ended in the Bromleys, and an heiress of 
the former house was ancestress to the Lord Chancellor Bromley. 

The Joneses of D61 in Edeyrnion descended from a Receiver 
General of North Wales of this tribe. The last of the family 

1 Ultima nunc dicenda venit Morgania tellus, 
Pulchra situ, frugumque ferax et amaena locorum : 
Regulus hanc tenuit titulo Jestinus avito 
Gurganti proles, genus alto e sanguine Cambri ; 
Quern nimis incautum, nimis in sua fata ruentem, 
Perfidus impellit scelerosis artibus Eynon, 
In proprium regem sine re, sine more rebellem. Peutarchia. 

His arms were Gules three cheveronels in pale argent. Ed. 

After the captivity of Caractacus the Romans were often defeated by the single 
state of the Silures. Romanosque post ejus captivitatem, ab nnA tantum Silnrum 
civitate scepius victos ct profligates. Tacit. 


was settled at Llanrhaiadr Dyffryn Clwyd, died early in this 
[the eighteenth] century, and was buried in the Parish Church 
with much monumental extravagance. His figure in marble is 
recumbent at full length in a flowing gown and great Parian 
periwig, in the bad funebrial fashion of that period. 1 The 
Newtons of Haethley, extinct in the male line, were of this 
Tribe. Of this house was the lady of the late Thomas Meredith 
Esquire of Pentre bychan, who was Chamberlain and Keeper of 
the King's Original Seal for the counties of Denbigh and Mont- 
gomery (thence called Baron), and father of Richard Meredith 
the present gentleman of Pentre bychan, who succeeded him in 
that office. This honor hath been in the Meredith family for 
some generations. 2 

1 This was Maurice Jones, Esq. of Plas Newydd, near Ruthin, who died loth January, 
1702. He left his extensive estates to his cousin, Humphrey Parry, Esq. of Pwll- 
halawg. Ed. 

- This office was abolished by the Act of 1830, which did away with the Courts of 
Great Sessions, and established the present Welsh Circuits. Pentre bychan is now the 
property of Col. Henry VVarter Meredydd, grand-nephew of the above named 
Richard Meredith. See ante, p. 106, note. Ed. 



IESTYN was rejected by his countrymen as Sovereign on the death of his father, Gwrgan, 
in 1030, owing to his violent and headstrong disposition, and his uncle Hywel was 
elected instead ; on whose death in 1043, however, he succeeded to the throne. In 
1088, he waged war with Rhys ab Tewdwr, in conjunction with Einion ab Collwyn, 
and the latter having obtained from England the aid of Robert Fitzharnon, and twelve 
other Knights, they entirely defeated him at Hirwaen Wrgant (see ante, p. 28). A 
quarrel between the two chieftains immediately afterwards, owing to lestyn's refusal to 
give his daughter in marriage to Einion as promised, induced Einion to recall the 
Normans who had already entered their ships to return home. He shouted to them, 
and waved his cloak to call them back. They returned, and were easily persuaded by 
him to wrest the territory of Glamorgan from its prince. They chased lestyn out of 
the country, who crossed the Bristol Channel, and fled to Glastonbury, thence to Bath, 
and ultimately to the Monastery of Llangenys in Monmouthshire, where he died at 
the great age of 129. His patrimony was divided into nineteen portions : thirteen 
were appropriated to Fitzharnon and his Knights, four to lestyn's sons, one to Einion, 
and another to Robert ab Seisyllt. 

lestyn was twice married. His first wife, Denis, was, according to some pedigrees, the 
daughter of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn ; but a comparision of dates will shew that this could 
scarcely have been so. She may have been his elder sister. By her he had eight 
children, Rhydderch, Meredith, Cadwgan, Griffith, Rhiwallon, Morgan Hir, Elen, and 
Gwenllian. His second wife was Angharad, the daughter of Elystan Glodrudd (founder 
of the fifth Royal Tribe), and by her he had five children, namely, Caradog, Madog, 
Morgan (who died young), Rhys, and Nest, (folo MSS. 393). 

Morgan Hir (or the Tall) was the ancestor of Alo of Trefnant, Caereinion, Mont- 
gomeryshire, who came into Powysland in consequence of having killed the Mayor of 
Ewyas, Monmouthshire, and married Eva, daughter of Einion Ddistain. From him 
came the Lloyds of Trefnant, and the Pryces of Glwysegl and Llanfyllin, both now 
extinct. (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 175). The Pryces of Llanfyllin continued steadfast 
Roman Catholics, and Lord Castlemaine took refuge with them on the abdication of 
James the Second. The Glwysegl branch ended in two coheiresses Mary, the wife of 
Charles Vaughan, Esq. of Llwydiarth ; and Elizabeth, the wife of Thomas Maurice Esq. 
of Lloran. 

Caradog was lord of Avan or Aberavan (vulgo, Aberavon), which he enfranchised. 
He married Gwladus, sister [query daughter ?] of the Lord Rhys, and was the ancestor of 
the Avans ofAvan, Pryces of Briton Ferry, Thomas's of Bettws, Loughors of Tythegston, 
and Evans's of Gnoll and Eagles Bush. The three first named appear to be extinct ; the 

Loughors are represented in the female line by the Knights of Tythegston and Nottage 
Court,and the Evans's are still extant in the male line. The patriotic family of Williams 
of Aberpergwm, who have resided there for nearly 900 years, and are now represented 
by Morgan Stuart Williams, Esq., are also descended in a direct line from Caradog ab 
lestyn, and bear his arms quarterly with those of Einion ab Collwyn. So also are the 
Bevans of Fosbury, Berkshire, and Trent Park, Enfield. (Nicholas's County Families, 
pp. 621, 647). 

Madog was the ancestor of the Llewelyns of Caerwiggau, and the numerous 
descendants of levan Mady. (Clark's Land of Morgan, p. 39,). Catherine, sole 
daughter and heir of Morgan ap levan, Lord of Radyr, of this line, married Thomas ab 
Sir David Mathew of Llandaff, one of the most distinguished men of his age, and 
Standard-bearer of England to Edward the Fourth. Of this marriage there was issue, 
five sons, the eldest of whom, Sir William Mathew of Radyr, was knighted by Henry 
the Seventh on the field of Bosworth ; and was ancestor of the Earls of Llandaff, who 
became extinct in 1833. (Burke's Landed Gentry.) To an Irish branch of this 
illustrious family belonged the late Father Mathew, the temperance reformer, as does 
also Mr. Justice Mathew, and several other branches of it are still extant. 

Gwenllian or Arddun according to Dwnti's Vis., i., p. 190 one of the founder's 
daughters, married Drumbenog, lord of Cantref Selyf, ninth in descent from whom was 
Sir Roger Vaughan of Tretower, who married Gwladus, daughter of Sir David Gam, 
and went with his father in law to the battle of Agincourt in 1415, where both lost 
their lives in saving that of the king, and just before their death, received the honour 
of knighthood . Sir Roger Vaughan was the ancestor of the Vaughans of Bredwardine, 
Herast, Tretower, Clyro (now of Courtfield, Monmouthshire), Talgarth, &c. Walter 
Vaughan, Esq. of Tretower and Talgarth, was a staunch Royalist, and one of the 
intended "Knights of the Royal Oak," in the time of Charles the Second. His 
daughter and sole heiress, Bridget, in 1677, married John Ashburnham, Esq., afterwards 
created Baron Ashburnham, and ancestor of the Earl of Ashburnham. The other 
branches of the Vaughan family are supposed to be extinct. 

Asar, another of lestyn's daughters, married Sir Payne Turberville, one of Fitzhamon's 
Knights, and brought to her husband Coety Castle. Turberville afterwards sided with 
the Welsh, besieged Fitzhamon in his castle of Cardiff, and forced him to abrogate the 
Norman laws which he had imposed upon his new subjects. (L. G. Cothis Works, p. 100, 
note). This once powerful family failed in the main male line about the close of the 
sixteenth century, and the cadet lines have since also failed. Cecil, daughter and heir 
of Edmond Turberville, Esq. of Llantwit Major, married Iltyd Nicholl, Esq. of The 
Ham, Glamorganshire. From this union have descended the Nicholls of The Ham, of 
Merthyr Mawr, and of Penlline, and the Games of Nash. ( ' Bnrke's Landed Gentry.) 


To this tribe belonged Lord Williams of Thame, Lord President of the Marches of 
Wales, in the first year of Queen Elizabeth, whose daughter and coheir, Margary, was 
married to Sir Henry Norris, Knight, ancestor of the Earl of Abingdon. Pennanfs 
Hist, of White/or d and Holywell, Appendix. 

The only family extant in North Wales, about the beginning of the present century, 
descended from lestyn, is stated by Llwyd ( ' Beaumaris Bay, p. 51, note}, to be the 
Mealys of Perfeddgoed, near Bangor, an estate possessed by them from a very remote 
period, and believed to have been granted to them by Llewelyn ap Griffith. The present 
representative of this family, is the Rev. John Castle Burnett of Bath, who came into 
the estate upon the death, 22nd February, 1870, without issue of his first cousin, the 
late Rev. R. R. Parry Mealy, of Perfeddgoed. Of this family was David Daron, Dean 
of Bangor, who was outlawed for his complicity with Owen Glyndwr's rebellion. He 
was the Archdeacon of Shakespeare (Henry the Fourth, Act iii., scene i., the Arch- 
deacon's house at Bangor). This family bears lestyn's arms, and for a crest, the Holy 
Lamb carrying a cross, in remembrance of the fact that Christianity was first brought 
into Wales by Bran the blessed, the father of Caractacus, from whom, as stated, ante, 
p. 1 20, lestyn was twenty-ninth in direct descent. Ed. 


this Regulus, the founder of the fifth Royal Tribe, I learn 
little, but that his country lay between the Wye and Severn, 
and was anciently called Ferlis: It was independent of the Princes 
of South Wales. He was the son of Cyhelyn ab I for, by 
Rhiengar, the daughter and heiress of Grono ab Tewdwr Trevor, 
and from his mother inherited the Earldom of Hereford. He 
was godson to the Saxon King, Athelstan, who was, it seems, 

A LJm 

no kind gossip ; for at Glodrydd's baptism 2 he marched a strong 933 
army against Hereford, and imposed on the country a yearly 
tribute of twenty pounds in gold, three hundred pounds in silver, 

1 Oftener called Elystan G/odrudd=Atlie\sta.n " of ruddy fame," Elystan being a 
corruption of Athelstan. In the Triads he is classed with Morgan Mwynfawr and 
Gwaethfoed, as " the three band-wearing princes," which insignia they assumed instead 
of crowns, like the previous Kings of Britain. Ed. 

2 The uncertainty of dates is very perplexing. Mr. Robert Vaughan says, " That 
Gruffudd ab Cynan, Rhys ab Tewdwr, and Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, being the only Royal 
Tribes then existing, founded two more." As far as this relates to Jestyn ab Gwrgant, 
the matter may be clear, for these four may be said to have been contemporaries about 
the year 1073, although Gruffudd at that time had not attained the throne ; but the 
honor of representing the fifth Royal Tribe must have been given to the sons of 
Athelstan Glodrydd in the name of their father then deceased ; for our Chroniclers date 
his birth, as above, in the year 933.* " By Llwyth, or tribe, was meant," says 
Mr. Llwyd of the Museum, " the descendants from such a person, and not the person 
himself; so the twelve sons of Jacob are called the twelve tribes of Israel, because from 
them sprang the twelve tribes of Israel ; and our tribes must be considered in the same 
sense as Moses called the twelve sons of Jacob tribes, because they represented their 
posterity, the tribes." 

* Some authorities assign 927 as the date of his birth. (>wnn's Vis., i., p. 139, note.) Ed. 


and fine of two thousand five hundred cattle, with a certain 
number of hounds and hawks. 1 

Of the descendants of Glodrydd were the Powels of Worthen. 
The male line of this house hath lately become extinct in John 
Powel Esquire, and the estate and lordship of Worthen hath 
devolved to John Kynaston Powel Esquire of Hardwick 2 in right 
of his mother, and sister in half blood to the last gentleman 
of Worthen. The Powels were anciently seated at Henllan in 
Denbighshire, and in the Seventh Henry's time their ancestor, 
Madog, marries Jane, daughter of Dafydd Myddelton of Gwaun- 

1 This arbitrary tribute, extorted from the Welsh while under the influence of power, 
was no longer regarded, than while the Kings of England had the means of enforcing 
its observance. Edgar, the nephew of Athelstan and son of his brother Edmund, 
converted into a present of wolves' heads the tribute paid by the Welsh in gold and 
silver, &c., originally imposed on them by Athelstan. Edgar was rowed on the Dee by 
eight tributary petty Princes. [Athelstan, or Elystan Glodrudd, married Gwenllian, 
daughter of Einion ab Hywel Dda, by whom he had three sons, Cad and Madog of 
whom little is known, and Cadwgan, the father of a numerous family. Elystan was 
born at Hereford, and was living in 1010, aged about eighty-three years, but was killed 
in a civil broil at Cefndigoll, and in Harl. MS. 1973, it is stated that he was buried at 
Trelystan, in Montgomeryshire, on the borders of Shropshire. For arms he bore, 
according to Vaughan the antiquary, two coats quartered, azure three boar's heads 
caboched sable, langued gules, tusked or : his mother's coat parted per bend sinister 
ermine and ermines ; over all a lion rampant or. Cadwgan, who bore for arms, argent 
three boars' heads coupled sable tusked or, langued gules, married Eva, sister of lestyn 
ab Gwrgant, founder of the fourth Royal Tribe. He founded the Cistertian Abbey of 
Cwmhir, and three churches dedicated to St. Michael at Kerry, Cefnllys, and 
Llanfihangel-bryn-pab-ifan. He was buried at Abbeycwmhir. His great grandson, 
Hywel ab leuaf, lord of Arwystli, resided at Talgarth, Trefeglwys. He bore gules a lion 
rampant argent crowned or langued azure and he obtained Arwystli as a marriage portion 
with his wife, Merinedd, daughter of Gruffudd ab Cynan, founder of the first Royal Tribe. 
He died about 1 185, and was buried at the Abbey of Strata Florida. d.~] 

' 2 See note, p. 86, ante. 


ynog, the gentleman who obtained his wife (the Done) so 
roughly, as before related. 1 

The Powels of Ednop, now extinct, were of this Tribe. 
Powel, the Poet, of this house dedicates his Pentarchia to 
Charles the First, then Prince of Wales, but it does not appear 
it was ever printed. 2 He has taken great liberties with prosody 
and orthography ; there are however many good lines, and he 
is accurate in his facts. He prefaces it modestly enough in the 
following verses : 3 

Non ita sum gnarus, nee in arte peritus heralda 
Singula ut innumerem, nee enim mihi tanta facultas : 
Qiiod pofui fed, quod restat siippleat alter 
Doctior, et nostris faveat non invidus ausis. 

1 cannot find when he died, or more in relation to him. Could 
we reach family authorities (certainly abundant), much would be 
known on the subject in general, and I trust as a good Welsh- 
man, that the time may come when that will be the case. 

The Owenses of Rhiw saeson descended from Glodrydd : The 
male line ended in Corbet Owen Esquire, and his sister Anne 
married Price Maurice Esquire of Lloran, and was mother of 
Edward Maurice* Esquire of Ynys y maengwyn, an estate he 

1 See note, p. 95, ante. 

" The original MS. is at Brogyntyn. A literal copy of it was printed in Arch. 
Cam. 1879, p. 267. Ed. 

3 These are wanting in the Brogyntyn MS. Ed. 

4 In the transactions of the Society for the encouragement of Arts is an account of 
Mr. Corbet's improvement of many hundred acres at Ynys y maengwyn, for which he 
was presented with a gold medal. 


possesses in virtue of the marriage of Anne Corbet, the heiress, 
to Athelystan Owen Esquire of Rhiw saeson, his mother's father. 1 

The Pryces of Newtown, Bodfach, and Glan Miheli, 2 des- 
cended from Glodrydd : They were settled at the first place 
about the time of Henry the Sixth, and the two last families 
were branches of Newtown. Their ancestor, Rhys, was an 
Esquire of the Body to Edward the Fourth. The male line 
of Newtown ended in Sir Edward Manley Pryce, who died a 
bachelor some few years since. 3 His father, Sir John Powel Price, 
married a Manley of Manley. This gentleman was accustomed 
to follow his hounds many years after he had totally lost his 
sight, and would run the risk of some dangerous leaps. The 
grandfather (Sir John Pryce) to the last Baronet was a gentleman 

1 Under the entail created by Mrs. Owen, the estate, after the death of Mr. Maurice 
(afterwards Corbet), eventually vested in Athelstan Corbet (previously Maurice), Esq., 
who died 26th December, 1835. After his death, it was held in trust for his niece, 
Henrietta, wife of John Soden, Esq., whose son, Athelstan John Soden, came into the 
property, on attaining his majority in 1870. He died unmarried about ten years ago, 
and the estate was sold. The greater portion of it was purchased by John Corbett, Esq. 
M.P. for Droitwich, the present owner. Ed. 

2 Aiine, daughter and heir of Edward Pryce of Glanmiheli, married Bell Lloyd, Esq., 
whose son, Edward Pryce Lloyd, was created Lord Mostyn. See ante, p. 99, note. Ed. 

3 He was found dead in a field at Pangbourne, near Reading, on the 28th October, 1791. 
He was so destitute, it is said, as not to have left even the means to pay the expense of 
his interment. His body, therefore, remained unburied for forty five weeks, when at 
last some benevolent persons had it buried at their cost. Some say that he had married 
the daughter of a Mr. Flinn of Norfolk Street, London, and had by her an only son, 
who died an infant in his father's lifetime. Some years afterwards, a coffin enclosing 
the remains of a child were discovered in the roof of a house at Chiswick, to which a plate 
was nailed, with an inscription stating the body to be that of Edward Manley Powell Pryce, 
only son and heir of Sir Edward Manley Pryce, Bart., who died April 28th, 1788, aged 
five years and a half. Ed. 

I2 9 

of worth, but of strange singularities. He married three wives; 
his first, a Powel, the granddaughter of Sir John Powel, one 
of the Justices of the King's bench (in the reign of James the 
Second), who eminently signalized his integrity and resolution in 
the case of the seven Bishops. To the memory of his second 
wife, a Morris, Sir John Pryce wrote an elegy of a thousand 
lines, still extant ; in which he affirms, that with his latest 
breath he would lisp Maria's name. 1 But he forgot his vow, 
and was soon smitten with the charms of a widow Jones. This 
lady would not give her hand to Sir John until he had 
entombed her predecessors, who had, till that time, lain in state 
and chemical 2 preparations in his -bedchamber. He survived this 
wife also, and on her death writes to Bridget Bostock, 3 the 
Cheshire Pythoness, to this purposes; 4 " Madam, Being very well 
informed by very creditable people, both private and public, that 
you have done several wonderful cures, even when physicians 

1 She died August 3rd, 1739. On the 6th July, 1741, Sir John wrote a very singular 
letter to the Rev. William Felton, Curate of Newtovvn, then lying dangerously ill, and 
who died the very next day ; beseeching him to convey several loving messages from 
him to his " two dear wives," especially to the latter of them. On the igth December 
following, he married his third wife. Ed. 

2 We had a later instance in John Vanbutchel's wife (the spring-band and garter 
man) pickled by William Hunter, and more highly preserved by an epitaph of great 
humour and of fine taste and latinity, attributed to the first perhaps of our modern 
Physicians. Appendix xxi. 

3 During this season of miracles worked by Bridget Bostock of Cheshire, who healed 
all diseases by prayer, faith, and an embrocation of fasting spittle, multitudes resorted 
to her from all parts, and kept her salival glands in full employ. Pennant. 

4 The copy of Sir John Pryce's letter here given, is taken from Arch. Cam6., second 
series, vol. v., p. 108 ; that given in the original edition of this work being inaccurate. Ed. 



have failed ; and that you do it by the force and efficacy of 
your prayers mostly if not altogether (the outward means you 
use being generally supposed to be inadequate to the effects 
produced), I cannot but look upon such operations to be 
miraculous, and if so, why may not an infinitely good and 
gracious God, enable you to raise the Dead, as well as to heal 
the Sick, give sight to the Blind, and hearing to the Deaf?, 
For since He is pleased to hear your prayers, in some cases 
so benefical to mankind, there's the same reason to expect it in 
others, and consequently in that I have particularly mentioned, 
namely, raising up the Dead. Now, as I have lost a wife, whom 
1 most dearly loved, my children one of the best of stepmothers, 
all her near Relations, a friend whom they greatly esteemed, 
and the Poor a charitable benefactress ; I entreat you, for God 
Almighty's sake, that you wou'd be so good as to come here if 
your actual presence is absolutely requisite, or if not, that you 
will offer up your prayers to the throne of Grace on my behalf, 
that God wou'd graciously vouchsafe to raise up my dear wife, 
Dame Eleanor Pryce, from the Dead, this is one of the 
greatest acts of charity you can do, for my heart is ready to 
break with grief at the consideration of the great loss this 
wou'd be doing myself and all her Relations and friends, such 
an extraordinary kindness, as would necessarily engage our daily 
prayers for your preservation, as the least gratuity I could make 
you for so great a benefit, tho' were any other compatible with 
the nature of the thing, and durst we offer, and you accept it, 
we should think nothing too much to the utmost of our abilities, 
and I wish the bare mention of it is not offensive both to God 

and you. If your immediate presence is indispensably necessary, 
pray let me know by return of the Post, that I may send you 
a Coach and Six and Servants to attend you here, with orders 
to defray your expenses in a manner most suitable to your own 
desires. If your prayers will be as effectual at the distance 
you'r from me, pray signify the same in a letter directed by 
way of London, to, good Madam, Your unfortunate afflicted 
petitioner and humble Servant, John Pryce. Buckland, ist Dec- 
ember, 1748. P.S. Pray direct your Letter to Sir John Pryce, 
Bart., at Buckland in Brecknockshire, South Wales. God almighty 
prosper this undertaking, and others intended for the Benefit of 
mankind, and may He long continue such a useful person upon 
Earth, and afterwards crown you with Eternal Glory in the 
Kingdom of Heaven, thro' Jesus Christ. AMEN." 1 

1 Sir John Pryce intended a fourth marriage as appears by his Will, a very curious 
document (see copy in Mont, Coll., xvi., p. 283). He died at Haverfordwest, on the 
28th October, 1761, and was buried there. He was comparatively poor when he died, 
and his son and grandson squandered nearly all that remained of his once very fine 
estate. On the failure of male descendants of Sir John Pryce, on the death of Sir 
Edward Manley Pryce in 1791, the remnant of the estate came to the Rev. George 
Arthur Evors (Sir John Pryce's grandson in the female line), who died without issue in 
1844. He devised it to his nephew, Arthur Brisco, Esq., who died a bachelor and 
intestate in the lifetime of his father, the late Wastel Brisco, Esq., who therefore 
inherited it. He died April i8th, 1878, and thereupon his second son, VVastel 
Brisco, Esq., the present owner, came into the estate. Ed. 



THE descendants of Elystan Glodrudd were at one time very numerous, especially in 
Radnorshire, Cardiganshire, and Montgomeryshire ; and although most of the main 
lines have failed, the alliances in past ages with families belonging to other tribes, such 
as those of Brochwel Ysgythrog, Cadivor, Gwaethfoed, and Einion ab Seisyllt, were so 
frequent, that there is little difficulty, even at the present day, in tracing the descent of 
very many families in Central Wales and the English borders, indirectly to the founder 
of this tribe. The Blayneys of Gregynog, for instance, who were of the tribe of 
Brochwel, were closely connected by marriage with both the Owens of Rhiwsaeson, 
and the Pryces of Newtown. 

The following families directly descended from Elystan, are I believe still flourishing : 
Lloyd of Dinas, Breconshire ; Lloyd, Pentrathro ; Jenkins, Cilbronau, Cardiganshire 
(represented by Col. Heyward of Crosswood, Montgomeryshire, only son of the late 
Rev. John Jenkins of Kerry) ; Jenkins of Trefigin ; Lloyd of Coedmore ; Campbell 
Davys of Neuaddfawr ; Thomas of Llwynmadog, Breconshire ; Thomas of Wellfield, 
Radnorshire ; Blayney of Evesham ; Evans of Ash Hill, Limerick and Milltown Castle, 
Cork ; Lloyd of Ferney Hall, Salop ; Morrice of Betshanger, Kent ; Lloyd of 
Gilfachwen ; Morris of Hurst, Pentrenant and York ; the Earl of Cadogan ; Williams 
of Pentremawr, Llanbrynmair (some of this family are in America) ; Pugh of 
Cwmrhaiadr (represented in the maternal line by Williams of Wallog, Cardiganshire) ; 
and Thomas of Coedhelen, Carnarvonshire and Trevor Hall. Sir William Thomas of 
Coedhelen, ancestor of the present Rice William Thomas, Esquire, of that place, was 
Member of Parliament for the County of Carnarvon, in the fifth Parliament of Queen 
Elizabeth. He subsequently commanded two hundred Welshmen in the Low Countries, 
under the Earl of Leicester, and was slain at the battle of Zutphen, where Sir Philip 
Sidney also fell. 

Dr. John Lloyd, Bishop of St. David's, who died in 1687, was a lineal descendant 
from Einion of Mochdre (ancestor of the Pryces of Newtown), and so to Elystan. 
( Divnii's Vts., i., p. 301). 

Eva (or, according to some, Mabli), daughter and heiress of Henry ab Gwilym of Court 
Henry, eleventh in descent from Elystan, married Sir Rhys ab Thomas, K.G., one of 
the most distinguished and powerful men of his time, who was related to Henry the 
Seventh and was a great favourite of Henry the Eighth. He died in the year 1527, 
at the age of seventy-six, and, as well as his wife, was buried in the Priory Church at 
Carmarthen, their monumental effigies being afterwards removed to St. Peter's Church 
in that town. His arms were argent a chevron sable between three ravens proper. 
(Dwntis Vis., i., p. 210, note.} Sir Rhys ab Thomas, whose illustrious grandfather, 


Gruffudd ab Nicholas, was also maternally descended from Elystan, was the ancestor of 
the noble families of Pembroke and Powis. Some authorities (see L. G. Cotki's WorAs, 
p. 1 70) say that Eva had a sister, Jonet, who was married to Sir William Matthew of 
Radyr, ancestor of the Earls of Llandaff. See ante, p. 123. 

The following families appear to have become extinct : Lewis of Gernos, Cardigan- 
shire ; Lloyd of Porthykrwys, Llanynys, Breconshire, whose heiress, Margaret, about 
the commencment of the seventeenth century, married John Stedman, Esq. of Strata 
Florida (Dw tin's Vis., i., p. 242) ; Vaughan of Beguildy fib., 251) ; Pryce of Mynachdy 
fib., 252) ; Lloyd of Rhayader ; Phillips of Llandewi Ystradeny, and Powel of 
Cwmtoyddwr fib., 260)^; Vaughan of Linwent fib., 261) ; Powel of Cascob fib., 262) ; 
Miles of Harpton, Old Radnor fib., 263) ; Price of Radnor flb.j ; Owen of 
Machynlleth, Morben, and Peniarth fib., 272) ; Broughton of Lower Broughton or 
Owlbury fib., 329) ; Parry of Llanerchydol fib., 332) ; Kerry of Binwestoh ; Clun of 
Clun ; Oliver, Neuaddwen ; Oliver, Llangyniew ; Wynn, Gellidywyll and Llan- 
fendigaid ; Meredith, Llanafan ; James, Croesgynar ; and Matthews of Blodwel. 
(Pennanfs Whitford and Holy-well, Appendix. 

The Pryces of Plas yn y Rofft (now called Esgairweddan), Towyn, Merionethshire, 
were maternally descended from Elystan fDwmi's Ft's., ii., p. 239) ; but this line failed 
in the male line, on the death of Sir John Edwards, Bart, of Machynlleth, in 1850. 
The present Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry is his only child and heir. The 
estate of the Pryce's, however, belongs to another branch of the family, the Thrustons 
of Talgarth Hall. 

Margaret, daughter and heiress of Owen ap Griffith of Gorddwr Linwent, fourteenth 
in descent from Elystan, married Owen Vaughan of Llwydiarth fDwnti's Vis., i., p. 291), 
His. descendant, Anne Vaughan, heiress of Llwydiarth, married Sir Watkin Williams 
Wynn, the third Baronet, whereby the Llwydiarth and Llangedwyn estates were 
conveyed to the Wynnstay family. See ante, p. 104. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew Pryce of Newtown, sometimes called Matthew 
Goch, married Edward Herbert, Esq., of which marriage there was issue, four sons and 
seven daughters. Three of the sons became ancestors of peers, namely, of Edward 
first Lord Herbert of Chirbury, of Sir Henry Herbert of Ribbesford, afterwards Lord 
Herbert of Chirbury, of the second creation, and of the Earls of Powis of the present 
line. Bridget, daughter and heiress of Arthur Pryce, Esq. of Vaynor, Matthew Goch's 
great grandson, married George Devereux, the ancestor of the Viscounts Hereford, to 
whom she conveyed the Vaynor estate, but which was subsequently sold, and now 
belongs to William Corbett Winder, Esq. 

For a more full account of Elystan Glodrudd and his descendants, see Mont. 
Coll., i., p. 235. Ed. 


No. I. 
William Morgan, Bishop of St. Asaph, to Sir John Wynn of Gwydir. 


Y OURE moty ves that I shold cont'yrme youre Lease upon 
the Rectorye of Llan Rwst are dyverse, vz. 

1. Youre greeffe to mysse, havynge neaver fayled before of anie attempte. 

2. That you had rather forgoo lool. landes a yeare. 

3. That the rent reserved ys as much as the Rectorye ys worth. 

4. That youe purchased the Lease deere. 

5. That y'. world may thynke youre love to me ward unkyndlye rewarded. 

6. That others, by my example, wyll lesse esteme youe. 

7. That youe hope to finde me such to youe, as youe are to me. 

8. That the adioynyng of Tybrith did cost you much. 

9. My sundrie promysses that youre Lease shold be the fyrst. And one thynge 
moveth me agaynst all these, vz. my conscience, w oh . assureth me that youre request ys 
such, that in grauntyng yt I shold prove my selfe an unhonest, unconscionable and 
irreligiouse man ; ye a sacrilegiouse robber of my church, a perfydiouse spoyler of my 
Diocesse, and an unnaturall hyndrer of preachers and good scholers ; the consyderatione 
whereof wold be a contynual terror and torment to my conscience. And to com to 
youre motyve reasons : 

1. I pray God that youre greeffe of myssynge be not Achab's greeffe for Nabothe's 

2. lool. landes are worth 200!. tyth. 

3. I credyblie heare that Rectorye to be worth twyse the rent reserved ; the w ch . 
youre seconde reason confyrmeth. 

4. Youre 4 reason confyrmeth the same ; for youe wold not purchase deere a Lease 
worth lytle more then the rent. 


5. Youe have shewed to me much kyndnesse, but no unhonest kyndnesse ; neather 
do I ever meane to denie youe in youre honest requestes. 

6. You shall not be the better estemed by gettynge ungodleye requestes, but worse 
thought of ; for to fayle of badd attemptes ys no shame, but to relynquysh them wylbe 
greate credyt. 

7. Youe shall finde me, such as I desyre to find youe, in omnibus licitis et honestis, 
youre assured. 

8. I do not counte the adioynyng of Tybrith to be eather hurtfull or beneficial! to 
me or the church. 

9. My promysse was and ys, that I wylle do nothing for anie subject w cl1 . I wyll nott 
do for youe, and that I wyll not confyrme anie such Lease as youre's before youre's. 
Neather am I nowe mynded to confyrme anie lease at all. But the Chaptre do meane 
to revyve one lyff in a lease of theare's. 

Amongest other youre kyndnesses, you gave good testymonie of me. I pray youe 
lette me continewe worthie of yt. So manie chypps have bene allreadye taken from 
the church, that yt ys readye to fall. God hath blessed youe so well, that youe are 
bownde rather to helpe hys poore church then to hynder yt. 

Thus w lh . my hartiest commendationes to youre selfe and good Mystres Wyn, I 

Eveare youre owne in y*. Lorde, 

Willm. Asaphen. 
-' Verte Folium. 

I knowe of syxe or seaven suters for confyrmationes of Leases upon presentatyve 
benefyces, w ch . meane to brynge the landes of Pryvye Counsellers, yffnot Hys Maiestye's 
owne lande. And at the next Parliament, I look to be layde to. But I trust y'. God 
wyll defende me and hys church. 

W. A. 
One wold open the doore for all the reaste. 

[To the Right Wor. his 
veary lovying Frend, 
John Wyn of Gwedur, 


No. II. 
Answer to tlie Above. 

riOMINIBUS ingratis loquimini, lapides. The sower went out to sowe ; and some 
of his seede fell in stonie ground, where hitt wythered, because hitt could take noe 
roote. The seede was good, but the land nought. I may justly say soe by you. I 
have in all shewed my selfe your ffreinde, in soe much as yf I had not pointed you the 
waye with my finger (whereof I have yett good testimonye) you had beene styll Vycar 
of Llanrhayder. You pleade conscience when you should geve, and make no bones to 
receave curtesie of your ffriends. But I appeale to him that searcheth the conscience 
of all men, whether you have used me well, and whether hitt be conscience (w ch . you 
ever have in your mouth) be the sole hinderance of my request. I wyll avowe and 
justiffie hitt befor the greatest Dyvyns in England, that it hath beene, nowe ys, and 
ever wylbe, that a man may w th . a salfe conscience be farmour of a lyvinge, payeing in 
effect for the same as much as hitt ys woorth ; and soe ys this, surmyse you the value 
to be as you layst. Nether was the losse of the thynge that I regard a dodkyn, but 
your unkinde dealinge. Hitt shall leson me to expect noe sweete fruite of a sower 
stocke. Your verball love I esteeme as nothinge ; and I make noe doubt (w' h . God's 
good favour) to lyve to be able to pleasure you, as much as you shall me, et e contra. 
You byd me thank God for his meny benefytts towards me. God graunt me the grace 
ever soe to doe. In truth, I did much thanke Him in mynde to see you preferred to 
the place you are in, as yf you had beene my owne brother ; but that I recall, for I 
never expect good wyll of you, nor good torne by you. 

John Wyn, 

Gwyder, the house that of Gwyder. 

did you and your's good. 
241/1 February, 1603. 

[To the Reverend Father, The 
Lord Busshop of St. Asaphe.] 

No. III. 
Sir John Wynn to Mr. Martyn. 


IN O greefe to the greefe of unkyndnes : They rewarded 

me yll for good to the great dyscomfort of my sole. I may say so, and justly complaen 
unto you of my L. of St. Asaphe, who (besydes what hys ancestors receved by myen) 

ys dyversly, and in great matters, behouldynge unto rne, whereof (beynge schooled by 
hys late letter, of w ch . I send you a trew coppy) thoghe I expect no rent, yett yt 
easethe my wronged mynd muche, to lay open hys hard dealyngs towards me, and my 
benefyts towards hym, befor you, who are not ignorant that I delyver but a truethe, in 
most of them havynge been an ey wytnes. 

Hyt squarethe therefor w th . a good method in a narration to begyn w 01 . my deserts, 
w ch . I wyll run over breefly ; w* h . I wold have you to put hym in mynd of: i. in that 
he protested to hys late servant Tho. Vaghan, that he remmbred no more therof, then 
that I had lent hym my geldyngs to go to Llandaff, and had sent hym a fatt oxe att 
hys fyrst comynge to St. Assaphe. W' h . ys to strayne a gnatt, and swallow a camell. 

Fyrst, I let hym have a Lease uppon hys farme of Wybernant, parte of the township 
of Doluthelan for forty years, for forty poundes in money. The farme he hathe sett 
att the yerly rent of twenty foure poundes per ann : and yeldethe of the Kyng's rent 
viijs. too pence yerly, as farre as I remember. 

In measurynge the sayd farme w lh . my farme of Penannen, I let hym have, in Pant 
yr Helygloyn, land to the valew of iijl. yerly ; for w oh . my uncle Owen Wyn reprooved 
me muche. 

I bare the hatred of Jeuan M'dythe, and hys nephew Ed. Morice, the lawyer, durynge 
hys lyfe ; for that I was a daysman, and agaenst hym ; I mean, Jeuan M'dythe, and 
appointed my frends commyssyoners agaenst hym. 

Was hyt not I that fyrst delt w th . Mr. Boyer to make hym Bushopp, and made the 
bargen, S r ? Mr. Boyer was nether knowen to hym, nor he to Mr. Boyer ; ergo, yf 
that had not beene, he had contynued styll Vycar of Llan Rhayder. I know you do 
not forgett what was obiected against hym and hys wyf to stopp his last translation, 
and how that my certyfycatt and my frends quitted hym of that imputation, and so 
made hym prevayle ; for the wh ch . both they and I wear worse thoght of by those we 
have good cause hyghly to respect. 

I labored, as yf hit had had beene to save the lyf of on of my chyldren, to end the 
cause of dylapidations between hym and my coosin Dd. Holland ; knowynge hit wold 
have beene his great hynderance to be so matched att first dashe. How sufficyent a man, 
how well ffrended, and what a toothe-man in hys suets my cousin Holland ys, every man 
that knowethe hym, knowethe that also.' 

My L. of St. Assaphe I knew to be but poore (hys translation havynge stood him in 
muche) yett wylfull and heddy to run into law suets ; therefor I was as muche trebled 
to reclaeme hym to reson and consyderation of hys owen estate as I was to bringe the 
adversse part to reson and conformyty. My L. Bushopp's cheefe lyvynge was the 
tenth of the Paryshe of Abergele, where my coosin Holland comandeth absolutely. 
Yf they had gone to suet of law, he would so have wronged hym in the gatherynge of 



the tythe, as hit shold have beene lyttell worthe unto hym. My self excepted, was 
ther on Jent. in the contrey wold once have shewed hym self for hym agaenst my coosin 
Holland ? and that knew he well. But my L. can make use of Jent. when they serve 
hys torne, and after decarde them upon pretence of conscyence ; w ch . may appere by 
the coppye of hys letter unto me, whereof, I avowe on my credyt this ys the trew 
coppye. Thus much touchy nge that matter of my desert ; and now touchy nge my 

M r . Sharp, my L. Chancelor's Chaplen beynge by hys L. collated parson of Llanrwst, 
leased hys benefyce to on Rob 1 . Gwyn of Chester, who appointed a ffrend of myen, on 
Rob'. Vaughan, brother to my brother Tho. Vaughan, his under farmor. Doctor Elice, 
somtyme a great comander in theese quarters, in favor of Doctor Meryke (who rewarded 
him w' h . a township of teythe whear his mansyon house was in 'Spytty) dyd geeve lev 
to dysmember the parsonadge of Llan rwst of Tybrithe tythe, and to joyne hit to 
Corwen. Whearuppon, pyttyinge to see Llan rwst churche dysmembered by unlawfull 
practyse, acqueanted my L. of S'. Assaphe, that I ment to stand for the right of 
Llanrwst agaenst Doctor Meryke, w' h . an intent to do more for that churche, as I then 
made knowen to my L. The suet prooved, by Doctor Meryke's weywardnes and hope 
in his fautors, more chardgeable and troblesom then was expected. Wheruppon I 
eftsons acquainted my L. Bushop, that I ment to buy Robt. Gwyn's lease into my 
hands, that, surrendringe hit, Mr. Sharp (in consyderation of my great chardge in the 
suet) myght grant me a lease of the lyvynge for iij lyves, the only mean in some part 
to quit my chardge ; w ch . he promysed me to confyrme, and that hit should be the fyrst 
of all other that should receve confyrmation. Havynge to my chardge and treble 
compased Robt. Gwyn's lease of 10 years, and by surrender of the same gott a new 
lease of three lyves of Mr. Sharp, I sent hyt to be shewed my L. by my servant 
\V m . Lloyd ; who then seemed to myslyke hit, and answered doutfully touchynge the 
confyrmation, w' h . all chidd Mr. Sharp in suche sort, as givynge cause to have my lease 
new made, he made me pay lol. more then was att fyrst, by reson my L. Bushop had 
chidd hym. In end, hearynge of a Chapter appointed for the confyrmation of the 
other leases, I sent myen also by my son Mostyn, and my letter to my L. the contents 
whearof you shall fynd in my Lord's answer. To w ch . I receved this answer, w ch . 
whether hit be fyttynge my desert ys your's to judge, as also to expostulat w' h . hym, 
beynge oure ffrend, common to us bothe. 

I am not of nature to put up wronge ; for as I have studyed for hys good, and 
wrought the same, so lett my L. be assured of me as bytter an enemye (yf he dry ve me 
to hit) as ever I was a stedfast frend ; nether ys he com to that heyght, or wantethe 
enemyes, that he may say, Major sum, quam cui possit fortuna nocere. For as Honores 
mutant mores, so mores mutant honores. I am ashamed for hym, that he hath geeven 


herby cause to his enemyes and myen to descant of his ungrate dysposition ever 
aggravated towards hym. Hys answer att lardge I pray you retorne me, yf 
nothynge els. 

Your lovynge ffrend, 
GWYDEK, this xiijth of Marshe, 1603. 

John Wyn, 

of Gwyder. 

He promysed me an advowson of the lyvynge by Tho. Robts, when he denyed the 
confyrmation. I sent unto hym the same man, w' h . in too dayes after for the same, 
and my coosin Elice Vaghan w lh . all ; and he denyed me eny, saynse he had provyded 
no preferment for his wife, and that he myght overlyve Sharpe, and have that lyvynge 
in Comendam. So, to conclude, I must have nothynge but a scornefull, chetynge letter, 
in leu of all my good indeavors. 

No. IV. 
Bis/top Morgan, to Mr. Martyn. 


1 Fynd that Mr. Wyn hath acquaynted you w' h . the 

unkyndnes w rh . he conceaveth in me ; and I am glad to have so indyfferent an 
arbytrator. Hys requeste was, that I wold confyrme a Lease for three lyves upon 
the Rectorye of Llanrwst (being a presentatyve benefyce, fytt to be some preacher's 
lyvynge) at the yearelye rent of 50!. the thynge being worth 140!. and beinge of my 
patronadge. Thys requeste much perplexed my mynde, for that yt greved me to denye 
Mr. Wyn anye thynge, and my conscyence reclaymed agaynst the grauntynge of thys 
thynge, being so preiudiciall to preachers, speciallye to the next incumbent and to the 
church yt self, w ch . wanteth competent mayntenance for preachers. 

To com to the pleasures that Mr. Wyn dyd unto me, they are not so greate as he 
accounteth them ; for I payd for hys time upon Wybernant, and hys uncle Rob' c . 40!. 
or more att one tyme, beinge a greater some then they had of anie of the other tenantes 
that held lyke landes in that township. I pray God forgeve Mr. Wyn hys harde 
dealynge w' h . these tenantes, whose tenementes he could not covett w tb oute impiety. 


In measurynge of Pant yr Helygloyn, I had lesse then some affyrmed to be due unto 
me, and more then others wyshed ; in leue wheareof I was to erect a stone wall, or a 
dytch of earth, betweene me and hym to my greate charges. 

Jeuan Meredydd and I weare ffrendes, when, upon Mr. Wyn hys request, I gott to 
hys brother Robt. Wyn his no we wyf ; w ch . caused such hatred and sutes betwene me 
and the sayd Jeuan, that yt cost me from 6ol. to lool. more than I had. Mr. Wyn in 
deed procured to me two commyssioners, Mr. Morys Johnes once, and Mr. Morys Lewys, 
an other tyme ; and was my dayseman to ende that cause. I sustayned all those broyles 
and obloquyes for hys sake and hys brother's. 

He wrote unto me allreadye, that yff he had not bene, I had contynued yet Viccar of 
Llan Rhayadr. How much he ys deceaved herein, youe and others do knowe. But yff 
I had contynued Vicar of Llan Rhayadr, I had bene in better case then nowe I am. I 
had testymonials inough bysydes that w ch . he procured ; and I had prevayled, yff I had 
had none, as my Lo. of Canterburye and my L. Treasurer beleved. Yet I confesse that 
Mr. Wyn thearein shewed great love (as then I thought) to me ; but (as nowe I fynde) 
to hym selfe, hopynge to make a stave of me to dryve preachers partryges to hys netts. 
I thanke Mr. Wyn for hys paynes in daynge betwene me and Mr. Holande ; although 
he gott me but 150!. wheare I shold have had loool, But I may not requyte thys 
paynes w' h . the spoyle of anie church. Yt seemeth that Mr. Wyn thynketh that I do 
but pretend conscyence. But I assure youe, in verbo Sacerdotis, that I think in my 
harte, that I weare better robb by the hygh waye syde, then do' that w ch . he requeasteth. 
And I knowe that as to serve an errynge conscyence ys a fait, so to do agaynst con- 
scyence, though yt be errynge, ys a synne. Yff my ffathere and mothere weare lyvynge, 
and made the request that Mr. Wyn maketh, I hope that I sholde have the grace to 
say them nay. I fynde farther that Mr. Wyn is in two errors ; the one ys, that I 
promysed to hym a confyrmatione of that Lease ; and the other ys, that I promysed 
hym by John Robtes an advowson ; wheare in truth I promysed neather of both, but 
told Mr. Wyn that I wold be veary loath to confyrme anie Lease upon anie presentatyve 
benefyce ; that I wold do for hym as much and more then anie other ; and that yff I 
wold confyrme anie such, hys shold be the fyfst. I neaver confyrmed anie, nor meane 
to do. But the Chapter and I graunted, not iij lyves, but one lyff, not upon a presen- 
tatyve benefyce, but upon an impropriatione, w ch . is a dyvydent amongst manie, and 
can not be occupyed by anie of us, for that we are farr of and thearefore must be letten 
for one terme or other ; and the incumbe ys for the church, and not for a lay man. 
But Mr. Wyn thoughe he knoweth that theare ys dyfference betwene grauntynge a 
lease of oure owne and confyrmynge the lease of an other man ; betwene a presentatyve 
benefyce and an impropiiatione ; betwene one lyff and iij lyves ; betwene a publyke use 
and a pryvate, styll exclaymeth, that I have confyrmed a lyke lease, and wyll not 
according to promyse confyrme hys. My answeare to John Robtes was, that a Bushopp's 

advowson wold not bynde the successor ; and when he asked, whyther Mr. Wyn shold 
have yt, yff yt dyd bynde, I told hym, that, yff yt dyd bynde, he shold have yt and 
myne eares also ; for that I dyd well knowe that yt can not bynde. And when he cam 
next to aske, yf I wold graunt yt de bene esse, whyther yt wold bynde or not, I told 
hym, I wold not, and that yt was no part of my promyse or meanynge. John Robtes 
mystooke my wordes concernynge my wyff ; for I dyd not say that she must be fyrst 
provyded for, meanynge that I wyll gett for her anie such lease. For though she be 
my wyff, and thearefore one flesh, yet shall she be neaver provyded for by me rather 
then by such leases ; I wyll not spoyle y*. church. Thys was the effect of my then 
speach, whearby Mr. Wyn myght have understoode that nothynge dryveth me to thys 
resolutione, but my conscyence. Of my Commendam, I dyd and do say, that yff I 
weare so lewde as to confyrme all the leases in the Diocesse, yet I wold not be such a 
foole as to confyrme anie, before I weare better provyded for my Commendam. Yff I 
dyd, tell Mr. Sharpe, that he shold do well to leave hys lyvynges to hys successors as 
ffree as he founde the same, I dyd but my duetye. Yff thys weare not a case of con- 
scyence, you shold not neede to perswade me to gratifye Mr. Wyn ; for hys owne 
requeste ys of great force w*. me. Youre two reasons, or rather hys reasons (for he 
used the lyke in hys letters to my selfe) do lytle move me. For yff I shall fynde hym 
as bytter an enernye, as ever I founde hym my frende, yt wylbe a comfort to me to suffer 
in so good a cause. I knowe that God, whose church I wold defend, ys able to defende 
me agaynst all enemyes, and wyll defende me so farr, as he shall see yt to be expedient 
for me ; that Mr. Wyn can not kyll my soule, nor do to my bodye more then God wyll 
permytt. And my confydent trust ys, that God wyll not permytt anie thynge to be 
commytted agaynst me, but that w ch . shalbe for my good, eather in thys worlde or in 
the worlde to com. And yff dy verse men wyll dyversely descant of thys unkyndnes ; 
What ? ys thys to move a man that shold be setled in conscyence, to do agaynst con- 
scyence ! I knowe that some do blame me in hys presence, and blame hym and 
commende me in his absence. And yt may be that others do use me in lyke sort. 
Inconstans eu mutabile vulgus. Auxilium meum in nomine Dui. 

Thus resolved to do neather thys nor anie other act that shalbe preiudiciall to the 

I rest, 

Amicus usque ad aras, 

[To Hys very lovynge Frende, Willm. AsapllCH. 

Mr. Thomas Martyn at hys 
house over agaynst St. An- 
drewe's, in Holborne.] 

[My L, Bushopp, being in 

London at the Parliament, 
wrote this unto me. 

Thomas Martyn.~\ 

No, V. 

William Morgan, Bishop of St. Asaph, to Sir John Wynn of 



SEEINGE you can better agree w th . my tithe in Langustenyn 

then w' h . me, and have, as I heare, taken order for the gatheringe of it ; I am loath to 
contrarie you therin, soe that you send me money by this bearer for the same, although 
I knowe my tithe to be worthe twise as much as you pay for it. But I pray you to 
cause the tithe of Bodescallan to be gathered in kind ; for yo r . cosen Hugh Gwynne 
Gru : hath written to me that he would tithe it in specie this yeare. 
Thus wishinge you in all thinges the direction of the Holy Ghost, I rest, 

Yo r . sickly neighbour, 

Willm. Asaphen. 

At ST. ASAPH, the 24th of July, 1604. 

[To his wors. neighbour, 
John Wynne of Gwydir, 

No. VI. 

Richard Parry, Bishop of St. Asaph, to Sir John Wynn of 



Y OU needed not this paynes to remoove anye conceite of 

myne. Before y'. letters, I never heard of your refusall of Subscription unto myen 
certificate ; and now havinge heard of it, I conceave no woorse of you then of a very 
wyse and sufficient gentleman, whose love in anye good and honest cause I shall be glad 
to deserve. Touchinge my certieficate, I did sufficientlye knowe, y*. no one man in my 
countrey stibscribinge wold much further me, nor anye one man wantinge wold anye 
thinge hinder me. I am farr from imagininge y'. a gentleman of your place and woorth 


eyther doth flatter me, or expect benefite by me. You have no cause to use y'. one, 
and I have no meanes to afforde y". other ; for as you truelye write, all I have is litle 
enough for y e . support of mye owne estate. 

Your hard censure of my predecessor I am verye sorye to heare ; for I willinglye 
embrace nothinge : De mortuis nisi sanctum. Domino suo stetit aut cecidit. And so 
doe we. God graunt we may stand unto the Lord, unto whose defence I commend us ; 
and with my verye hartye commendations to y'selfe, I rest 

Your lovinge frend, 

Ric. Asaphen. 

GRESFORD, 2410. Febr. 1604.* 

[To the R. Woor. mye Lovinge frend 
John Gwyn of Gwyder, Esqnier, these 
at Gwyder.] 

No. VII. 
John Williams (afterwards Abp. of York) to Sir John Wynn. 


JVlY dutie and most heartye comendations remembred. 

The continuance of your lovinge kindenes towardes me, by howe much the lesse 
worthylye, by soe much the more must I account my selfe for the same bounde and 
obliged unto your Worship's service. 

Concerninge that money my brother owes me (w*. I cannot tell well whither it be 
7 or 81.) if your Worshippe will this next terme see it convayed to be delivered to my 
Lord of London's Stewarde, Mr. Griffyn, or to my Tutour Mr. Gwynne, I shall rest 
bounde unto you. I have written acquittaunces both for the yeare 1604 and the yeare 
1605, the owne from Cambridge, and the other from London, in the presence of 
William Lloyd ; and therefore it is not in my over sight that your Worshippe hath not 
received them. In place of them this letter may serve your Worshippe. 

* This date is, of course, according to the Old Style whereby the year ended 24th March. Bishop 
Morgan, the writer of the preceding letter, died loth September, 1604, and was succeeded by Dr. Richard 
Parry, the writer of this letter. This will explain the apparent contradiction in the dates. Ed. 


I have gotten of late a small benefice, w ch . will do well, being ioyned to my place in 
Cambridge ; and therefore if your Worshippe could procure me for this yeare's rent 
but yl. before hande, I would give William Lloyd a generall acquittaunce for this yeare ; 
or if I have two yeares more to expire of my lease (as indeede I do not knowe) I would 
be contente to take 12!. for both yeares, if your Worshippe could procure me soe much. 
Howesoever I must and will acknoweledge my selfe aeternallye bound to praye for your 
Worshippe, for your Worship's kinde love and care of me this last yeare ; and soe 
desiringe oportunitye to make uppe my gratefull wordes w th . thankfull deede, I committ 
your Worshippe to the Almightie's tuicion. 

Your Worshippe's poore kinsman, 

bounde in all dutye, 

John Williams. 

LONDON HOUSE this 5 of Decemb. [1605.] 

To the worshipful!, his approved 
lovinge kinsman Mr. John Gwynne 
Esquier, at Gwydder, deliver these. 
Wth. speed. 

No. VIII. 

Mr. Holland to Sir John Wynn. 


1 Doe understand by yo r . Ires that you purpose to send yo r . 

sonnes to this universitye, soe soone as you cane be resolved in what colledge, and w' h . 
what tutor to place them. Ffor my part I hould S l . John's colledge to be omni 
exceptione majus ; not inferior to any colledge for the bringinge up of yonge 
gentlemen, but the ffyttest and best house that you cann send yo r . sonnes unto. And 
for the choise of a good tutor (yf I may presume to advice you) yo r . beast course wilbe 
to cause yo r . good brother Mr. Rychard Gwyn for to commend them by his Itres unto 
Mr. Dr. Clayton, the master of our colledge, whoe, I ame well assured, will at my cosen 
Rychard his comendacione be redie to nominate such a tutor for them, as will for his 
sake be verie respective and carfull of their good. 


Touchinge the proportione of allowance that wilbe requisyte for them, I can say lytle ; 
ffor I doe not know whether you will have them to be in the ffellowes' commons ore 
not, of w eb . rancke yf it be yo r . pleasure to have them to be, then cann you allowe noe 
lesse then threescore pounds yearly for bothe, ov r . and besyde the apparell ; but yf you 
purpose to have them to be in the schollers' commons, then halfe the former allowance 
will serve, ther apparell beinge noe part therof. The tuicione for every ffellow comoner 
is 4lb. per annum, and a pentioner paythe 403. yearly to his tutor for readinge to him. 
Ffurther it wilbe requisyte that they have beddinge, w lh . such furniture as shalbe 
needfull, sent from home. And when they doe come, they shall find me redy to the 
uttermost of my power, to performe all good offices towards them. Yf my cosen 
Mr. Owen Gwyn had not beene a discontynewer from the colledge, he, I conffesse, might 
have donn them greater pleasure then I can doe ; but howsoever yf my cosenes come 
to St. John's, they shall want noe ffrends in the howse. And thus humbly takinge my 
leave, I rest ever, 

Y r . woor'". poore kinsman, 

most assured to use, 

Wyllm: Hollande. 

November the last, 1606. 

[To the right woor. my assured 
good cosen Sr. John Wynn, 
Knight, de: these at Gwyder.] 

No. IX. 
John Williams (A dp.) to Sir John Wynn. 


MY dutie remembred. I hope by this time your wor. hath 

received two letters, answeringe in effecte those doubles propounded in your letter, w ch . 
I receiv'de by this bearer. Since my last ill newes, there hath happen'd here noe 
occurrence worthe the relatinge ; our feare is noe lesse, and the daunger noe more then 
it was at firste. Sithence your son's goinge into the countrey (w ch . was at this daye 
se'nighte.) I have heard in a letter from my curate of his well doinge, his abode 
beinge within a mile of my poore benefice. When he returnes unto the colledge, I will 



putte that stratagem in practice, w ch . you mencion in your letter, and send your wor. 
the coppye of his theame. For my likinge of his proceedinges, bona fide I like his 
learninge well for his yeares ; his witte better, especiallye when yeares of discretion shall 
season it. If I listed to find faulte (althoughe truelye no greate cause) I doe sometimes 
call more egerlye on him to keep his studye, w rh . nowe (his gaudye dayes beinge spent) 
we may more boldlye doe then heretofore ; and he must (as surelye he dothe) daylye 
amend. Scholler he is for Mr. Price his place ; and so is my man to, Mr. John Lloyd's 
sonne, for one Sir Dolben's- His tutour, I hope, doth certifye the receipte of such 
thinges as the bearer broughte him ; onlye his token, beinge five shillinges from my 
ladye, I have taken uppe, and will deliver it to him at my next goinge to my benefice. 
I doe hope our colledge shall meete agayne before Christmasse ; for as yeate there is 
more causeles feare then apparent daunger of any infection. Thus with my heartiest 
comendacions and bounden dutye to my good Ladye, I commend both your Wor. to 
God's protection. 

Your Wor. in all dutye, 

John Williams. 

this 2Oth. of Novemb. 1608. 


I will, by God's leave, either provide him a studye to his full contentement, or 
make him prefer of a studye in myne owne chamber. A dieu. 

[To the righte worshipful! my 
ever approved good freynde, Sir 
John Wynne at Gwjdder, 

deliver these.} 

No. X. 
John Williams (Abp.) to Sir John Wynn. 


M. Y moste true love ever remembred. My coz. Robin, who 

w th . the helpe my serchers hath furnishte you for your provision, doth promisse me to 
sende you at this time a complete note of his former expences. My mechanique 
buisinesses at the Fayre are such as I cannot take that paynes therein I otherwise wolde 


doe. Truelye I cannot excuse either him or his brother, for absence from theyre studyes 
at extraordinarye howres, or any neglect of theyre Tutor's lectoures. And yeat they 
are nowe (as formerlye they were) my under-neighboures. 

How the proiecte of hasteninge his beinge felowe failed, I list not to enquire ; but I 
am sure, after your departure there was nothinge donne. And the yssue noe other, but 
that the Juniour Proctour was sharpelye rebuked, that he, contrarye to the statute, 
wolde offer to bringe in one by his Majestie's mandate. Who replied, He never went 
about any such matter ; as resolved, if once he hadd showne himselfe in the buisines, 
to effecte it, or have line in the dust for it. Marye, he added, that if the youth him- 
selfe compassed any such matter, he thoughte that he hadde deserv'de that favowre at 
the Colledge, as to accepte thereof without such grudginge. 

What you were enformed of my troubles and oppositions w' h . the heades of our 
colleges, I knowe not ; but this I am certayne, I rest much obliged to your Wor. for 
your most kind and lovinge counsaile, w eb . could proceede from noe other heade, then 
that well-springe of your former and never-failinge affection. But Mr. Th. Edwards 
my felowe could have gonne nere to enforme you of all the buisines. 

The opposition twixte the maisters of Colleges and the bodie of the Universitye, w ch . 
is the companye of our Regent and Non-regent Maister of Artes, hathe beene soe longe 
a foote, as any Cantabrigian can enforme you thereof ; but it is most of all perceived 
in that twixt the vice-chauncelour and the proctoures, who are in a maner Tribuni 
Plebis, and represente the bodye, as the vice-chauncelour dothe the heades of Colleges. 
In former yeares, as the vice-ch. were allwayes grave old men and Divines by profession 
(noe yonge, servinge-man lawier, as this yeare) soe the proctours for want of other 
meanes did over-shoote themselve soe farre in takinge of under-hande considerations ; 
as that lienge allwayes in the vice-chaunceloure's lurche, they never durste shewe 
themselves either for the maintenaunce of theyre owne places, or the statute-freedom 
of the Universitye. 

My selfe being by God and my good M r . soe well provided for (to myne own con- 
tentement at leaste wise) as that my mynde scorn'de to be obnoxious to any man for the 
leaste bribe or fee due by statute, grewe by soe much the more boulde to stande upon 
myne owne place and the libertie of the Universitye graunted in statute, and conseqentlye 
to overthwart the new-fangled nes of this vice-ch r . endevouring by all meanes possible 
to reduce our Aristarchie to a Monarchic (as they terme it) but, as we understand, an 
absolute Tyrannic. 

This was soe well taken for the firste parte and moytie of the yeare, that not onelie 
the M"". of Artes, who graced me with as many and those extraordinarye favoures, as 
they laded my adversarye with shame and ignominie ; but the heades of Colleges 
themselves encouraged with all applause my just and academicall cariage and 


proceedinges. For you must knowe Dr. Cowel and Dr. Clayton, the two greateste 
maisters in towne, and my extraordinarye deare freyndes to be as yeat alive ; in whose 
places ded two other, defective, thoughe not in affection, yeate in pare action. 

Afterward falls in the interim our Heade-shippe of St. John's in w eh . busines I, 
servinge my turne abroade, with the good opinion conceiv'de of me at home, was 
thoughte to have donne such service, as procur'de the hatred of two of the cheefe m. 
Dr. Carye beinge one of them ; who, as they thinke, hadd it not been for me, hadd 
gott the maistershippe of St. John's There was the first opportunitye the vice ch r . 
hadd againste me. 

In the weeke of this, falls the death of the L. Treasurer and Chauncelour ; by 
consequence greate canvasinge who should succeede him. All the heades (two 
excepted) expectinge bushopricks and deanries, came upon the Archbp. of Canterburye. 
My selfe, still reposinge great trust in the bodye of the Universitye, and fearinge if his 
Grace were our Chauncelour, any complaynte of the Vice-chaunc. wolde be hearde 
against me, who was, both for my buisines of Llanrhayader, and this late of our 
maistershippe, growne more distastefull unto his Grace, putt all my force togeither, and 
by many voices, against the heades, chose the L. Privie scale twice to our Chancelour ; 
thoughe I knewe Googe the vicech r . to be a servant to his nephewe the L. of Suffolke. 
You see then a second oportunitie for the Vicech'. to ioyne w lh . the heades to putt 
somme disgrace upon me. 

And yeate all this while, thoughe buisines were in hammeringe, nothinge coulde be 
donne, while it was terme time, and that the m". of Artes hadd occasion of meetinge, 
my strengthe encreasinge still in the bodie. After the Commencement, all occasions of 
meetinge for this yeare ended, the vicech'. desirous to revenge somme p rt . of his 
disgraces, upon me, whom he hadd envied for the love of the Universitye shewed me, 
then for any other cause hated, ioynn'de w th . these heades, and summon'd me to appeare 
before them ; yeate not soe suddenlye, but I was given to understand, that yf I 
appear'de, he wold de facto committ me to prison. Whereupon, one of these incon- 
veniences, either to incurr by submission a disgrace nev r . heard of in a proctour of an 
Universitye, and most unbeseeminge my person (having soe nere a dependaunce upon 
soe Honourable a P'sonage) or els by resistinge a suspicion to be the authour of a riot 
and tumulte, into w' b . I sawe all the m. so readye to enter ; hereupon I gave place to 
this Bedleme felowe, whom I knewe arm'de with authoritye, and appeal'de to our newe- 
chosen Chauncelour, where I had an honourable and noe disgracefull releese. 

Here indeed we have stucke these ten weeks. The vicech'. desirous of somme disgrace 
on me before my going out of this office, and I on the contrarye endevoured to gett of 
the stage without any hishinge. True, the E. of Suffolke hath dealte ernestly for him 
and many of the Heades of the Universitye : the L. Chancelour as ernestlye for me, 
and the whole bodie of the maisters ; and I thinke we are at an ende. 


This is all that suite in lawe your Wor. heares of. So as my prosperous succes in that 
first enterprize you speake of, hathe beene the source and ofspringe of the second. It 
was spoken of olde in the comendacion of Traiane, Nee bella times, nee provocas. I 
confesse I am not soe valourous ; for I protest I feare troubles, and am contente with any 
losse of money to redeeme my quietnes. My farmour in Northamptonshire can witnes 
it well, of whom (as Mr. Johnes my best freynde can testifie) I was gladde, for quietnes' 
sake, to take 50!. where a lool. was due ; and that but thise laste winter. Marye, a 
man's creditte once loste cannot be soe well supplied as his money. Profligatissimi 
homuncionis est (saithe Tullie) negligere famam et diligere pecuniam. Creditt and 
virginitie are seldomme recover'd. And especiallie for a scholler, it is the ayre he 
breathes in and deprive him of that he hath noe longer beinge. But I take your 
common Barrestours to be plainetifes, not (as my case is) mere passive defendaunts. It 
was helde a disgrace to Claudius the Emperour, that he was to readye to putte uppe : 

Non faciendo fuit, sed patiendo, nocens. 

And the greatest creditt that ever Cato hadde, that, being cal'de in question two and 
fourte severall times, he ever assoilde himselfe, and was clear'de by the judges. I hadd 
leifer be quiet indeede, if it were possible for one and the same man to be imployed in 
actions of this nature as to make a freynde Mr. of soe great a Colledge, and receive 
noe envie afterward. Thus much of that busines, because I wolde in your Wor. 
accompte be freede, non solum a crimine, verum etiam et a criminatione. 

Now, Sir, I pray you give me leave to request you to take somme to congratulate 
your coz. our maister his fortunes, and to thanke him for paste and desire his 
futherance for futures, in the behaulfe of your sonne. He hath (upon my suyte) 
bestowed a chamber on them. And I do not knowe, whither (upon these occasions of 
difference we heare of betwixt your Wor. and his brother) he expecte somme comple- 

Saepe rogare soles qualis sim, Prisce, futurus, 

Si fiam locuples, simque repente potens. 
Quenquam posse putas mores narrare futures ? 

Die mihi, si fueris tu leo, qualis eris. 


Martial, lib. 12. Eptgr . 94. 

Not that I finde the gentleman a whit altered ; but that I knowe your Wor. beinge 
putt in mynde not to be backeward in these ceremonies. 

My coz. Robin, for his shorte time of absence, was but at Sir Thorn. Tresham, my 
wor. good freynde, invited thither by his sonne and heyre, one of his companions. 


Thus most most thankefull for your Wor. greater care of soe poore a kinsman as my 
selfe, I will ever rest 

Your Wor. much obliged 

John Williams. 

the I3th of Sept. 1612. 

[To the r. worshipfull his most 
approved lovinge Coz. Sir John 
Wynne Knight Barronett at 

No. XI. 
John Williams (Abp.) to Sir John Wynn. 


MY dutye and heartiest love and service remembred, I have 

received your money, w ch . puttes me in mynde of God's usurye, ubi (as Set. Gregorie 
writes) fsenvs triplicat mutuum, the interest trebles the principall ; and yeat, not 
withstandinge the rigour of the statute, your Worshippe is like to receive no other 
returne, then of a fewe thanks ; w ch . Simonides, once tossinge up and downe his cofer, 
found to be nothinge. But your Wor. may well remember that sentence (\\ e \ we 
Academickes would gladlye disperse as farre as we maye) once observ'de by Seneca, 
often usurpte by Traiane : Beatius est dare, quam accipere. 

I have by good chaunce, satisfied your Wor. requeste for a chamber for my coz. 
Robin, at leaste wise for this winter ; ne obtentu frigoris muniretur negligentia, as 
Plinie Speakes. 

I am sorye everye waye to heare your Wor. reporte of my brother in lawe's 
disastrous courses, but the more pacientlye sorye, because I ever expected it. Marrye, 
this moves me a newe, to heare that my brother should soe unadvisedlye and 
unfortunatelye (for I can never beleeve he would doe it willfullye) be an occasion of the 
leaste discontentement or disopportunitye to your Wor. especiallye busines cominge 
nowe to that passe ; 

non quiret. 

Ut si ipsa salus servare hunc hominem vellet, 

Your Wor. knowes in parte, and should more clerelye, if you sawe my letter to him 
Quam consilio, non meo, hoc fecerit. And I most humblye intreate your Wor. to 
impute it rather to an unexperienced indisscretion, w ch . I finde to pregnaunt in all his 
proiectes, then to any obstinate and heady vvilfulness. Howesoever, I must still 
continue my suyte unto your Wor. ex visceribus misericordiarum, to remember my 
poore sister. 

, Nihil ilia nee ausa est ; 

Nee potuit. 

And soe I commend your Wor. to God's protection, w' h . thankes for all your love 
and courtesies, 

Your Wor. in all dutye, 

John Williams. 

ST. JOHN'S COLL. in C. Nov. 3. 

[To the righte Wor. his ever 
approved lovinge Coz. Sir John 
Wynn at Gwyder. 

deliver these.] 

No. XIa 1 . 

Sir John Wynn of Gwydirs Instructions to his Chaplain, John 
Price, how to govern himself in his service. 

r IRST. You shall have the chamber, I shewed you in my gate, private to yourself, 
with lock and key, and all necessaries. 

In the morning I expect you should rise, and say prayers in my hall, to my household 
below, before they go to work, and when they come in at nygt that you call before 
you all the workmen, specially the yowth, and take accompt of them of their belief, and 
of what Sir Meredith taught them. I beg you to continue for the more part in the 
lower house : you are to have onlye what is done there, that you may inform me of 
any misorder there. There is a baylyf of husbandry, and a porter, who will be 
comanded by you. 

1 This, and the following No. xi. (b) were not included in the Original Edition, but are copied from the 
Appendix to Pennant's Tours in Waks. EJ. 


The morninge after you be up, and have said prayers, as afore, I wo d . you to bestow 
in study, or any commendable exercise of your body. 

Before dinner you are to com up and attend grace, or prayers if there be any publicke ; 
and to set up, if there be not greater strangers, above the chyldren who you are to 
teach in your own chamber. 

When the table, from half downwards, is taken up, then are you to rise, and to walk 
in the alleys near at hand, until grace time ; and to come in then for that purpose. 

After dinner, if I be busy, you may go to bowles, shuffel bord, or any other honest 
decent recreation, until I go abroad. If you see me voyd of business, and go to ride 
abroad, you shall command a gelding to be made ready by the grooms of the stable, 
and to go with me. If I go to bowles or shuffel bord, I shall lyke of your company, if 
the place be not made up with strangers. 

I wold have you go every Sunday in the year to some church hereabouts, to preache, 
giving warnynge to the parish to bring the yowths at after noon to the church to be 
catekysed ; in which poynt is my greatest care that you be paynfull and dylygent. 

Avoyd the alehowse, to sytt and keepe drunkards company ther, being the greatest 
discredit your function can have. 

No. Xlb. 
Inventory of Sir John Wynris Wardrobe. 

.A. NOATE of all my clothes : taken the eleventh day of June, 1616. 

IMPRIMIS, i. tawnie klothe cloake, lined thoroughe with blacke velvett ; one other 
black cloake of cloth, lined thoroughe with blacke velvett ; another blacke cloake of 
velvett, lined with blacke taffeta. 

Item.\\. ridinge coates of the same colour, laced with silke and golde lace ; i. hood 
and basses of the same ; one other olde paire of basses. 

Iicm.\\. blacke velvett jerkins ; two clothe jerkins laced with goulde lace, of the 
same colour. 

Item. One white satten doublett. and black satten breeches ; one silke grogram 
coloured suite ; and one suite of blacke satten cutt, that came the same time from 

London . 


Item. One other blacke satten suite cutt ; and one blacke satten doublett, with a 
wroughte velvett breeches. 

Item. One leather doublett, laced with blacke silke lace ; one suite of Pteropus,. 
laced with silke and golde lace ; another suite of Pteroptis, laced with greene silke- 

Item. One old blacke silke grogram suite cutt ; two blacke frise jerkins. 

Item. One blacke velvett coate for a footman. 

Item. One redd quilte waskoote. 

Item. ij. pare of olde boothose, toppes, lined with velvett in the topps. 

Item. ij. pare of blacke silk stockins ; and two pare of blacke silke garters, laced. 

Item. One pare of perle colour silke stockins ; one pare of white Siterop stockins ; 
three pare of wosted stockins. 

Item. ij. girdles, and one hanger, wroughte with golde ; one also blacke velvette 
girdle ; one blacke cipres scarfe. 

Item. Nine blacke felte hattes, whereof fowre bee mens hattes ; and five cipres 

Item. One guilte rapier and dagger, and one ridinge sworde with a scarfe, with 
velvet scabbards. 

Item. ij. pare of Spanishe leather shooes. 

Item. One russet frise jerkin. 

Item. Two pare of leather Yamosioes, and of one clothe. 

Item. ij. pare of white boots ; one pare of russet boots. 

Item. iij. pare of newe blacke boots, and five pare of old blacke boots. 

Item. ij. pare of damaske spurres ; iij. pare of guilte spurres. 



No. XII. 
Contract between Bernard Lyndesey and Richard Wynn Esqrs. 


iF Mr. Bernard Lyndesey Esquier Groom to his Ma"*". 

Bed-chamber procure a pardon for Sir John Wynn Knight and Baronet and some of his 
servants of their fynes and offences inflicted upon them by the Counsell of the Marches, 
upon the sealing of the said pardon he is to receave from Richard Wynn Esquier sonne 
and heire to the said Sir Jo: Wynn the somme of three hundred and fiftye pounds. In 
witness of this agreement between us we have both sette our hands the sixteenth of 
January 1615. 

Signed in the presence 
of me, 

Amb: Thelwall. 

B. Lyndesey. 
Rich. Wynn. 

No. XIII. 
Inscription on Sir Richard Wynns Monument. 



In comitatu de Carnarvon, M. et Baronettus, Thesaurarius, 

Nee non Conciliarius honoratissimi principis et Henrietta Marise Reginse, 

Qui linea parentali ex illustri ilia familia et antiquissima stirpe 

Brittannica, North-Walliae principum oriundus. 

Denatus 19 die Julii 1649, 

/Et: 61. 

No. XIV. 

Inscription on the Vicarage House at Gresford. 

Dr. Robert Wynne, Chancellor of St. Asaph and Vicar of Gresford, elder brother to- 
the Welsh historian William Wynne, put on the house the following inscription. 


Episcopus BANGOR: hujus Eccl: Vicarius, 

/Edern hanc lapsam proprio sumptu 

Ex fundo struxit: 

Hoc qualecunque pii Prsesulis monumentum 


A: D: 1702. 

No. XV. 
Character of Mr. Blayney. 

-A.RTHUR BLAYNEY of Gregynog Esquire was descended from Brochwel Ysgithrog 
a Prince of Powys in the seventh century, but he valued himself on his pedigree no 
otherwise, than by taking care that his conduct should not disgrace it. In the early 
part of his life he had applied to the study of the law, not with any professional view,, 
but merely to guard himself, and those who consulted him, from chicane and injustice, 
to which many who made the profession their livelihood, were in his opinion so strongly 
tempted and inclined, that he seldom mentioned a lawyer without expressive marks of 
dislike ; but this could be humour only. He read much and had a good collection of 
books, but was more disposed to conceal, than to obtrude his knowledge. He was a firm 
adherent to the Constitution under which he lived, and never spared his zeal and 
support when the public stood in need of it. At the same time his loyalty did not 
preclude him from using that invaluable privilege of a British subject in freely censuring, 
upon proper occasions, both the measures and instruments of Government. Uncor- 
ruptible himself, he detested venality in others. He was of no party, but that of honest 
men. Whether he supposed that the Peerage was degenerated, and that some degree 
of contagion dwelt near a Court, or whether he had gathered the prejudice from history, 


in which he was conversant ; but certain it is, he was by no means partial to Lords or 
Placemen. No man thought more highly of Parliaments, but pertinaciously he declined 
the honour of representing his native county, though often invited to it by the unbiassed 
suffrages of his countrymen. The active part he took in behalf of other candidates 
was so pure in its motives, that his support gave a decided superiority over the highest 
rank and influence ; most of the neighbouring freeholders only waited to know his 
opinion, to make up their own. Few gentlemen were better qualified for the magistracy, 
or more sensible of its importance, but from an unaccountable diffidence he could never 
be prevailed upon to act in the commission, though always ready to applaud and second 
the just efforts of those who did. Of the established religion he was a steady member ; 
defended its rights and respected its ministers, where they respected themselves. There 
is scarce a church, in which he had any concern, but what in its repairs and ornaments 
bears witness to his munificence. His tenants, from their relation, he considered as 
friends, and not only allowed them ample profit from his estates, but encouraged and 
assisted them in every rational attempt to improvement. In his farm houses and their 
offices, beyond what was necessary, he was always studying convenience and comfort, 
according to the situation, and even taste of the occupier : He did so much in this way, 
and did it so well, that it is easy to trace his premises, which were very extensive, by the 
condition in which he left them ; and although he possessed an uncommon quantity of 
the finest wood, he generally bought his timber. To his small tenants he was _ a 
bountiful master, and he complained of the bad state of a cottage he shewed me, which 
in any other place might have been thought a good one. He applied a little land to 
each, to keep their cow in the summer, and in the winter he gave them hay to support 
it. Nor was it his own property that he was desirous of improving only ; the county 
at large he looked upon as having a peculiar claim upon him, and no undertaking was 
proposed, but met with his countenance and liberality. The roads in particular for 
many miles round, owe their creation almost entirely to him, and when his land was 
wanted to widen them, he would give it on one condition only, "That they took enough." 
You had only to convince him of the utility of a design, to be sure of his purse and 
protection. He always took time to consider and enquire ; but from the moment he 
was decided, he wanted no subsequent instigation. His charity was liberal and 
diffusive ; but instead of confining it to the idle vagrant and clamorous poor, his chief 
aim was to put deserving objects in the way, to afford them the means of providing for 
themselves. There are many respectable tradesmen and gentlemen too, whose 
embarassments have been removed by his friendly assistance. He was undoubtedly an 
ceconomist on system, which enabled him to do what he did : when the object of 
expense was a proper one, he never regarded the sum ; of course, nothing sordid or 
n igg ar dly could be imputed to him, even when ceconomy was most conspicuous : He 
would never be persuaded to keep a carriage, and very seldom hired one, performing, 
till his infirmities disabled him, his longest journies on horseback. His constant 

residence was at Gregynog, except occasional excursions to his other house at Morvill 
near Bridgnorth. One of the most prominent features in his character was his 
hospitality, of which there are but few such instances now remaining. His table was 
every day plentifully covered with the best things the country and season afforded, for 
unless it was to do honour to particular guests, he never indulged in far sought delicacies 
(preferring the ducks and chickens of his poor neighbours, which he bought in all 
numbers, whether he wanted them or not, and I remember in the summer of 1793, a 
small pond near the house swarming with the former kind) but he was very choice in 
his liquors, which were the best, that care and money could procure. His place, not 
happy in situation, was neither elegant, nor ornamented, but comfortable in the most 
extended sense of the word ; inasmuch that it would be difficult to find another house, 
where the visitor was more perfectly at his ease, from the titled tourist to the poor 
benighted way-worn exciseman, who knew not where else to turn in either for refresh- 
ment or lodging ; for Mr. Blayney's hospitality reached every traveller known or 
unknown who could decently make any pretentions to it. In his conversation he was 
affable, polite, instructive, and cheerful ; seldom brilliant, but never dull, and appeared 
always to enjoy the innocent sallies of humour and wit from others, though they seldom 
originated from himself. To his domesticks, he was a kind and indulgent master ; 
their services were easy, but expected to be prompt and exact, not only to himself, but 
lp the humblest of his company. They always looked sleek and happy, and might grow 
rich if they would. In truth, no animal in his possession, from the stable to the poultry- 
yard, had cause to complain, and I knew him once vexed with a servant for sending, as 
he said, a thin dog from Gregynog. His hounds too fat for speed, were fed and 
followed by a running huntsman : His partridge were set, and his woodcocks shot on 
the ground with a pointer, and stalking-horse. Order and regularity pervaded his 
whole household. He was never married, but was remarkably pleased with, and 
pleasing to the ladies, who visited him, and they were not a few. He carried his notions 
of independence to a pitch, that bordered upon excess ; always ready to confer reason- 
able favours ; he reluctantly accepted them ; several worthy Bishops of the Diocese 
have lamented, that he would never put it in their power, to use their patronage, in 
favour of his recommendation. In his temper, he was constitutionally warm ; What 
true Welshman is otherwise ? His resentments, generally well founded, were consequently 
strong, and sometimes permanent. He could forgive an injury, but if his confidence 
was forfeited, it was nearly impossible to retrieve it. His dress was plain and studiously 
neat and becoming, and he made a London suit every year, and his constant direction 
to his taylor (whom he had not seen for forty years) was, that he made the present coat 
as the last : His shoe buckles were very small, and he had a dressed pair ; they were 
of the old form and fashion ; and he wore his breeches' garters very high. Mr. Blayney 
died at Gregynog, the first of October, 1795, in the eighty-first year of his age, and was 
buried by his particular directions, very privately, in the church-yard at Tregynon. He 

was uuiversally and justly lamented ; an advantage which amiable men possess ovei 
great ones. 

[THE directions for his funeral left by Mr. Blayney, referred to above, were as 
follows : 

"It-is usual for people in this Country (out of a pretended respect but rather from 
an Impertinent Curiosity) to desire to see persons after they are dead. It is my earnest 
request that no person, upon any pretence whatever, may be permitted to see my 
Corpse, but those who unavoidably must. 

I desire to be buried in the North side of the Church- Yard of Tregunon, somewhere 
about the Centre, my Coffin to be made in the most plain and simple manner, without 
the usual Fantastical Decorations, and the more perishable the Material the better. 

I desire that no Undertaker, or professed performer of Funerals, may be employed : 
But that I may be conveyed to the Church-Yard in some Country Herse, which may be 
hired for the Occasion : And my Corpse to be carried from the Herse to the Grave 
immediately, without going into the Church, by six of the Chief Tregunon Tenants, 
to whom I give two Guineas each for their Trouble. It is my Earnest request and 
desire to have no upper Bearers, or any persons whatever, invited to my Funeral, which 
I desire may be at so early an Hour, as will best prevent a Concourse of People from 
collecting together. The better sort, I presume will not Intrude, as there is no 

I have been present at the Funerals of three of my Unkles at Morvil. I was pleased 
with the privacy and decency, with which all Things were conducted, no strangers 
attended. All was done by the servants of the Family. It is my Earnest desire to 
follow these examples, however unpopular ; and that no Coach, no Escutcheon, and no 
pomp of any kind may appear. I trust that my Executor will be well justified against 
the clamour and obloquy of Mercenary people, when he acts in performance of the last 
request of a dying Friend ; who solemnly adjures him in the name of God, punctually 
to observe these directions. 


I likewise give to all my Servants, five Guineas each, in lieu of all Mourning, which 
it is my desire no person may use on my account." 

The uncles referred to, were members of the family of Weaver of Morville, near 
Bridgnorth ; Mr. Blayney's mother being Ann Weaver. Henry, eighth Viscount 
Tracy, married Susannah Weaver, Mr. Blayney's first cousin, and to whom he devised 
his estates. Lord Tracy died 27th April, 1797, leaving an only surviving child and 
heiress, Henrietta Susanna, who married her cousin, Charles Hanbury, Esq., who 
assumed by royal licence, the additional surname and arms of Tracy ; and in 1838, was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Sudeley. The present peer, the third Baron Sudeley, is 


his second son, the second Lord Sudeley (his brother) having died unmarried. The 
Blayney arms were those of Brochwel Ysgythrog : Sable three nags' heads erased 
argent. Arthur Blayney was the last of a long line of Blayneys (extending back at 
least three centuries), who had dwelt at Gregynog. The name is still born by several 
persons in Montgomeryshire, descendants of collateral branches, but Arthur Blayney, 
it appears, left no direct male heirs. The Lords Blayney of Ireland, who were related 
on the female side, became extinct some years ago. 

No. XVI. 
Some Observations on the Crown Manors in Wales. 

IN Norden's Survey at the British Museum, may be seen the map of the lordship of 
Bromfield and Yale, consisting of seventeen manors, with their several members or 
townships, as there enumerated. This extensive tract in its present state is of little use 
to the Crown or the subject, when it might be made advantageous to both ; and to this 
purpose let a bill pass for the sale of this and other Welsh lordships, since the power of 
the Crown goes, at present, to a limited lease only. And might not the several manors, 
composing the whole, be separated from the mass, and sold distinctly and by themselves ; 
and by valuing in the sale of every of them, the divisional allotments due to the Crown, 
as Lord, from each, together with the other manorial rights, excepting the mines and 
minerals, long since alienated, might not an handsome sum be expected ; and in the 
case of some of the manors, where there may be little waste, still something may be 
looked for from the consideration of game and sporting objects. And might not the 
Crown in this course avoid the difficulty (in an ugly moment of a Welsh revenue 
question once experienced) of negociating themselves with the freeholder, in the first 
instance, who if brought to terms of inclosure, may more readily agree with the new, 
than the old proprietor ? It is apprehended that other paramountships in North Wales, 
now in the Crown, have in them many of these aggregated manors, accumulated by 
conquest, succession or forfeiture, and heretofore granted out of the Crown, and as this, 
returned into it again. And might it not tempt the rich and zealous Antiquary to 
purchase and restore the venerable remains of our castles, many yet renewable, if the 
Crown brought them to the market, also, and discharged them, as I have little doubt it 
can, from such claims, as by payments of small acknowledgments certain individuals 
make upon them, but which, I conceive, give not to those persons power to alienate 
them themselves. Thus, and what was the state of Warwick and Alnwick once, their 


magnificence might be restored, and a good price might be obtained by the Crown for 
them, whilst at present they are incumbrances to it from the payment of sinecures to 
their governors. North Wales has not had the attention it merits ; it possesses sea 
and land, as other countries, but systems have interposed to check these advantages. 
The uses of the first are, in a manner, forbidden to us by an heavy coal coast duty, of 
small profit to the state (which might be relieved by commutation) which renders our 
vast depot of lime half useless ; and the same shores of the same island seem to front 
each other, not as natural friends and fellow subjects, but as rancorous rivals and 
jealous enemies ; 

Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas : 
To our land then ; much is cold, savage, and unprofitable, 
Mons undique et undique ccelum. 

Cultivation is checked from the reasons just given, and the mountain starves again a 
third of what it breeds ; it fattens none. Large plantations would be probably made if 
it was once appropriated ; hence in time, wood would warm the waste, and bring 
habitation into it. At present, its best produce is peat, without which much of the 
surrounding country would not be habitable. 

The plan to be pursued and the learning necessary to an effective practicable bill of 
this nature, delicacy and consequence, might be assisted, from a review of the acts of 
Parliament respecting Wales ; from the annexation under Henry the Eighth (the 
parent and prototype of a greater Union since effected, as acknowledged by Lord 
Somers, and long before suggested by Chief Baron Doddridge) to the time of William 
the Third ; which with the speech of Mr. Price in the House of Commons, and of 
Sir William Williams, before the Council, might give the Legislature light in such a 
business. Some slight and humble hints are here only offered. 

No. XVII. 
Bishop Goodmans Will. 

In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the 
HOLY GHOST, our Creator, our Redeemer, our Sanctifier, 
three Persons and one God, Amen: 


1 HIS Seventeenth day of January, in the year of our Lord 1655, I Godfrey Goodman 

bishop late of Gloucester, being weak in body, but of perfect memory and understanding, 
I praise God for it, do here make and declare this my last will and testament, and 

thereby revoking all former wills and testaments by me made. And first of all I give 
and bequeath my sinful soul to God, hoping by his mercy and by the death and passion 
of my dear Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, dying a member of his Church, that he will 
take me into the number of his Elect. I do humbly thank God that he hath given me 
a penitent and contrite heart, as an earnest of my repentance and reconciliation to. 
himself ; and here I profess that as I have lived, so I die most constant in all the 
articles of the Christian Faith, and in all the doctrine of God's holy Catholick and 
Apostolick Church, whereof I do acknowledge the Church of Rome to be the Mother 
Church, and I do verily believe, that no other Church hath any salvation in it, but only 
as far as it concurs with the faith of the Church of Rome : And for my Body I do 
leave to Christian burial in the parish Church, near the font, in the meanest manner, 
according to the due deserts of my sins. And touching such worldly goods, that it hath 
pleased God to bestow upon me, for which I give him most humble thanks and due 
acknowledgement, that he hath plentifully supplied me, and that I never had any wants. 
In the first place I desire, that my executor should give towards the adorning of the font, 
either by way of painting or otherwise, as the church-wardens shall think fit, the sum 
of 405. and I do humbly thank God for the benefit of my Baptism. Item, I do give a 
hundred poor housekeepers of this parish I2d. a piece. Item, to all my poor parishioners 
of Stapletbrd, I2d. a piece. Item, to all my poor parishioners of West Ildesley in Berks, 
I2d. a piece. Item, I do give the tenement in Yale and the two tenements in Carnar- 
vonshire, viz. Coed mawr and T du, to the town of Ruthin in Denbighshire, where I was 
born, the tenements are purchased in the names of others in trust, and " are to be 
disposed of by the Lords Bishops of Bangor and St. Asaph, when it shall please God 
that they shall be restored, and by the Chief Justice and second Justice of Chester and 
the Warden of Ruthin, and by the heirs of brother Gabriel, who is now William 
Salusbury of Rug, and by the heirs of my sister Susan, being now William Parry of 
Llwyn Ynn, and by the heirs of Charles Goodman of Glanhespin, to the heirs of my 
sister Jane, who is Gabriel Goodman of Nantglyn and his heirs male, and to the heirs, 
of my sister Martha, who married Justice Prytherch in Anglesey, and until such time 
as the bishops of Bangor and St. Asaph shall be restored, it shall be in the power of 
those to nominate two churchmen, incumbents upon their benefices, not dwelling eight 
miles from Ruthin, to supply the places of those bishops, who shall have the same 
power as the bishops should have had ; and I desire all the lands may be at the letting 
out and disposal of them in this manner : That the rent of the tenement in Yale shall 
be weekly given to the relief of the poor of Ruthin ; yet so that it shall not continue 
in the same course above three years together ; for the tenements in Carnarvonshire, 
which amount to forty pounds yearly, I desire that five pounds thereof might be spent 
at their meeting, which I desire wholly at the appointment of the Chief Justice of 
Chester, and I wish it might be one day in Michaelmas Assizes, and for the other five. 



and thirty pounds, I desire that fifteen pounds thereof may be paid for the binding out 
two apprentices, yet that they may not be bound within the principality of Wales, 
where we have not any working trade in its full perfection, and for the other twenty 
pounds, I desire that choice may be made of some gentlemen who shall desire to travel, 
and that together with good security shall undertake within the compass of two years, 
to live two months in Germany, two months in Italy, two months in France, and two 
months in Spain ; I desire that my own kindred should be chosen before others, and 
such as have had their breeding in the school of Ruthin, and for want of those, such as 
have been born within the principality of Wales, and the house of Talar in Flintshire 
may be preferred before others, and in the choice of the gentleman I desire that no 
relation should be had to his poverty, but pulchrior doctior nobilior cseteiis paribus 
anteferendus, and so I do repose the trust in the Chief Justice and others for the 
letting out of the tenements ; so I desire them to take special care for the preserving 
and planting of wood, and I do give all there now, or that hereafter shall grow there, 
except the necessary timber to be used about the ground or houses, towards repairing 
or building of churches within that county by the appointment of the Chief Justice 
and others, yet so that in one year they shall not give above the twentieth part of it, 
and what is so given shall appear under the hands of the greater part of the feoffees, in 
whom I have reposed trust for that purpose ; and whereas I have purchased the 
perpetual patronage of Kemerton, and have settled it upon the hospital of St. 
Bartholomew's in Gloucester, with this condition, that unless I have a kinsman of my 
own, descended from my grand-father Edward Goodman, who shall be of my name and 
capable of it, and shall make means within three months after the vacancy ; this kins- 
man must be nominated long before by the feoffees in trust, for if he omits his three 
months, he is made incapable to demand it ; and as for the rest of my estate, being so 
small as it is, having had those great losses that I have had, I must intreat my friends 
to accept of small legacies ; Item, I give and bequeath to my sister Jonnet Goodman 
of Rug, the sum of five pounds, and to her daughter my cousin Mary Salusbury,* being 
my heir at common law, I give a hundred marks ; Item, to my sister Martha Prytherch 
of Anglesey I do give five pounds ; Item, I give to my cousin Charles Goodman of 
Glanhespin five pounds ; Item, I give to my cousin William Parry of Llwyn Ynn and 
his sister five pounds ; Item, I do give to my cousin Ellin Goodman of Nantglyn, with 

* Mary Goodman, alias Salusbury, sole daughter and heiress of Gabriel Goodman of Abinbury, Prothono- 
tary of North Wales, married October the 28th, 1635, Owen Salusbury of Rug, by whom among other issue 
she had Dorothy her eldest daughter, born i6th November, 1636. The said Dorothy married John Wynne of 
Melai, the i6th of April, 1651, by whom she had issue William Wynne of Melai, also Dorothy and Barbara. 
Dorothy married Thomas Wyune of Dyffrynaled, by whom she had Robert Wynne of Dyffrynaled : Robert 
married Elizabeth Foulkes of Merriadog and Carregfynydd, and had issue Pierce Wynne and Dorothy. 
Pierce Wynne married Margaret, daughter to Robert Wynne of Garthewin, and had issue Diana Wynne of 
Dyffrynaled. Dorothy married William Thomas of Coedhelen, and left issue. 

many thanks for her care in educating her children, five pounds ; Item, I do give my 
cousin Charles Goodman, glazier, forty shillings, and to his brother John Goodman, 
virginal-maker, forty shillings ; Item, to Mrs. Slatyr I give three pounds, in regard of 
the great care she hath with her aged father. These legacies I desire might be paid out 
of those bonds which are due unto me and undoubtedly good debts, but of such money 
as I have in the house I leave to Gabriel Goodman, my sister's grand-child, for his pains in 
the time of my sickness and his care at my funeral ; Item, I have placed trust in Mrs. Sylla 
Aglomby, I leave her five pounds, and give her the bed and blankets which are in her 
house ; Item, I leave her a box and a key which I desire may not be opened, and if I 
have any other small things in her house I do freely give her, in hope and confidence 
that she will discharge the small trust which I have reposed in her ; Item, after all 
church duties and funeral expenses being paid, I desire that what is now left in the 
house may be distributed according to the discretion of my executor among those 
ministers that were deprived of their benefices by that long and most unjust parliament, 
God forgive them and their committees, which will be sixteen pounds ; and further, 
whereas I am to receive some money upon bonds, the 6th day of May next, from Sir 
Benjamin Agliffe, I desire that one huadred pounds thereof may be given amongst 
those poor distressed churchmen according to the good discretion of my executor. 
Item, the books I intended for Chelsea College (the college being now dissolved) I do 
bestow them upon Trinity College, Cambridge, with this condition, that, if ever 
Chelsea College be restored, the books shall likewise be restored. Item, whereas I have 
taken a great deal of pains in writing of notes, my desire is, that some scholar may be 
employed to peruse them all over, and if any thing should be found worthy the 
printing, that then some course may be taken for the publishing of them ; and the 
scholar, when he hath so taken pains, shall be rewarded with ten pounds ; and I repose 
the whole care of this business to Mr. Francis Westby, and he is to find the scholar and 
to order things accordingly. And here I do from my soul ask forgiveness of God and 
of all others whom I have offended, and I heartily forgive all men, and do confess, that 
if I was guilty to myself, that if I had wronged any man to the value of one farthing, 
I would make satisfaction with recompence : And I do hereby constitute and appoint 
my sole executor Gabriel Goodman, one who now lives with me, to whom I give all'the 
rest of my goods, chattels and debts whatsoever, in hope and confidence that he will be 
careful of his brothers and sisters, and so beseeching God to bless all the estates of men, 
and to send times of peace and quietness in this church, and to restore her to her just 
revenues and honor, and to send peace in the Christian world for the sparing of the 
effusion of Christian blood, and I do hereby conclude with my last words, into thy hands 
O Lord I recommend my soul ; Lord Jesus receive my soul ! 

In witness hereof I have hereunto subscribed my hand and seal, 

Godf. Goodman. 


Sealed, subscribed and declared this to be my 
last will and testament in the presence of 

R. H.S. A.L. P.M. S. 

This will was proved in London before the Judges for probate of wills, and carefully 
-authorized the i6th of February, in the year of our Lord 1655, by the oath of Gabriel 
Goodman, kinsman to the deceased and sole executor, named in the said will, of all and 
singular the goods, chattels and debts of the said deceased, being first legally sworn 
truly to administer the same. 

Tkos. Wetham. 

Sir Thomas Hanmer s Epitaph. 


Honorabilis admodum Thomas Hanmer Baronettus 

Wilhelmi Hanmer armigeri, e Peregrina Henrici North 

De Mildenhall in Com. Suffolcise Baronetti Sorore & Hserede, 

Johannis Hanmer de Hanmer Baronetti 

Haeres Patruelis, 
Antique Gentis suae et titulo et patrimonio successit. 

Duas Uxores sortitus est ; 
Alteram Isabellam, honore a patre derivato, de 

Arlington Comitissam, 

Deinde celsissimi principis ducis de Grafton viduam dotatam ; 

Alteram Elizabetham Thomse Folks de Barton in 

Com. Suff. Armigeri 

Filiam et Haeredem. 

Inter humanitatis studia feliciter enutritus, 

Omnes liberalium Artium disciplinas avide arripuit, 

Quas morum suavitate haud leviter ornavit. 

Postquam excessit ex ephebis, 
Continue inter populares suos fama eminens, 



Et Comitatus sui legatus ad Parliamentum missus, 
Ad ardua regni negotia per Annos prope triginta 

Se accinxit ; 
Cumq : apud illos amplissimorum virorum ordines 

Soleret nihil temere effutire, 
Sed probe perpensa diserte expromere 

Orator gravis et pressus, 
Non minus integritatis quam eloquentiae laude 

yEque omnium utcunq ; inter se alioqui dissidentium 

Aures atque animos attraxit ; 

Annoque demum MDCCXIII, regnante Anna, 

Felicissimae florentissimseque memorise Regina, 

Ad prolocutoris Cathedram 
Communi senatus universi.voce designatus est : 

Quod Munus, 
Cum nullo tempore non difficile, 

Turn illo certe negotiis 
Et variis et lubricis et implicatis difficillimum 

Cum dignitate sustinuit. 
Honores alios, et omnia, quse sibi in lucrum cederent, Munera 

Sedulo detrectavit, 
Ut rei totus inserviret publicae, 

Justi rectique tenax, 
Et fide in patriam incorrupta notus. 

Ubi omnibus, quae virum, civemque bonum decent, officiis satisfecit, 
Paulatim se a publicis Consiliis in Otium recipiens 

Inter literarum amaeiiitates, 

Inter ante act* vitas baud insuaves recordationes, 

Inter amicorum convictus et amplexus, 

Honorifice consenuit, 

Et bonis omnibus, quibus charissimus vixit, 
Desideratissimus obijt. 

1 66 

No. XIX. 
Sir Thomas Hanmers Epitaph Paraphras d: 

THOU, who suryey'st these walls with curious eye, 

Pause on this tomb where Hanmer's ashes lie. 

His various worth, thro' varied life attend, 

And learn his virtues, while thou mourn'st his end : 

His force of genius burn'd in early youth, 

With thirst of knowledge and with love of truth, 

His learning join'd with each endearing art 

Charm'd every ear, and gain'd on every heart ; 

Thus early wise th' endanger'd realm to aid, 

His country call'd him from the studious shade ; 

In life's first bloom his public toils began, 

At once commenc'd the senator and man ; 

In bus'ness dextrous, weighty in debate, 

Thrice ten long years, he labor'd for the State ; 

In every speech persuasive wisdom flow'd, 

In ev'ry act refulgent virtue glow'd ; 

Suspended faction ceas'd from rage and strife, 

To hear his eloquence and praise his life ; 

Resistless merit fix'd the senate's choice, 

Who hail'd him Speaker with united voice. 

Illustrious age ! How bright thy glories shone, 

When Hanmer fill'd the chair, and Anne the throne ! 

Then when dark arts obscur'd each fierce debate, 

When mutual frauds perplex'd the maze of state ; 

The moderator firmly mild appear'd, 

Beheld with love, with veneration heard. 

This task performed, he sought no gainful post, 

Nor wish'd to glitter at his country's cost ; 

Strict on the right, he fix'd his stedfast eye, 

With temp'rate zeal and wise anxiety ; 

Nor e'er from virtue's path was turn'd aside 

To pluck the flow'rs of pleasure or of pride ; 

Her gifts despis'd, corruption blush'd and fled 

And fame pursu'd him, where conviction led : 

Age call'd, at length, his active mind to rest, 

i6 7 

With honor sated and with cares opprest ; 
To letter'd ease retir'd and honest mirth, 
To rural grandeur and domestic worth, 
Delighted still to please mankind or mend, 
The patriot's fire yet sparkled in the friend. 
Calm conscience then his former life survey'd 
And recollected toils endear'd the shade ; 
Till nature call'd him to the gen'ral doom, 
And virtue's sorrow dignify'd his tomb.* 

* See the Gentleman's Magazine for May 1747. 

No. XX. 

Inscription on Sir William Williams s Monument in Llansilin 

Church, in Denbighshire. 

H. S. E. 

De Glascoed Miles et Baronettus : 

Omnibus ingenii animique dotibus illustris ; 

In foro civili inter primaries suae yEtatis 

Togatos, semper prxclarus, 
Et tantum non purpuratis adscriptus, 

Quippe qui in facultate sua opus 
Potius quam honores, aut magistratum, amavit ; 

Ac prodesse quam prseesse, maluit ; 
Adeo in consiliis sagax, in dicendo promptus, 

Ad negotia habilis, 

Ut dignus habitus est, qui in altera Senatus 
Domo, saepius sedem, bis Cathedram teneret, 

Orator peritissimus. 
In his publicis et amicorum rebus 

Dum esset occupatus, 

Nihil interim de propriis remisit, 

Quod familiae suae dignitatem aut censum augeret. 

Ex uxore meritissima, 

1 68 

Filios habuit duos, Filiam unicam ; 
Quos omnes tarn larga, et quod rarius, 

Viva manu, ditavit, 
Ac si eorum quemlibet hseredem 


Obiit Londini x die Julii MDCC JEt: 66. 

Hie magno sumptu, licet meritis impari sepultus, 

Expectat immortalitatem. 

No. .XXI. 
Epitaph on Mary Vanbutchell. 


Novo miraculo conservatas 

et a marito suo superstite, 

Cultu quotidiano, adoratas. 

Hie, exsors tumuli, jacet 

tfxor Johannis Vanbutchel, 

Integra omnino et incorrupta ; 

Viri sui amantissimi 

Desiderium simul et Deliciae ; 

Quam gravi morbo vitiatam, 

Consumptamque tandem longa morte, 

In hunc quern cernis nitorem,' 

In hanc speciem et colorem viventis 

Ab indecora putredine vindicavit, 

Invita et repugnante natura 
Vir egregius Gulielmus Hunterus 

Artificii prius intentati 

Inventor idem et Perfector 

O fortunatum maritum 

Cui datur 

Uxorem multum amatam 

Retinere una, in unis sedibus, 

Affari, tangere, complecti ; 


Speaker of the House of Commons. and Solicitor General. . 



Non Fatis modo superstitem 

Sed (quod pluris sestimandum, 

Nam non est vivere, .sed placere vita) 

Etiam. suaviorem, 



Solidam magis, et magis sued plenam 

Quam cum ipsa in vivis fuerit ! 

O fortunatum virum ! et invidendum ! 

Cui peculiare hoc, et proprium contingit, 

Apud se habere fceminam 
Non variam, non mutabilem, 

Egregie taciturnam, 
Et horis omnibus eandem. 

No. XXII. 

A literal translation for the Benefit of the Ladies, 
By a Noble LORD. 

O ERE covered not by earth or stone, 
Lies John Vanbutchell's wife alone : 
His pleasure, joy, and sole desire, 
Quite uncorrupted, and entire : 
Who was preserved by Hunter's art, 
When death had shot his fatal dart. 
Behold her now 'gainst nature's will, 
With face so fair, and blooming still. 
O Husband blest ! who in one house, 
Can still retain one charming spouse, 
Can speak to, kiss, and with her toy, 
And sleep close by ; if such his joy : 
Who now exists, not as you see, 
The Fates would choose to have her be ; 
But what's more wond'rous, is much sweeter, 
More perfect too in limb and feature ; 


More firm her flesh, more full of juice, 

And fitter for domestic use. 

O fortunate and envy'd Van ! 

To keep a wife beyond life's span ; 

Whom you can ne'er have cause to blame ; 

Is ever constant and the same ; 

Who qualities most rare inherits, 

A wife that's dumb ; yet full of spirits. 

Note to the House of Caergai. 

Op the House of Caergai was Rowland Vaughan, who flourished in the middle of 
the last century, called Rolant Fychan y Cyfieithydd, or the translator ; because he 
translated several pious books into Welsh, particularly Bishop Bailey's Practice of 
Piety, and Dr. Brough's Manual of Prayer ; which last was at the request of Colonel 
William Salusbury, of Bachymbyd, commonly called Blue Stockings, the sturdy 
governor of Denbigh castle, in the civil wars of the last century [iyth] ; at whose 
expence it was printed and distributed among the poor. Salusbury was also active in 
repairing several churches that were defaced, and he founded and endowed the chapel at 
Rug. Vaughan, besides being a translator, was an author in Welsh prose of good credit. 

No. XXIV. 
Note to Humphrey Hughes. 

HUMPHREY HUGHES of Gwerclas, was born in 1605, married Maudlen Rogers, 
aged thirteen, in 1615, was Sheriff in 1620, ut patet by his own memorandums and the 
roll of Sheriffs. He married afterwards Eleanor Savage of Chester, in 1659. In 1662, 
he married Sarah Franklin, of Cambridgeshire, and in 1666, Eleanor Mutton.* 

* The British pronunciation of the letter y in Mytton is the same with that of u, in Mutton after the Eng- 
lish, and both a local name, as should appear by the termination ton, but where the place so called is situated 
I know not. [Mytton is now generally pronounced as if written Milton. Ed.} 


THE origin of these Tribes, which belong exclusively to North Wales, 
and the grounds for the selection of some of their founders for such a 
distinction, while others of greater merit have not been so honoured, 
have given rise to some difficulty. Several of these chieftains lived as 
early as the ninth, and some as late as the twelfth century, but it has 
been suggested that many difficulties will be explained if we assume 
that the Tribes were constituted subsequently to the reign of Owain 
Gwynedd (1137-1169), and were limited to the districts which remained 
unconquered. The following account of the Fifteen Tribes is taken 
from the Cambrian Register for 1795, p. 145 ; and appears to have 
been compiled by Robert Vaughan, the antiquary, about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, and annotated for the Cam. Reg. by either 
Dr. Owen Pughe, or the Rev. Walter Davies. An account almost 
identical, exclusive of the Notes, but including catalogues of extant and 
extinct families descended from each tribe, was published by Pennant 
in 1796, as an Appendix to his History of Whiteford and Holy well ; 
and this with an Introductory Preface, by W. Trevor Parkins, Esq., 
has lately been reprinted as an Appendix to the recent edition of 
Pennant's Tours in Wales (Carnarvon 1883). The tribe of March or 
Tudor Trevor is of a later date, and has no connection with the rest 
Pennant calls it the Sixteenth Tribe. It includes a number of families, 
belonging entirely to Powys. Ed. 

A Brief History of the FIFTEEN TRIBES 1 OF NORTH 


chief families of that part of the Principality trace their 

pedigrees. Extracted from a manuscript written about the 

middle of the last century [the i ;th]. 


Tin: first of the tribes of North Wales was Hwfa ap Cynddelw, 
who lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North 
Wales, and, as some will have it, was steward to the said 
prince. His office, by inheritance, was to bear the prince's 
coronet, and to put it upon his head when the Bishop of 

1 They are likewise frequently called the fifteen Peers of North Wales, being, I 
presume, certain nobles who held their lands by Baron service, being bound to particular 
ministerial attendances on their princes, besides what they were in general obliged to, 
as subjects, by homage and fealty. 

- Rowlands in his Mona Antigua, says that Hwfa ap Cynddelw of Presaddfed, held 
his estate in fee, by attending on the prince's coronation, and bearing up the right side 
of the canopy over the prince's head at that solemnity, and cites the following extract 
from a manuscript of one Lewis Dun, out of the Gloddaith Library. " Yr Hwfa hwn 
a'i Etifeddion hynaf a wiscant y Dalaith am ben y Twysog, gyda ac Escob Bangor, ac 
ar y dydd cyntaf y cyssegrid y Twysog vn y Dalaith, yr oedd i Hwfa y par dillad a fai 
am y Twysog wrth wisco y Dalaith am ei ben. A hyn oedd wasanaeth Hwfa ap 
Cynddelw." [This Hwfa and his eldest heirs placed the coronet on the head of the 
prince with the Bishop of Bangor, and the first day the prince was consecrated in the 
province, to Hwfa belonged the suit of clothes worn by the prince when the coronet was 
placed on his head. And this was the service of Hwfa ab Cynddelw.] 


Bangor anointed him as Nicholas, 1 Bishop of Bangor affirmeth. 
His house was Presaddfed in Anglesey. 2 What lordships he 
had besides that, is mentioned in the Extent of North Wales, 3 
to have been divided between his five sons, Methusalem, Cyfnerth, 
levan, lorwerth, and Blettrws. Sir Howel y Pedolau was a 
famous man in his time, and descended from him, as being the 
son of Gruffudd ap lorwerth, ap Meredydd, ap Methusalem, ap 
Hwfa ap Cynddelw. Sir Howel's mother was King Edward 
the Second's nurse, and he being foster brother to the king, 
was in great favour with him. He was a very strong man, 
insomuch that he could break or straiten* horse shoes with his 
hands. Llewelyn ap Hwlkin was a very famous gentleman 
descended of him : he left four sons to inherit his manors, as 

1 Nicholson Robinson, Bishop of that See, A.D. 1566. [He was a native of Aberconwy, 
and a very learned man. Among other works written by him, was a translation from 
Welsh into Latin of the Life of Gruffudd ab Cynan (see ante, p. 23, note.) He died 
February I3th, 1584-5, and was buried on the south side of the high altar in his 
Cathedral church of Bangor. Ed.~\ 

- Rowlands ( ' Mona Ant. Res., p. 106) derives this name from Prcesidii Locns= the 
President's habitation ; and surmises it to have been originally the Roman Governor's 
residence. It is in the parish of Bodedeyrn, about eight miles east of Holyhead, and is 
still a fine old mansion. Ed. 

' This Extent, or Survey of North Wales, is a very fine folio MS. in the Harlcian 
Collection, bearing date 1352, and has been printed in the Record of Carnarvon. It 
only relates to the Counties of Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth. It appears to 
have been begun in the time of Edward the First, continued by Edward the Second, 
and completed in the twenty-sixth year of Edward the Third. Ed. 

4 And therefore called Howel y Pedolau. A few years ago there was a mutilated 
tombstone in the church of St. Peter's, Carmarthen, with the effigy of a warrior on it, 
holding a horseshoe, with both his hands, seemingly in the act of exercising his strength 
thereon. Quxre, if that might not have been the tomb of Sir Howel y Pedolau. 

Meuric, of whom the Owens 1 of Bodeon in Anglesey, and 
and Orielton in Pembrokeshire are descended, and also the 
Owens of Bodsilin, of whom conies Sir John Owens of Clynn- 
enney ; (2) Hugh ap Llywelin 2 (alias Hugh Lewis), of whom 
come the Lewises of Presaddfed ; (3) Griffith, of whom come 
the Griffiths of Chwaen ; and (4) Rhys, of whom Wynn of 
Bodowyr and others are descended. His arms he beareth gules 
between three lioncels rampant a chevron or. 

1 The houses of Bodeon and Orielton are now united, since the marriage of Sir Hugh 
Owen of Orielton, with Catherine, daughter and sole heiress of ... Owens, Esq. 
of Bodeon. The first of that family, who came into Pembrokeshire, was Sir Hugh 
Owen, Knight, Barrister at Law, and Recorder of Carmarthen, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter and sole heiress of George Wyrriott, Esq. of Orielton, who lived in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. [The Bodeon estate has long since passed into other hands. 
Sir Hugh Owen Owen, Bart, of Orielton, County of Pembroke, now represents these 
united families. Ed.'] 

2 Of him likewise was descended the late . . . Lewis, Esq. of Llanddyfnan, in 
Anglesey, a gentleman as generally known by the title of King of Spain, a title which 
I never could learn how he obtained ; but from which that of Prince of Asturias, 
naturally resulted to his eldest son, and of infantas to his daughters. Nay, when one 
of the infantas had cast her affections on a robust country curate, and had honoured 
him with her hand in marriage, the Puisne Judge of the North Wales circuit, the 
facetious Thomas Potter, Esq., desirous of collecting all the Spanish dignities into the 
family, with that ready humour which he is so remarkable for, styled the happy parson 
Archbishop of Toledo. 

[ADDENDA.] Hwfa ab Cynddelw, often styled lord of Llys Llivon, was a direct 
descendant of Cunedda Wledig, " King of Britain," and flourished about 1150. By his 
wife, Ceinfryd, daughter of EDNOWAIN BENDEW, founder of the thirteenth Noble Tribe 
of North Wales, he had in addition to the five sons above named, three daughters, 
namely, Avandrog, Gwerful, and Gwladus ( Dwmi's Vis., ii. p. 236). An old MS. 
quoted by Dwnn (Vis. ii., p. 83) states that " he was chosen by Owen Gwynedd to be 
heir apparent, because he was gallant and brave." 

Sir John Owen of Clenneneu, the famous Royalist referred to above, was the son of 
John Owen of Bodsilin, who was Secretary to the great Sir Francis Walsingham, and 
married the heiress of Clenneneu and Brogyntyn, with whom he obtained those estates. 
Sir John, whose portrait is at Brogyntyn (the seat of his descendant, Lord Harlech), 
was a Colonel in the army, and Vice Admiral of North Wales. He greatly distinguished 
himself at the siege of Bristol, where he was desperately wounded, and in other actions. 
Near the close of the war he was taken prisoner, and condemned to death, but his life 
was spared through the humane exertions of Ireton, who told the House of Commons 
" that there was one person for whom no one spoke a word, and therefore requested that 
" he might be saved by the sole motive and goodness of the house." After a short 
imprisonment he was set at liberty, and retired into his own country, where he died in 
1666 ( ' Pennanfs Tours, i., 337). Among his lineal descendants are Baron Harlech, and 
on the mother's side Baron Kenyon (ante, pp. 17 and 103, notes.} The estate of 
Bodsilin was sold towards the close of the seventeenth century, by John Owen, page to 
the Prince of Conde ( ' Dvimi's Vis., ii., p. 164, note.} 

The Wynns of Bodychen, a once powerful family, belonged to this tribe. Of them 
Rhys ab Llewelyn ab Hwlcyn, a powerful chieftain, went to Bosworth with a company 
of foot, to assist Henry the Seventh, and in return was sworn Sheriff of Anglesey for 
life, being the first Sheriff appointed for that County. He made his house the County 
Gaol ; and Pennant (Tours, iii., p. 75) says that " the dungeon was lately to be seen." 
The Arch. Camb. for 1871, p. 238, gives an account, accompanied by a view of an old 
building, supposed to be part of the original residence. Jane, daughter of John 
Bodychen, left the Bodychen estate,"which she inherited, to her second husband, John 
Sparrow, Esq. of Red Hill, Sheriff of Anglesey in 1708 (Arch. Camb. 1871, p. 335.) 
There was no issue of this marriage, but Mr. Sparrow married again and had issue, and 
the estate has since continued in his family. His grandson, John Bodychen Sparrow, 
Esq., married Anne, daughter and heiress of Ambrose Lewis, Esq. of Trysglwyn, who 
was the last male representative of a younger branch of the Bodewryd family, belonging 
to this tribe. Of this marriage there was issue, five sons and nine daughters. One of 
the latter (Barbara), married Hugh Robert Hughes, Esq., and their son Hugh Robert 
Hughes, Esq. of Kinmel Park, is the present Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire (Bur he's 
Landed Gentry.) The Gwyn's of Baron's Hall, in the County of Norfolk, claim 
descent from the Wynn's of Bodychen (Ib.J 

William Lewys, Esq. of Presaddfed (Sheriff in 1549, 1557, and 1572, and who 
represented Anglesey in two Parliaments), married first, Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Puleston, Knight, Chamberlain of North Wales, and Constable of Carnarvon 
Castle, by whom he had several children ; the last male representative of whom, John 
Lewys, Esq. of Presaddfed, left an only daughter and heiress, Anne, who was twice 
married her first husband being John, eldest son of Sir Hugh Owen, Bart, of Orielton ; 

1 7 6 

her second, Mark Trevor, Lord Viscount Dungannon, after whose death she sold 
Presaddfed to John Owen, Esq. of Cromlech. The said William Lewys married 
secondly, Elin, daughter of Edward ab Hugh Gwyn of Bodewryd, descended from 
GWEIRYDD AP RHYS GOCH, chief of the third Noble Tribe (see post.) The eldest son 
of this marriage, was Robert Lewys of Cemlyn, whose last lineal male descendant, 
Robert Lewys, Chancellor of Bangor, died in 1738, leaving three daughters and 
coheiresses, namely, Sydney, who married Love Parry, Esq. of Wernfawr ; Anna 
Maria ; and Mary, who married the Rev. Edward Hughes of Kinmael, father of the first 
Lord Dinorben, and grandfather of the above named Hugh Robert Hughes, Esq., Lord 
Lieutenant of Flintshire (Dvinifs Vis, ii., p. 199 ; and Hist. Powys Fadog, v., 
pp. 281-6.) 

The Griffiths of Chwaen ended in an heiress, Anne, only surviving child of John 
Griffith, Esq., Sheriff of Anglesey in 1709, and of Carnarvonshire the following year. 
She was born in 1724, and was married to William Lewis, Esq., of Trysglwyn, father 
of the above named Ambrose Lewis, Esq. ( Dwmi's Vis, ii., p. 147, note.) 

Another old family of this tribe, named by Dwnn (Vis., ii., p. 258), that of Arianell 
Goch, ended in an heiress, who married John Pritchard, Esq. of Dinam, near Gaerwen, 
of whom the Rev. H. Pritchard of that place is a lineal descendant. 

The Nanney's of Cefndeuddwr and Gwynfryn, also trace their descent from Hwfa, 
through the Ellis's of Bodychen. Elizabeth Ellis, the eventual heiress of that house, 
married John Jones, Esq. of Brynkir, and their eldest surviving son, Owen Jones, Esq., 
assumed the surname of Ellis-Nanney, on succeeding to the estates of his maternal 
uncle, David Ellis Nanney, Esq. The present representative is H. J. Ellis Nanney, Esq. 
of Gwynfryn, in the County of Carnarvon ( Burkc's landed Gentry.) 

The following families appear to be extinct, or only existing in the female line : 
Williams of Llanbedr (Pennants Tours, iii., p. 429) ; Bould of Trerddol ( ' Ib.) Owen 
of Llanfaethlu (Ib.); Morris of Treiorwerth (Ib.); Wynn of Bodowyr (Ib.); 
Owen of Twrcelyn (Dwmi's Vis., ii., p. 192); Owen of Treddafydd, Malldraeth 
( ' Ib., p. 201) ; Llachylched ( ' Ib., p. 259) ; Talebolion ( ' Ib., p. 262) ; and Niwbwrch 
(Ib., p. 266.) Ed. 



HE lived in the time of Owen Gwynedd, and was the prince's 
brother in law, for both their wives were sisters, the daughters 
of Gronw ap Owain ap Edwyn, Lord of Tegaingyl, as Griffith 
Hiraethog, 1 and Sir Thomas ap levan ap Deicws, and also an 
old parchment manuscript, written about four hundred years ago, 
do testify. What office he bare under the prince I do not know, 
but some say he was his steward, as in a book of Sir Thomas 
ap William 2 of Trefriw, I found. He dwelt in the township 
which from him is called Tref Llywarch, which hath in it Caer- 
gybi, 3 and three parcels bearing the name of his three sons, 
Wele 4 lorwerth ap Llywarch, Wele Cadwgan ap Llywarch, Wele 
Madoc ap Llywarch, as in the Extent of North Wales is 
manifest. He had a grandchild by his son lorwerth, called 
Meredydd, who for his good service had the freehold of the 
township of Escynniog, given him and his heirs for ever, by 
prince Llywelin ap lorwerth, whose posterity, levan Wyddel 
and Tudur ap Hywel ap Tudur, held the same by virtue of 
the grant aforesaid, in the twenty-sixth year of King Edward 
the Third. levan Wyddel's mother was the daughter of the 
Lord of Cywchwr in Ireland, descended of the Earl of Kildare, 

1 A noted bard and herald who flourished about the year 1530. 
2 An eminent physician and antiquary in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

3 Holyhead. 

4 Wele, i.e. seat, or family, into many of which most trefs or townships were divided. 


i 7 8 

of whom the gentlemen of Mwsoglen, Porthamal, 1 and many 
other houses are descended. He beareth argent between three 
crows, each bearing a Queen of Ermin in their bills, a chevron 
sable, by the name of Llywarch ap Bran. 

1 Houses now extinct, or in the possession of men of yesterday, such is the mutability 
of- property ! 

" You see it alter, 

From you to me, from me to Peter Walter ; 
Or in a mortgage prove a lawyer's share, 
Or in a jointure vanish from the heir." 

[ADDENDA.] Llywarch ab Bran was lord of Cwmmwd Menai in Anglesey, and 
flourished about 1137. He was eighth in descent from Rhodri Mawr. 

lorwerth ab Llywarch, according to Rowlands ( ' Mona Antiqua), lived at Porthamel 
uchaf, Anglesey. His descendant levan Wyddel had two sons, namely, Rhys, who 
settled at Bodowyr ; and Howel, who founded the ancient house of Berw (so called, 
possibly, from the cresses which abound there) which descended to his granddaughter 
Elinor. She married an Englishman named John Holland, who claimed descent from 
the Dukes of Valence. The Hollands continued owners of Berw for many generations. 
Several of them represented Anglesey in Parliament, and they formed alliances with 
some of the best families in the country. The last of the name was the Rev. Thomas 
Holland who died about 1750. On his decease, the property descended to his niece and 
heiress, Elizabeth, wife of Richard Trygarn, Esq., whose daughter, in 1755, married 
John Griffith, Esq. of Carreglwyd, " a worthy and convivial gentleman," as Pennant 
calls him, whose descendants still hold it (Arch. Camb. 1868, p. 97.) The ancient and 
interesting mansion of Berw is still preserved intact. The Anglesey Central Railway 
passes close to it. 

levan ab Ednyved, in the time of Henry the Fourth, married the heiress of Jenkin ab 
Llewelyn ab lorwerth of Myvyrian, a descendant of Llywarch, and from this union 
came the Prytherchs of Myvyrian, who became extinct in the male line about two 
hundred years ago, and by marriage were closely related to the families of Berw, 
Bjdowyr, and the Trevors of Denbighshire. Their matrimonial connexions were 
indeed so complicated, that Sir Edward Trevor of Brynkinallt, wrote the following 
epitaph on Eva, his grandmother : 

i 7 9 

" Here lyes by name the world's mother, 
By nature my aunt, sister to my mother ; 
By law my grandmother, mother to my mother ; 
My great grandmother, mother to my grandmother ; 
All this may be without breach of consanguinity." (Arch. Camb. 1848, p. 293.) 

From Cadwgan ab Llyvvarch came the Hughes's of Plas Coch, Anglesey. The old 
house of Porthamel isaf, where they resided, was rebuilt in 1569 by Hugh Hughes, 
Attorney General for North Wales, and was thenceforth called Plas Coch from the 
colour of the stone used on that occasion. The late William Bulkeley Hughes, Esq. of 
Plas Coch and Bryndu, was lineally descended from Hugh Hughes. He was for many 
years Member of Parliament for the Carnarvon Boroughs, and died in March, 1882, 
leaving an only daughter married to Captain Hunter. The family is also represented 
by his brother's son, Rice William Thomas, Esq. (formerly Hughes) of Coed-helen, 
Carnarvon (Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 311.) The Hughes's of Plascoch intermarried 
with the Bulkeleys of Bryndu and Beaumaris, the Owens of Clenneneu, and the 
Trevors of Denbighshire. 

From Cadwgan were also descended the Meyricks of Bodorgan and Goodrich Court, 
by the marriage of their ancestor Einion Sais, with Eva, daughter of Meredydd ab 
Cadwgan (Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 312.) Dr. William Lloyd, successively Bishop of 
St. Asaph, Lichfield, and Worcester, was also descended from Cadwgan. 

Owen Wynn, only son of Hugh Gwyn of Mwsoglen, was eleventh in descent from 
levan Wyddel. He married in 1628, Grace, daughter of Sir William Glynne of 
Glynllifon, but died without issue, and the male line of that family became extinct. 
His sister, Elizabeth, by her marriage with Hugh Owen, Esq. of Bodeon, conveyed the 
Mwsoglen estate into that family (Dwini's Vis., ii., p. 208.) 

Eva, daughter of Llywarch ab Bran, became the second wife of the celebrated 
Ednyfed Vychan, minister of Llewelyn the Great, and by whom he had six sons, namely 
Sir Tudor, who had Plas yn Nant and Llangynhafal ; Rees, who had Garth Garmon ; 
Howell, who became Bishop of St. Asaph ; Llewelyn and Cynfrig, who had the Creuddyn ; 
and lorwerth, who had Abermarlais (Dwmi's Vis., i., p. 331.) 

The latter was the ancestor of the renowned Sir Rhys ab Thomas of Dinevor (see 
ante, p. 132.) David Goch, his contemporary, another redoubtable warrior and a famous 
swordsman, who was killed by Sir Rhys's father, Thomas ab Griffith, in a desperate 
hand to hand encounter at Pennal, Merionethshire, also belonged to this tribe 
(L. G. Cothts Works, p. 141.) 

Tangwystl, another daughter, married Llywarch Goch, lord of Rhos and Meiriadog, 
and had issue, Llywarch Fychan the ancestor of Jones of Llyfnant, Ddol and Ruthin in 
Denbighshire (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 323.) 


The old family of Meredith of Monachdy Gwyn, Clynog fawr, Carnarvonshire, now 
extinct were of this tribe. Meurig Meredith the last heir male, left an only daughter 
and heiress, Anna Maria, who married first, John Mostyn, Esq. of Segrwyd (of which 
marriage came the Mostyns of Llawesog) ; and secondly, Watkin Edwards Wynn, Esq. 
of Pengwern, Merioneth, and Llwyn, Denbighshire, by whom she had no issue. She 
died in 1828 (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 382.) 

Catherine, daughter and heiress of Ellis Lloyd, the last male representative of the 
old family of Rhiwgoch, Trawsfynydd, of this tribe, married Henry Wynn, son of Sir 
John Wynn of Gwydir (see ante, p. 9), and was the mother of Sir John Wynn, Bart, 
of Wynnstay, in whom, dying without issue, the title ended. 

The following families also extinct, according to Pennant, belonged to this tribe : 
Lloyd of Maesyneuadd ; Wynn and Lloyd of Hendre'r mur, Merionethshire ; Lloyds 
of Brynhir or Brynkir, Coed y rhygyn, Llandecwyn, Cefnfaes and Cae Adda ; Meredith 
of Hafod Lwyfog ; Parry of Bodafon, Anglesey (Diamfs Vis., ii., p. 264) ; and Owen 
of Ruthin ; also the old families of Garregfawr, Amlwch ( 'Dwnifs Vis., ii., p. 264) ; 
Rhosgolyn ( ' Ib. 266) ; Twrcelyn ( ' Ib. 267) ; and Lloyd of Tymarian Heilyn, 
Llanddyfnan ( Ib. 268.) Ed. 


HE was of the hundred of Talybolion in Anglesey, and dwelt 
at Cardegog: The hamlets and tenements thereof to this day 
bear the names of his children and grandchildren, as Gwely 
Madoc ap Gweirydd, Gwely Llywarch ap Gweirydd, Gwely Howel 
ap Gweirydd, Gwely Meuric ap Gweirydd, whose great grandchild 
Howel ap levan ap Ednyfed ap Meuric ap Gweirydd enjoyed 
Gwely Meuric in the twenty-sixth of Edward the Third, as 
appears by the Extent of North Wales, of whom are descended 
Pierce Lloyd of Gwaredog, Esq. ; Edward Wynn of Bodewrid, 
Esq. ; and Owen Hughes of Beaumaris, Esq. ; and many more. 
He beareth argent on a bend sable three lions heads caboshed 
of the first. He lived in the time of Owen Gwynedd. 

[ADDENDA.] Gweirydd ap Rhys Goch flourished about the commencement of the 
twelfth century. 

The families above named are stated by Pennant to be all extinct, or extant only in 
the female line, in his time, but he names one, namely, that of Foulkes of Gwernygron, 
Flintshire, as still extant in the male line. Pierce Lloyd, Esq. of Gwaredog, was 
Sheriff for Anglesey in 1595 and 1603. His first wife was Maud, daughter of William 
Hanmer, Esq., great grandson of Sir David Hanmer, Justice of the King's Bench 
(1383-1386), whose daughter, Margaret, married the renowned Owen Glyndwr. His 
son, Pierce Lloyd, Esq. of Llugwy, was Sheriff in 1612. His descendant, Thomas 
Lloyd, Esq., died without legitimate issue, and the estate was sold after his death to 
Sir William Irby, Bart., afterwards Lord Boston. (Dwnrfs Vis., ii., p. 198.) The 
estate of Bodewrid became united in the latter half of the seventeenth century to that 
of Penrhos, by the marriage of Ann, daughter of Edward Wynn to Hugh Owen, Esq. 
ffb.J Margaret, daughter of lorwerth ab leuan Lloyd (eighth in descent from 
Gweirydd) married William ab leuan of Bryn Gwallanog, Anglesey, the ancestor of 
Sir William Williams, Speaker of the House of Commons (ante, p. 101), and through 
him of the Williams's of Bodelwyddan, and the Wynns of Wynnstay ( ' Ib. p. 266.) 


HE lived in the time of Merfyn Frych, King of Man, being his 
brother's son, with whom he came from the North of Britain, 
when Merfyn married Esyllt, the daughter and heir of Conan 
Tindaethwy, King of the Britons. His posterity were wise and 
discreet men in all their ages, and many of them learned in 
the laws and judges under the kings and princes of Wales, as 
Morgene Ynad ap Gwydr, and Cyfnerth his son, whose lawbook 
is yet extant, fairly written on parchment, Morgeneu Ynad ap 
Madog, Morgan Ynad ap Meuric, and Madog Coch Ynad. 1 
Robert ap Meredydd ap Hwlcyn Llwyd, a wise gentleman, lived 
in the time of Henry the Seventh, and of him are descended 


the Glynns of Nantlle; Sir William Glynn, Knight, of Glynllifon, 
father of Thomas Glynn of Glynllifon, Esq., and of Sir John 
Glynn, 2 Knight, Serjeant at law, now living ; the Glynns of 
Lleyar, &c. Cilmin dwelt at Glynllifon, from whence the 
gentlemen aforesaid took the name of Glynne. He beareth 
quarterly, first, argent, an eagle displayed with two heads sable; 
second, argent, three fiery ragged sticks gules ; the third as the 
second, the fourth as the first. Over all upon an escutcheon 
argent, a man's leg 3 couped a-la-cuise sable. 

1 A judge. 

- He was of Bicester, of Oxfordshire, and of Hawarden in Flintshire, and one of 
the Judges (if not Chief Justice) of the Common Pleas. Prior to him there occurs a 
William Glyn, Serjeant at Law, of the house of Glynllifon [near Carnarvon], now 
the seat of Lord Newborough. 

3 Hence arose the whimsical mistake in representing the sign of the principal Inn at 
Carnarvon, which is now painted and called the Boot ; whereas, without doubt, it was 
originally meant to hold out this armorial bearing as above blazoned, the house having 
always belonged to the estate of Glynllifon. The family arms have at all times been 
used as the signs of Inns ; and this alone can account for such appearances as Dragons, 
Bears, Lions, Spread Eagles, &c., hung out over doors, so little indicatory of what is 
expected within. 

[ADDENDA.] Cilmin Troed-du or ("the black foot") flourished about 830. His 
foot became so discoloured, according to the legend, in escaping from an evil spirit, 
whose books he had assisted a magician to steal. In leaping over a brook, which was 
to be the limit of the pursuit, Cilmin's left leg plunged into the water and assumed its 
black colour ( Pennant's Tours, ii., p. 391.) He is said to have been supreme judge of 
North Wales. 

The wife of Robert ab Meredydd ab Hwlcyn Llwyd, the ancestor of the Glyn's, was 
Catrin, daughter of William ab Jenkin, descended from Osbwrn Wyddel ( ' Dwmi's Vis., 
ii., p. 149, and ante, p. 16, note.) Extracts are given from Robert ab Meredydd's Will 
in Arch. Camb., 1883, p. 14. 

Thomas Glyn, Esq. of Nantlle, was sheriff for Carnarvonshire in 1627, and died in 
1659. He had several children, but the family is supposed to be now extinct ( 'Dwmfs 
Vis., ii., p. 149.) 

The Glyn's of Bryngwdion, were another branch. Richard Glyn, Esq. of Bryngwdion, 
was Sheriff for Carnarvonshire in 1634, an< ^ his Will was proved in 1642. His son, 
William Glyn, married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Richard Evans of Eleirnion, 
descended from RHYS AB TEWDWR (founder of the second Royal Tribe.) This family 
became extinct in the male line about the close of the seventeenth century (Arch. 
Camb., 1876, p. 1 80.) 

The fine old church of Clynog, Carnarvonshire, contains monuments to several 
members of the family of Glynne of Lleuar. William Glyn, Esq. of that place, died 
in 1660. His daughter and heiress, Mary, married Col. George Twisleton, and their 
granddaughter and eventual heiress of the estate, became the wife of Captain William 
Ridsdale, who sold the estates of his wife to Sir Thomas Wynn of Glynllifon, and was 
killed at Dettingen in 1743 (Dwmi's Vis., ii., p. 150.) 

The Glyns of Glynllifon, ended in an heiress, Frances, daughter of John Glyn, Esq., 
who married Thomas Wynn, Esq. of Boduan, and conveyed to him the Glynllifon 
estate. He was created a Baronet in 1742, and was the great grandfather of the 
present Lord Newborough. 

The distinguished lawyer, Sir John Glynne, Serjeant at Law above referred to, was 
born at Glynllifon in 1602, and by his ability, gained a prominent position at the bar. 
He took the popular side, and was one of the most active in prosecuting Strafford. In 
due time he was appointed Chief Justice during the Commonwealth. After the 
Restoration, being " wise and discreet," he managed to gain favour with Charles the 
Second, who not only knighted him, but bestowed on him the honour of prime 
Serjeant, and created his eldest son a Baronet. Sir John Glynne purchased the 
Ha warden Castle estate. He died in 1666. The late Sir Stephen Richard Glynne, 
the ninth Baronet, was his lineal descendant. He died in 1874 without issue, when 
the title became extinct, and the estates came into the possession of his sister, Catherine, 
wife of that distinguished statesman, orator, scholar, and writer the Right Hon. 
William Ewart Gladstone, M.P., the late Prime Minister. 

The Glyns of Ewell, Surrey (now represented by Sir George Turbervill Glyn, Bart.), 
and of Gaunts, Dorsetshire (whose present representative is Sir Richard George 
Glyn, Bart.), are both descended from the Rev. Richard Glyn, Rector of Llanfaethlu 
in 1587, a younger son of William Glyn of Glynllifon (Bur he's Peerage and 
Baronetage.) Ed. 

1 84 


HE is said to be Lord of Eifionydd, Ardudwy, and part of 
Llyn, and it is true that his progeny and posterity do to this 
day, possess and enjoy most of the said country. His grand- 
children Asser, Meirion, and Gwgan, the sons of Merwydd ap 
Collwyn, lived in the beginning of Griffith ap Cynan's reign, as 
by the life of Griffith ap Cynan is manifest, whereby may be 
known what time he lived and flourished. It is said he dwelt 
some time in Bronwen's tower at Harlech, calling the same town 
from his own name Caer Collwyn. But his said children, when 
Griffith ap Cynan first challenged the principality of Wales, 
lived in Ltyn, as in the said book of his life is extant. 
Collwyn's posterity were always the noblest and best men in 
Eifionydd and Ardudwy, next to the Princes and their issue. 
His heir, from eldest son to eldest, is hard to be known, in 
regard that by the British laws, every man's inheritance was to 
be divided between his children, and the youngest had the 
principal house, whereby every one having an equal portion of 
their parent's lands, their posterity was forgotten. Collwyn ap 
Tangno beareth sable between three flower-de-luces, a cheveron 
argent. Sir Hywel y Fwyall descended of Collwyn, was a 
noble warrior and was in the battle of Poictiers with the 
Black Prince, when the French King was taken prisoner, 
where with his pole-axe he behaved himself so valiantly that 
the prince made him a Knight, and allowed a mess of meat to 
be served before his axe or partizan for ever in perpetual 
memory of his good service ; which mess of meat after his 

death, was carried down to be given to the poor for his soul's 
sake, and the said mess had eight yeomen attendants found at 
the King's charge, which were afterwards called yeomen of the 
Crown, who had eight pence a day of standing wages, and lasted 
to the beginning of Queen Elizabeth (as by the relation of 
Serjeant Roberts of Hafod y Bwch, near Wrexham, and Robert 
Turbridge of Cae'r Fallen, near Ruthin, Esq., is recorded in the 
history of the noble house of Gwydir). Besides this he had 
the constableship of the Castle of Cricciaith, 1 where he kept 
house, and the rent of Dee Mills at Chester, for the term of 
his life. His father was Gruffudd ap Howel ap Meredydd ap 
Einion ap Gwganen ap Merwydd ap Collwyn. His arms were 
sable between three flower-de-luces a pole-axe argent? 

1 Cricciaith, though a contributory borough to Carnarvon, and governed by a Mayor 
and two Bailiff's, consists of a few miserable houses. The ruins of the Castle, which is 
boldly situated on a tongue of land jutting out into the sea, alone can claim the 
traveller's attention, and hereafter to any person who reading this may connect it with 
the history of Sir Howel, his mess and his pole-axe, it may, perhaps, become an object 
of more curious enquiry. [Criccieth has lately become a favourite watering place on 
account of the mildness and salubrity of its climate. The Commissioners appointed in 
1876 to inquire into Municipal Corporations, reported that Criccieth had long ceased 
to be one. Ed.~\ 

" To the head of this tribe, Sir John Vaughan, Knight, of Crosswood or Trawscoed 
in Cardiganshire, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, traced his lineage, as thus : 
Sir John Vaughan ap Edward ap Evan ap Richard ap Morris ap levan ap Llewelin ap 
Adda ap Meredydd ap Adda ap Llewelin ap Griffith ap Eynon ap Kadifor ap Collwyn 
ap Tangno. The present Lord Lisburne is a descendant of Sir John Vaughan [see ante, 
p. 97, note.] 

[ADDENDA.] Collwyn ab Tangno was descended from Cunedda Wledig, and 
flourished about the beginning of the eleventh century. He married Median Benllydan, 
granddaughter of Gwaethfoed Fawr of Powys, gread grandfather of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 


1 86 

by whom he had five sons, Ednowen, Merwydd Goch, Einion, Ednyvet, and Cadifor. 
He had also a son, Cynan, by another wife. Einion was the ancestor of the famous 
poet, Rhys Goch Eryri, who flourished about the year 1400, and lived on his own estate 
at Hafod Garregog, Beddgelert ; also of Robert of Lygun, another eminent bard. 
Cadifor was,as already stated, the ancestor of the Vaughans of Crosswood, now represented 
by the Earl of Lisburne. The following are some of the chief families, besides those 
already mentioned, belonging to this tribe. 

Wynn of Bodvel and Gwydir. John Wynn, Esq. of Bodvel, for his distinguished 
services as standard bearer in the battle of Norwich in 1549, obtained a grant of the 
Isle of Bardsey (which still belongs to his descendants), and of the Abbot of Bardsey's 
demesne house near Aberdaron. His son Hugh assumed the name of Bodvel or Bodville, 
and his great granddaughter, Sarah Bodville, coheiress of the estate, on failure of the 
male line, married Viscount Bodmin, son of John, Earl of Radnor. Mary, the other 
coheiress, married Hugh Cholmondeley, Esq., and their son, Robert, was raised to the 
peerage of Ireland as Viscount Cholmondeley of the second creation. From him is 
lineally descended the present Marquess of Cholmondeley. Sir Thomas Wynn, Bart. 
(Equerry to George the Second), descended from Thomas Wynn, Esq. of Boduan or 
Bodvean, youngest son of the above named John Wynn, married Frances, daughter 
and at last heiress of John Glynn, Esq., and so acquired the Glynllifon estate (see 
ante, p. 184). His grandson Sir Thomas Wynn, Bart., was, in 1776, created Baron 
Newborough in the peerage of Ireland. The present peer is his third son ( ' Burke's 
Peerage) . 

Bodwrda of Bodwrda. The male line of this family became extinct on the death of 
Hugh Bodwrda, Esq., Sheriff for Carnarvonshire in 1687. His daughter and heiress, 
Mary, carried the estate to her husband, George Coytmore, Esq. of Coytmore. Their 
granddaughter and heiress, Mary Coytmore, married Edward Philip Pugh, Esq. of 
Penrhyn, and had an only son, James Coytmore Pugh, Esq., who died without issue, 
and whose sister and heiress, Bridget, married in 1766, Col. Glynne Wynn, brother of 
the first Lord Newborough (Dwnifs Vis., ii., p. 248), by whom she had three sons who 
died issueless, and one daughter, Bridget, who married John Percival, fourth Earl 
of Egmont. 

Wynn of Pennardd. Mary, daughter and heiress of Hugh Wynn, Gent, of 
Pennardd, married Love Parry, Esq. of Cefn Llanfair, whose descendant, Sir Thomas 
Love Buncombe Jones Parry, Bart., now represents this family fib., p. 172). 

Ellis, Bronyfoel and Ystumllyn. Margaret, the heiress of this family, married 
Griffith Wynn, Esq. of Penyberth, whose family also belonged to this tribe. She died 
in 1712, and he in 1719. Their descendants for three generations held the property, 
but it has since repeatedly changed hands fib., p. 93). In 1837, the Ystumllyn estate 
was sold to the late Rowland Jones, Esq. of Broom Hall, to which place the portrait 

i8 7 

and coat of arms of Sir Howel y Fwyall was removed from Ystumllyn ( Cantb. Journal 
1860, p. 261.) It now belongs to Owen Lloyd Jones Evans, Esq., also maternally 
descended from Collwyn. 

Wynn of Gwynfryn. This family ended in an heiress, Mary, daughter of 
John Wynn, Esq., who, about the middle of the seventeenth century, married 
David Ellis, Esq. of Bodychen, descended from HWFA AB CYNDDELW, fourth in descent 
from whom was David Ellis Nanney, Esq., named ante, p. 176 (Dwnn's Vis., ii., 
pp. 96 and 171.) 

Vaughan, Aberkin. John Vaughan, Esq. of Aberkin, the last male representative 
of this family, died in 1730, leaving a daughter and coheiress, Ellen, who married the 
Rev. Griffith Williams, and their daughter, Ellinor, inherited the estate. She, in 1744, 
married William Wynn, Esq. of Wern, and their grandson, William Wynn, Esq. of 
Peniarth, succeeded to the property. He sold the Aberkin estate about 1821, to Lord 
Newborough's Trustees ( ' Ib., p. 182.) 

Vaughan of Talhenbont and Plas hen. Of this family was Dr. Richard Vaughan, 
Bishop of Bangor, Chester, and London, who died in 1607. By the marriage of Ann, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Vaughan, Esq. of Plas hen, with William 
Vaughan, Esq. of Corsygedol, the two estates were united. The Vaughans of 
Corsygedol, became extinct in the male line (see ante, p. 17), upon the death in 1791, of 
Evan Lloyd Vaughan, Esq., M.P. for Merioneth. They are now represented in the 
female line by Lord Mostyn (Hid.) Of this family also was Dr. Henry Rowlands, 
the eminent Bishop of Bangor, 1598-1615 ; whose munificent charities included the 
founding of a grammar school at Bottwnog, and of two fellowships at Jesus College, 
Oxford (Ib. p. 183.) 

Owen, Plasdu or Pencoed, Llanarmon, Lleyn. Of this family was John Owen, the 
famous Epigrammatist, who died in 1622, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral 
(Ib. p. 180.) 

Jones, Castellmarch, Lleyn. Sir William Jones, Knight, Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, Ireland, and afterwards Justice of the same Court in England, was of this family. 
He died 6th December, 1640, and was buried in Lincoln's Inn Chapel. His grand- 
daughter, Margaret, heiress of Castellmarch, married Sir William Williams, Bart, of 
Vaenol, whose grandson, in a drunken fit, bequeathed both estates to Sir Bourchier 
Wrey and his brother for life, with remainder to William the Third. They were 
granted afterwards by Queen Anne to the Right Hon. John Smith, Speaker of the 
House of Commons, in whose family they still remain (Nicholas's County Families.) 

Edwards, Nanhoron, claim descent from Sir Howel y Fwyall. Captain Timothy 
Edwards, great grandfather of the present owner of Nanhoron, Francis William Lloyd 
Edwards, Esq., was a very distinguished naval officer (Nicholas's County Families.) 

1 88 

Evans, Tanybwlch. Catherine, eldest daughter and eventually heiress of Evan 
Evans, Esq., married Robert Gruffudd, Esq. of Bach y saint, Carnarvonshire. Their 
descendant, Evan Gruffydd, Esq., left a daughter and heiress, Margaret, who married 
William Oakeley, Esq., from whom the present owner is descended (Dwnn's 
Vis., ii., p. 224.) 

Rhydderch, Tregayan, Anglesey. John Prytherch, Esq., the last male representative 
of this family, married Ann, daughter and heir of John Roberts, Esq. of Cwmister, and 
left an only daughter and heir, Ann, who, by her marriage with the Rev. Dr. Edmunds 
of Aber, left an only daughter, Margaret Edmunds, who married Robert Lloyd, Esq. 
of Gunys, Carnarvon. Their son, Robert Lloyd, Esq. of Tregayan, Vice Admiral R.N., 
left an only daughter, Margaret Hooper, who married Thomas Jones Parry, Esq. of 
Llwynon (Burkc's Landed Gentry.) Their grandson, Thomas Edward John 
Lloyd, Esq., the present owner assumed the name of Lloyd, on succeeding to his great 
grandfather's property (Nicholas's County Families.} 

Madryn of Madryn. William Madryn, Esq. of Madryn, sold this estate about the 
close of the seventeenth century, and this family has long been extinct in the male line 
( ' Dwnifs Vis., ii., p. 177.) 

Pennant speaks of Williams of Aberarch, Carnarvonshire, as being extant in his time. 
Also of the following as being extinct besides those above named : Wynn, Pant du ; 
Wynn, Bodsannan ; Lloyd, Bodfari ; Lloyd, Gardd; Lloyd, Dol penrhyn (Dwnrfs 
Vis. } ii. p. 281) ; and Owen, Maentwrog. Ed. 


HE was of Nant Conway, and lived in the time of Owain 
Gwynedd, who gave Idwal his son to be foster'd by him ; but 
he, for what reason I know not, caused Dunawt his son to kill 
the young prince at a place called of him, Cwm Idwal ; 
wherefore Nefydd and his posterity were degraded, and of 
gentlemen were made bondmen. His son, Rhyn, to expiate 
that foul murther, gave the lands whereon the church of Llanrwst 

1 89 

was built, whose grandchild 1 was steward to Llewelin ap lorwerth, 
prince of Wales. Doctor William Morgan, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
who assisted in the translation of the Bible, was lineally descended 
of him. He dwelt at Cryg-nant, Llanrwst. He beareth argent 
three spear's heads, imbrued sable pointed upwards. 2 

1 In the Churchyard of Llanrwst there is this inscription on his grave-stone : " Yma 
rwyfi yn gorwedd Madoc ap lorwerth ap Gwrgeneu Pen Ystiwart Arglwydd Cymru." 
[Here I lie, Madog ap lorwerth ap Gwrgeneu, Chief Steward of the Lord of Wales. 
This Madog is generally called Madog Goch. Ed.~\ 

5 Other authorities give, argent a chevron between three javelins sable pointed 
upwards gules. Ed. 

[ADDENDA.] Nefydd Hardd, or "the handsome" flourished about the middle of 
the twelfth century, and was lineally descended from Cunedda Wledig. He dwelt at 
Crygnant, Llanrwst. 

Of this tribe came the families of Morgan, Gwibernant ; Evans, Llanrwst ; and 
Davies, Coedymynydd, all of which are extinct in the male line ( Pennant.) The first 
of these produced that eminent and good prelate Dr. William Morgan already referred 
to ante, p. 90 ; Bishop of Llandaff in 1595, and translated in 1601 to St. Asaph, whose 
great work was the translation of the Bible into Welsh. He was an excellent scholar. 
He died on the loth September, 1604, at St. Asaph, where he was interred the following 
day. See the interesting correspondence between him and Sir John Wynn of Gwydir, 
ante, pp. 134 to 142. He was also descended from two other tribes, paternally from HEDD 
MOLWYNOG, and maternally from MARCHUDD AB CYNAN. The first edition of Morgan's 
Bible is now very scarce. Ed. 

i go 


HE was of Llechweddisaf and Creuddyn, and lived in the 
time of Prince David ap Owain, about the time of our Lord 
1 1 75, as Sir Thomas William's book averreth. The most famous 
men descended of him was Sir Thomas Chaloner, and others of 
that name, whose ancestor Trahaiarn Chaloner was so called 
because his grandfather Madoc Crwm had lived in a town in 
France called Chaloner, from whence he took that name. He 
beareth 1 argent on a chevron sable three angels or, by the name 
of Maeloc Crwm. 

1 I have seen the arms blazoned thus : argent on a chevron sable three angels 
kneeling with wings displayed or. 

[ADDENDA.] Llechwedd isaf and Creuddyn, of which Maelog Crwm (the hunch- 
back) was lord, are both in Carnarvonshire. He was descended from Helig ab Glannawg 
(Arch. Camb. 1861, p. 142), whose fine patrimony was overflowed about the commence- 
ment of the sixth century, and is now known by the name of the Lavan Sands. 
Others assign to him a different pedigree to Cunedda Wledig. By " the town in 
France called Chaloner " is probably meant Chalons, either Chalons-sur-Marne, the 
capital of the department of Marne ; or Chalons-sur-Saone, the capital of an 
arrondissement of the department of Saone et Loire. 

Trahaiarn de Chaloner was the son of Gwilym ab Madog ab Maelog Crwm, and took 
the lord of Chaloner prisoner in France, took possession of his lands and assumed his 
armorial bearings. He was the ancestor of the Chaloners of Lloran Ganol, Denbigh- 
shire, and of Chester, both extinct (Hist. Powys Facing, iv., p. 347.) Also of the 
Chaloners of Guisborough, Yorkshire, still extant and represented by Lieut-Col, and 
Admiral Thomas Chaloner, C.B., and others. Sir Thomas Chaloner of this line, was 
a celebrated writer and soldier, who was knighted by the Protector Somerset, at the 
battle of Musselburgh in 1347 (Burkes Landed Gentry.) Two of his grandsons 
were members of the Long Parliament, and sat as judges on the trial of Charles the 
First (Penny Cyd.)Ed. 


HE was Lord of Abergeleu, his house was Brynffanigl, he 
lived in the time of Rhodri mawr, 'King of the Britons, about 
the year of our Lord 846. Of him was Ednyfed Fychan 
descended, who being general of the prince's host, 1 was sent to 
the marches to defend the frontiers from the approach of the 
English army, which was ready to invade under the command 
of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, who met them and killed three 
of their chiefest captains, and a great many of the common 
soldiers : the rest he put to flight and triumphantly returned to 
Prince Llewelin ap lorwerth his Lord, who, in recompence of 
his good service, gave him, among many gifts, a new coat of 
arms ; for the coat which he and his ancestors had always 
given before, was the coat of Marchudd, viz. gules a Saracen's 
head crazed proper, wreathed or, whereas the new coat was 
gules between three Englishmen's heads couped a chevron ermin? 
From the death of the last Prince Llewelin, this man's progeny 
were the greatest men of any in Wales, as by the works of 

1 Llewelin ap lorwerth, commonly called Llewelin the Great, to whom Ednyfed was 
Privy Counsellor. 

- After this overthrow of the English, Ednyfed Fychan is said to have sung thus : 

" Llawer bron yn llai i'r brenin ; heddyw 

Hawdd i galon chwerthin, 
Llawer Sais lleibus llibin, 
A'r gro yn do ar ei din." Ednyfed Fychan ai cant. 

To-day the King is short of many a breast ; 
Now to the heart 'tis easy to be gay ; 
The length of many a Saxon licks the ground, 
Where lies the gravel heaped upon his back. 


the bards and other records is yet manifest. If I should go 
about to reckon all the famous men descended of him, it would 
far exceed the bounds of my undertaking. Let it suffice to 
remember Henry the Seventh, Henry the Eighth, Edward the 
Sixth, and Queen Elizabeth, all which are lineally and paternally 
descended of Ednyfed Fychan, and he of Marchudd. 1 

1 After this enumeration of crowned heads it may savour a little of the Bathos to 
particularize any descendants of inferior rank, such as Sir William Griffith of Penrhyn, 
surnamed the liberal, Chamberlain of North Wales, and the Lord Keeper Williams, 
Archbishop of York, and prior to them Llewelin ab Gwilym of Cryngae, near Newcastle 
Emlyn, Carmarthenshire, the patron of the Muses in his time, who was murthered at 
St. Dogmael's, near Cardigan, and whose fate was lamented by his favourite bard, 
Dafydd ab Gwilym, in a poem to be found in that bard's works lately published, 
page 459. Of the above, Llewelin ap Gwilym is lineally descended ; a gentleman now 
living who does honour to his great ancestor by his taste for encouragement of learning, 
and who himself has not unsuccessfully paid his devotion to the Muses, Maurice 
Morgan, Esq., the sole surviving representative of the ancient house of Llanbylan, 

N.B. This gentleman is author of the ingenious Essay on the character of 
Shakespeare's Falstaff. 

[ADDENDA.] To begin with royalty, the descent of Henry the Seventh from 
GRIFFITH AP CYNAN, head of the first Royal Tribe, has been already given, ante, p. 73, 
note. His descent from MARCHUDD, the founder of this important Tribe, was as 
follows : Henry the Seventh was the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond by 
his wife, Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John, Duke of Somerset, and granddaughter 
of John of Gaunt ; Edmund Tudor was the son of Sir Owen Tudor of Penmynydd, 
Anglesey, by Catherine of Valois, Queen and widow of Henry the Fifth. He was 
beheaded and buried at Hereford after the battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461. Besides 
Edmund, who predeceased him, he had issue, Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke (who 
died without issue) ; Owen Tudor, who became a monk ; and Tacina Tudor, wife of 
Reginald, Lord Grey de Wilton. Sir Owen Tudor was the son of Meredith, the son of 
Tudor, the son of Goronwy, the son of Tudor, the son of Goronwy, the son of Ednyfed 
Fychan, who was ninth in direct descent from Marchudd the head of this Tribe. 


Ednyfed Fychan, the able general and minister of Prince Llewelyn, lived about 1220, 
chiefly at Tregarnedd, near Llangefni, Anglesey, but occasionally also at Llys Bryn 
Eurin, near Abergele. He was twice married ; first, to Gwenllian, daughter of the 
Lord Rhys, grandson of RHYS AB TEWDWR, founder of the second Royal Tribe, by 
whom he had Gruffudd of Henglawdd ; Goronwy, Lord of Trecastle, Anglesey (ancestor 
of the Tudors) ; Gwenllian and Angharad ; secondly, to Eva, daughter of LLYWARCH 
AB BRAN, who brought him Tudor, who had Nant and Llangynhafal ; Howell, who 
became Bishop of St. Asaph ; Llewelyn and Cynwrig, who had the Creuddyn ; Rees, 
who had Garth Garmon ; and lorwerth, who had Abermarlais, and was the ancestor > 
in the maternal line of the redoubtable Sir Rhys ab Thomas (Divmi's Vis., i., p. 331 ; 
and ii., p. 101). 

From the above, it will be seen that the Tudors were descended from no less than 
three of the Royal and Noble Tribes of Wales. Sir Owen Tudor's first cousin, Morfydd, 
heiress of Penmynydd, married Gwilym ab Gruffydd of Cochwillan and Penrhyn, also 
a direct descendant from Ednyved Fychan, from whom lineally descended the Tudors, 
Theodors, and Owens of Penmynydd, the last of whom, Margaret, the heiress of the 
estate, married Coningsby Williams, Esq., M.P., who died without issue in 1707, where- 
upon her aunt, Mary, wife of Rowland Bulkeley, Esq. of Porthamel, inherited the 
property. Their daughter and heiress, Jane, wife of Richard Meyrick, Esq. of 
Bodorgan, also died without issue. The last descendant, male or female of the once 
powerful and illustrious family of Tudor, which supplied England with a race of Kings, 
is supposed to have been a humble individual named Moses Tudor, who kept a little 
school at Gaerwen in Anglesey, and who died in 1793. Penmynydd was sold in 1722 
to Viscount Bulkeley, and now forms part of the Baron Hill estate (Arch. Camb. 1869, 
p. 379, where a very full account may be found of Penmynydd and the Tudors). 

Gwilym ab Gruffydd was also the direct ancestor of Sir William Griffith of Penrhyn, 
above-named. Sir William was twice married, and had five sons and ten daughters, 
who married into some of the best Welsh and Cheshire families, and whose descendants 
are to this day very numerous. Pyrs Gruffydd (Sir William's grandson), bought and 
fitted out a ship at his own expense, and was present at the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada. He also accompanied Drake and Raleigh in a subsequent expedition against 
the Spaniards, but falling into pecuniary difficulties, his estate of Penrhyn was sold in 
1616, but in 1622 was purchased again by Lord Keeper Williams, who himself was a 
descendant through a female from its former possessors. Pyrs Gruffydd was buried in 
Westminster Abbey in 1628. The Penrhyn estate continued for several generations in 
the Williams family. Upon the death without issue of Sir Griffith Williams, Bart., it 
became vested in his eldest sister, Frances, wife of Lord Edward Russell. She also died 
without issue, and it passed to her sisters, Anne, wife .of Thomas Warburton, Esq., and 
Gwen, wife of Sir Walter Yonge. Mrs. Warburto'n's moiety descended to her grand- 



daughter, Susannah Anne Warburton, who, on 6th December, 1765, married Richard 
Pennant, Esq., afterwards created Lord Penrhyn, by whose father, John Pennant, Esq. 
<of the line of TUDOR TREVOR), the other moiety had been purchased from the Yonge 
family. His lordship died without issue in 1808, when the title became extinct, and by 
his Will, the estate passed to his cousin, George Hay Dawkins, Esq., who, on the site 
of the ancient castle of Penrhyn, erected one of the most magnificent modern baronial 
mansions in these kingdoms. It is now the property of his grandson, the second Lord 
Penrhyn of the second creation (Dwmfs Vis., ii., p. 168.) 

Of Marchudd's descendants the following families are still extant in the male line : 
Wynn of Melai and Maenan Abbey, now represented by Lord Newborough (see ante, 
p. 186) ; Foulkes of Eriviatt, whose present representative is John Jocelyn Foulkes, Esq. ; 
Lloyd of Forest, Pontruffydd and Pengwern, now represented by Lord Mostyn (Hist. 
Powys Fadog, v., p. 300) ; Wynn of Coed Coch and Trefarth or Trofarth, represented 
by Henry John Lloyd Wynn, Esq. of Coed Coch fib., p. 322) ; Griffith of Garreglwyd, 
represented by Miss Conway Griffith, of Garreglwyd ; Williams of Marl, a branch of 
the Cochwillan family, now represented by Sir Richard Williams-Bulkeley, Bart, of 
Baron Hill ; Williams of Ystumcolwyn, another branch of the same family now 
represented by Rhys Buckley Williames, Esq. of Pennant, Montgomeryshire ; and 
Morgan of Golden Grove, Flintshire, now represented by George Augustus 
Morgan, Esq. of that place (Dwnii's Vis., ii., p. 297). 

The following appear to be extinct or merged in other families through inter- 
marriage : Wynne of Garthewin, who became extinct in the male line on the death 
(30th November, 1844) f Lieut. Col. R. William Wynn ; Wynn of Dyffryn Aled, whose 
heiress, Diana, was married to Philip Yorke, Esq. of Erthig, author of The Royal 
Tribes of Wales, and his family is now represented by Pierce Wynne Yorke, Esq. of 
Dyffryn Aled, and Simon Yorke, Esq. of Erthig ; Lloyd of Gydros ; Roberts of 
Gwysaney ; Lloyd of Dol Edeyrn (Dwmfs Vis., ii., p. 253) ; Lloyd of Trebul ; 
Vaughan of Henblas and Bronheulog ; Llewelyn of Llanelian ; Jones of Maesygarnedd, 
of whom was Col. Jones "the Regicide" ( Byegones, 1872-3) ; Jenkin of Efenechtyd ; 
Howel of Maelienydd ; Griffith of Festiniog ; Dr. William Hughes, bishop of St. 
Asaph, whose daughter and heiress married a member of the Mostyn family ( ' Dtvmfs 
Vis., ii., p. 299) ; Smith, Chancellor of St. Asaph ; Wynn of Giler (Hist. Powys 
Fadog, v., p. 393) ; Hughes of Cefnygarlleg and Prestatyn ; Conway of Nant ; Lloyd 
of Kinmael, whose heiress married a Holland, and after some generations, the heiress of 
Kinmael (a Holland) married Sir John Carter, one of Cromwell's officer's (see ante, 
p. 113, note) ; Lloyd of Plymog (see ante, p. 109, note) ; Anwyl of Garth Garmon 
(Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 301) ; Williams of Cochwillan, Vaynol, and Meillionydd, one 
of the greatest families in Carnarvonshire in its day, who intermarried with the powerful 
families of Wynn of Gwydir, Salesbury of Denbigh, &c. The elder branch of 


Cochwillan has been extinct for many generations. One of its most distinguished 
members was the redoubtable Lord Keeper Williams, already referred to, who was in. 
great favour with James the First and Charles the First. He was promoted to the 
Bishopric of Lincoln in 1621, and translated to the Archbishopric of York, 4th De- 
cember, 1641. He died 2510 March, 1650. The extinction of the Vaenol branch has 
already been shewn (ante, p. 187) ; and the Meillionydd branch ended in Sir Robert 
Williames Vaughan, Bart., who died in 1859. The learned Dr. John Davies of Mallwyd, 
was also of this tribe, see ante, p. 93. Ed. 


HE was of Uwch Aled in Denbighshire, his lands and Lordships 
were Llanfair Talhaiarn, Dyffryn Elwy, and Nant Aled, the which 
his three sons, Menter, Gwillonon, and Gwrgi divided, whose 
posterity have enjoyed and still do enjoy some part of them, 
even to our time. Rhys ap levan ap Llywelin Chwith of 
Chwibren, was an Esquire of the body to King Edward the 
Fourth, who, with his cousin german David Jenkin, were both 
very unruly in the Lancastrian war. Meurick Llwyd of Llwyny- 
maen, near Oswestry, a descendant of Hedd Molwynog, was a 
valiant captain under the Earl of Arundel, who, by his prowess, 
achieved a very noble coat of arms, viz. argent an eagle 
displayed with two heads sable. And here I think lolo Goch, 
Owain Glyndwr's bard, whose mother was the Countess of 
Lincoln (as Griffith Hiraethog saith), may well* bear a place 
among the worthies descended from this line, who, for his lofty 
strain and singular skill in the British poetry, was, and is as 
as famous and renowned as any that hath been these four 
hundred years ; and also Tudur Aled, another learned bard and 


a doctor of the Chair in his profession. But their works which 
are still preserved will better speak for them. The arms given 
by this tribe are sable a hart passant argent attired or. 

[ADDENDA.] Hedd Molwynog was descended from Rhodri Mawr, King of all Wales, 
and flourished during the latter half of the twelfth century. He lived at Henllys, in 
the parish of Llanfair Talhaiarn, Denbighshire, where the site of his palace may still be 
seen ; and in Pennant's time, a field called " Maes y Bendithion " (the field of blessings), 
marked the spot where the poor received his alms. He was steward to Prince David 
ab Owen Gwynedd (1170-1195), whom he assisted to carry fire and sword through 
England, even to the walls of Coventry. 

The descendants of Hedd Molwynog in the male line are supposed to be all extinct 
at the present day. The most important, perhaps, of the families that have become 
extinct was that of Lloyd of Hafodunos (near Abergele). The founder of this house 
was Bleddyn ap Bleddyn Fychan, who, according to Pennant, first assumed the name 
of Llwyd, and " peopled North Wales with Llwyds." Meurig Llwyd, referred to in the 
text, was his son. He, resenting the injuries which he and his tenants received from the 
English judges and officers, slew one of the first, and hanged several of the latter, on 
the oaks of his woods, by which he forfeited to the Crown his lands. He secured his 
life by taking refuge within a santuary at Halston. He afterwards placed himself under 
the protection of the Earl of Arundel, and was made captain over a band of soldiers, 
with whom he joined the Crusades. He had a command at the Siege of Acre, where 
he distinguished himself in recovering from the enemy the standard of the Emperor, 
by whom he was rewarded with a new coat of arms as stated above. On h'is return to 
Wales, he married Annesta, heiress of Llwynymaen and Llanforda, and was the 
progenitor of the Lloyds of those places and of Drenewydd (Whittington), Blaen lal, 
and Blaen y Ddol. Edward Llwyd, the eminent Welsh antiquary (who died in 1709), 
was a natural son of Edward Lloyd, the last male representative of the Llanforda branch. 
The estate had been sold in 1675, to Sir William Williams, Bart., and it still remains 
the property of his descendant, Sir Herbert Lloyd Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart. 

The last male representative of the Lloyds of Hafod Unos (Hedd Lloyd), died without 
issue in 1739. His* sister, Phoebe Lloyd, heiress of Hafodunos, married Howell 
Lloyd, Esq. of Wigfair, descended from EDNOWAIN BENDEW (Tribe xiii). Their 
descendant, the Rev. Thomas Hugh Clough, in 1830-1, sold Hafodunos to Samuel 
Sandbach, Esq. 

Geoffrey Lloyd of Dyffryn Erethlyn, was the ancestor of the Lloyds of Palau, near 
Corwen. Evan Lloyd of Palau, married I2th July, 1591, being then sixteen years of 
age, and his wife eleven, by whom he had two sons and ten daughters. The male line 

ended in 1863 on the death of David Maurice Lloyd, Esq. of Palau, and some years 
afterwards the Palau estate was sold to Henry Robertson, Esq. (Hist. Powys Fadog, vi., 
P- 105.) 

The Lloyds of Bach Eurig (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 183) ; Lloyd of Erw Cynddel 
(Ib. p. 184) ; Lloyd of Rhandir ( Ib. p. 388) ; Wynn of Bryn Cynwrig (Ib.) ; Wynn 
of Giler ( ' Ib. v., p. 391) ; and according to Pennant, Parry of Llangernyw ; Griffiths 
of Bodychwyn ; Griffiths of Hafodygarreg ; Griffiths of Blaen lal ; and Griffiths of 
Plasnewydd ; to whom may be added the Lloyds of Llansannan, afterwards of Plas 
Power, and now represented in the female line by T. L. Fitzhugh, Esq. ; were all of 
this Tribe, but have long been extinct or may be traced now in the female line only. 

lolo Goch, above referred to, was one of the most eminent poets of the Principality. 
He was lord of Llechryd and resided at Coed Pantwn, Llanefydd, Denbighshire. His 
stirring Odes roused the spirit of his countrymen against the English during Owen 
Glyndwr's insurrection. He obtained extreme old age, and was living in 1402. Some 
of his poems have lately been published by the Cymmrodorion Society. 

Tudur Aled lived at Garth Geri, Llansannan, Denbighshire, and was a Dominican 
friar. He was a nephew and pupil of Dafydd ab Edmund, another very eminent poet, 
and flourished from 1480 to 1520. 

Edmund Prys, the learned Archdeacon of Merioneth, and one of the most eminent 
poets of his time, is stated (~ante, p. 93, note) to have belonged to the Tribe of Marchudd, 
but according to a pedigree in Dwmfs Vis., ii., p. 285, he descended from Hedd 
Molwynog. He was born at Gerddi Bluog, Llandecwyn, Merionethshire, about 1541 ; 
but resided, in after life, at Tyddyn Du, Maentwrog. He composed the Welsh 
metrical version of the Psalms still in use, and assisted Bishop Morgan in translating the 
Bible into Welsh. He died in 1624. Ed. 


HE was of Is Dulas, and lived about the time of the sons of 
Roderick the Great. His progeny did not much increase, for 
there are not many at present known to be descended of him, 
His arms are vert a Cross Fleury or. 


[ADDENDA.] The time above ascribed to the founder of this Tribe, by Gutyn 
Owain and others, is the latter half of the ninth century. Rhodri Mawr (Roderick the 
Great) died in 877. The Welsh Bruts, however (see " Brut Tysilio," Myv. Arch., Gee's 
Edition, p. 473), say that he lived at a much earlier date, being nephew of Cadwallon, 
King of North Wales, 630-632 ; that he first distinguished himself in his uncle's 
service against Edwin, King of Northumberland, but the latter being victorious, he 
was compelled to flee to Ireland, and thence to Brittany ; that his return to Britain 
was prevented for some time by Edwin with the help of Pelidys, a Spanish magician ; 
but that at length, Braint disguised as a vagabond with a staff, in the head of which 
was a blade of iron, went over and reached York where Edwin held his court, and when 
the magician came out to distribute alms, Braint slew him with the blade of his staff, 
and then went to Exeter, where he summoned the Britons to join him, and was thus 
enabled to recover the country from the Saxons and restore the sovereignty to Cadwallon, 
who slew Edwin in the battle of Hatfield, 633 ( Williams 's Em. Welshmen.) There is not, 
it seems, a single family at the present day that can trace its descent direct through the 
male line to Braint Hir. Pennant and Yorke (Tracts of Powys) mention the family of 
Vaughan of Pont y Gwyddyl, now extinct, as belonging to this Tribe. Ed. 


HE was called Lord of Isaled, his lands were Carwed Fynydd, 
Dincadfael, Frees, Berain, Llyweni, Gwytherin, and many other 
townships within the said hundred of Isaled in Denbighshire, as 
appears by the Extent of the Lordship and Honour of Denbigh, 
made in the eighth year of Edward the Third, at what time 
Cynwric Fychan, being the ninth in descent from Marchweithian 
lived, whereby some aim may be made of the time when the 
head of this tribe flourished. The families descended of him are 
many, but the most eminent are these: Berain, now incorporated 
to the house of Llyweny by the marriage of Catherine, daughter 
and heir of Tudur ap Robert Fychan of Berain, Esq., with 
John Salisbury, son and heir of Sir John Salisbury of Llyweni, 


Knight, after whose death she married Richard Clough of Den- 
bigh, Esq., a Hamburgh merchant ; and for her third husband, 
Moris Wynn of Gwyder, Esq. ; and for her fourth, Edward 
Thelwall of Plas-y-ward, Esq. Of Marchweithian are likewise 
descended Wynn of Foelas ; Price of Rhiwlas, whose ancestor, 
Robert ap Rees, being chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey, was a very 
great man in the time of Henry the Eighth. Ellis Price of 
Plas lollin, doctor of laws, who was one of the scholars of 
Cambridge that disputed with one Throgmorton and other 
scholars of Oxford and Cambridge, in the year of our Lord, 
1532, and got the best, as Caius in the first book of the 
antiquities of Cambridge affirmeth ; Vaughan of Pant Glas, and 
many others. Marchweithian gave for his arms, gules a lion 
rampant argent armed azure. 

[ADDENDA.] Marchweithian was lineally descended from Coel Godhebog, King of 
Britain, and lived about the middle of the eleventh century. His palace was at Llyweni 
in the Vale of Clwyd, now little better than a farmhouse. 

Some particulars have already been given (ante, p. 82, note) respecting the famous 
Catherine of Berain, her four husbands, and her numerous descendants. Her second, 
and it seems her favourite husband, Sir Richard Clough, was an eminent merchant and 
partner of the celebrated Sir Thomas Gresham, who, at his suggestion erected the 
Royal Exchange. 

Rhys Fawr ab Meredydd, twelfth in descent from Marchweithian, was entrusted with 
the Standard of England, by the Earl of Richmond, at the Battle of Bosworth, after 
Sir William Brandon had been prostrated by King Richard the Third, and was, as his 
name implies a man of great stature. He and his descendants bore gules a lion rampant 
argent holding in its paws a rose of the second seeded or, stem and leaves proper. 
He was buried at Ysbytty Ifan Church, Denbighshire, where alabaster effigies of himself 
and his wife may now be seen. The latter was Lowry, daughter and heiress of Howel 
ab Gruffydd Goch, Lord of Rhos and Rhufoniog, by whom Rhys had five sons, namely, 


Howel, Maurice, Robert, David, and Cadwaladr ; and six daughters, Eva, Gwenhwyfar, 
Margaret, Annes, Catherine, and Elizabeth (Dunn's Vis., ii., p. 343). From Rhys 
Fawr descended the families of Voelas, Rhiwlas, Cerniogau, Pantglas, Giler, and 
several others. 

Maurice ap Rhys Fawr had two sons, Cadwalader and Robert Wynn Gethin, who 
obtained Grants from Henry the Eighth, of Voelas, Cerniogau, and other lands. By 
Deed of Partition in 1546, between them, Cadwalader took Voelas, and Robert, 
Cerniogau, with their adjacent tenements respectively (Camb. Journal, 1855, p. 181). 
Cadwalader's son, Robert, took the name of Wynn. His lineal descendant, Jane 
Wynn, daughter and heiress of Watkin Wynne, Esq., was married in 1775 to the 
Hon. Charles- Finch, second son of the Earl of Aylesford, and the estate now belongs 
to their great grandson, Col. Charles Arthur Wynne Finch. Robert Wynn Gethin of 
Cerniogau's great granddaughter and heiress of that estate, married Richard Kenrick, Esq. 
of Woore Manor, whose descendants are now extinct in the male line. The estate was 
sold to a Mr. Blair, and about 1840, purchased of him by Mr. Wynne of Voelas, whereby 
the two estates became re-united in the line of their ancient possessors ( ' Ib.) The 
Prices of Gilar also descended from Cadwalader ap Maurice. To this family belonged 
Robert Price, Baron of the Exchequer and afterwards Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas, who successfully opposed the grant by William the Third, to William Bentinck, 
Earl of Portland, of the Townships of Denbigh, 'Bromfield, and Yale. He died in 
1732 (Arch. Camb., 1860, p. 121). 

Robert ap Rhys Fawr, Chaplain and Cross bearer to Cardinal Wolsey, obtained a 
grant of the lands of Cwm Tirmynach and Moch or Boch Rhaiadr, now comprised in 
the estate of Rhiwlas held by his descendants. He was the father of thirteen sons and 
four daughters, among the former being Dr. Ellis Prys of Plas lolyn ; Cadwaladr of 
Rhiwlas (ancestor of R. J. Lloyd Price, Esq. of Rhiwlas, near Bala) ; Richard, Abbot 
of Aberconwy (from whom came the Wynns of Plas Newydd, now extinct) ; Hugh, an 
Abbot, &c. ( Dwnti's Vis., ii., pp. 229 and 344). Ellis Prys, known as " the Red 
Doctor," represented Merioneth in three Parliaments, and was Sheriff of that and 
other Counties no less than fifteen times, namely, of Merioneth eight times, Carnarvon 
once, Anglesey twice, and Denbigh four times. He obtained grants from the Crown, 
of lands of the Knights Hospitallers in Yspytty Ifan. Pennant describes him as "a 
creature of Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and devoted to all his bad designs." He was 
living in 1605. His son, Capt. Thomas Prys of Plas lolyn, was an excellent poet. He 
fitted out a privateer against the Spaniards, and he and Capt. William Middleton and 
Capt. Huet (or Koet), are said to have been the first who smoked tobacco in the streets 
of London. His great granddaughter, Elizabeth Pryse, heiress of Plas lolyn, and Lady 
of the Manor of Yspytty Ifan, married Robert Edwards, Esq. of Gallt y Celyn, 
Yspytty Ifan (Hist. Powys Fadog, iv., p. 107). 


Dr. Humphrey Humphreys, an eminent Bishop of Bangor, and afterwards of 
Hereford, was of this tribe. He was born in 1648, and died in 1712, and was the author 
of additions to Wood's Athenx Oxonienses. He inherited Cesail Gyfarch, in the 
County of Carnarvon, from his mother. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Dr. Robert Morgan, Bishop of Bangor, by whom he had two daughters. 

The following families are also named by Pennant, as descended from March weithian, 
all of them, however, I believe, being now extinct or only represented in the female line, 
namely, Wynn of Llangynhafal ; Panton of Coleshill Manor, Flintshire ; Parry of 
Tywysog and Pistyll (Hist. Powys Fadog, vi., p. 437) ; Price of Tyddyn Sieffrey ; 
Price of Cwm Mein ; Price of Fedw deg ; Price of Llanrwst ; Price of Dugoed, 
Penmachno ; Wynn of Hafod y Maidd ; Foulkes of Llys Llywarch fib., p. 238) ; 
Foulkes of Carwed Fynydd, and Meiriadog (Ib., p. 235) ; Vaughan of Pantglas, whose 
eventual heiress, Anne Vaughan, married Sir Hugh Williams, Bart, of Marl (Hist. 
Pbwys Fadog, v., p. 407) ; Vaughan of Blaenycwm ; Vaughan of Llysfaen ; Williams 
of Aberconwy ; Williams of Hafod Garregog ; Wynn and Foulkes of Plasnewydd ; 
and Davies of Llathwryd. Ed. 


EDWIN, commonly called King of Tegaingl, had a son, Owen, 
whose daughter, Angharad, was married to Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
King of Gwynedd or North Wales. Many worthy and noble 
gentlemen in Flintshire and Denbighshire, are descended of him, 
as the Bishop of Bangor now living; 1 Thomas Owen, a Judge 
of the Common Pleas, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, father 
of Sir Roger Owen, late of Condover, Knight ; Howel Gwynedd, 
a very valiant and stout man, who, siding with Owen Glyndwr 
against Henry the Fourth, did much annoy the English ; but 

1 Probably Dr. William Roberts, consecrated Bishop of Bangor, September, 1637, 
and who died in August, 1665, aged eighty. He was a prelate distinguished for his- 
piety and charity. His portrait is preserved at Pontruffydd, near Denbigh. Ed. 



on a time being more secure than he ought to have been, he 
was taken by his adversaries of the town of Flint, who, upon 
a place called Moel-y-gaer, cut off his head. And long before 
that time one Owen ap Aldyd, grandchild to Edwin, by force 
of arms kept all Tegaingl in subjection nothwithstanding all the 
power of King, Lord, and Country to the contrary. He beareth 
argent between four Cornish crows armed gules a cross Fleury 
engrailed sable}- 

1 From Edwin was descended Sir Thomas Powell, one of the Judges of the Kings 
Bench in the time of William the Third, and the present family of Nanteos in 
Cardiganshire ; as likewise the Gwyns of Mynachdy, in the same County. [Sir 
Thomas Powell was appointed Judge, in April, 1687, but his judicial career terminated 
a few months afterwards with the flight of the King, James the Second. Ed.~\ 

[ADDENDA.] Edwin was the great great grandson of Hywel Dda, and flourished 
about the middle of the eleventh century. His mother was Ethelfleda, daughter and 
heiress of Edwin, Earl of Mercia, and relict of Edmund Ironside, King of England. 
His patrimony of Tegaingl is a division of Flintshire, comprising the hundreds of 
Rhuddlan, Coleshill, and Prestatyn ; and he held his Court at a place called Llys Edwin, 
in the parish of Llaneurgain (Anglicc, Northop). He married Gwerydd or Ewerydda, 
sister of BLEDDYN AB CYNFYN, by whom he had three sons, Owain, Uchdryd, and 
Hywel. He was slain in 1073, and buried at Northop. 

Owain succeeded his father as Prince of Tegaingl. He bore gules three men's legs 
conjoined at the thighs in triangle argent. He died of consumption in 1103. By his 
wife, Morfudd, daughter of Goronwy ab EDNOWAIN BENDEW (chief of the thirteenth 
Noble Tribe), he had, besides the daughter, Angharad above referred to as the wife of 
GRUFFUDD AB CYNAN, five sons, Goronwy, Meilir, Llewelyn, Aldud, and Rhirid. These 
were the ancestors of the Lloyds of Hersedd, Ffern, and Llwyn Yn ; Pryse, Llwyn Yn ; 
Edwards of Stansty, Rhual, Gallt Celyn, Crogen Iddon, and Glyn ; Evans, Coedllai and 
Treuddyn ; Lloyd, Pentrehobin ; Wynn, Copa'r leni ; Parry, Llaneurgain ; Griffith 
of Garn ; Wynn of Nerquis. 

Uchdryd became lord of Cyfeiliog and Meirion. His first wife was Agnes, daughter 
of Llewelyn Aurdorchog ("of the golden torque"), lord of lal, who bore him lorwerth, 
Idnerth Benfras, Llawdden, and Philip of Cyfeiliog, ancestor of the old families of 

Abergwidol, Gelligoch, Caelan, and others in the hundred of Cyfeiliog. By his second 
wife, Angharad, daughter of Meredydd ab Bleddyn, he had a son, Meredydd, ancestor 
of the Owens of Llynlloedd, Tedsmore, Woodhouse, Condover, and Bettws 
Cedewain ; the Powells of Nanteos ; and the Bromfields of Bromfield. 

Hywel married Janet, daughter of Ithel ab Eynydd, lord of Trefalun. 

Howel Gwynedd, referred to in the text, was seventh in descent from Uchdryd 
ab Edwin. 

Sir Thomas Owen, above referred to, was a man of great legal erudition, and was 
Judge of the Common Pleas, from January 2ist, 1594, until his death, December 2ist, 
1598. His son, Sir Roger Owen, distinguished himself among the literary men of his 
day, and was an active Member of Parliament. Both he and several of his successors 
filled the office of Sheriff, and the estate of Condover still remains with the family ; 
though this and the other branches of the Owen family above named, have long been 
extinct in the direct male line. 

Dr. David Powell, Vicar of Rhiwabon, a learned divine and eminent antiquary, born 
about 1522, died in 1598, was descended from Uchdryd ab Edwin. He was Chaplain to 
Sir Henry Sidney, Lord President of the Marches, published several works of great 
learning, and rendered essential assistance to Dr. Morgan in the translation of the 
Bible into Welsh. 

The only families of this tribe that I can find to be still extant in the male line, are those 
of Griffith of Garn, now represented by William Douglas Wynne Griffith, Esq. of Garn, 
near Rhyl ; and Powell of Nanteos. 

In addition to the other families above named, all of which are extinct, or only extant 
in the male line, may be added the Mostyns of Llys Pengwern, Mostyn and Talacre, 
who are maternally descended from Edwin (Hist. Powys Fadog ; Arch. Camb. ; 
Dwnn's Vis., &c.jEct. 


HE was Lord of Tegaingl in the year of our Lord 1079, as 
the book of Ednop saith, and it is said by Peter Ellis the 
counsellor to be the chief of the fifteen Peers of North Wales. 
Of him are descended Ithel ap Rotpert, Archdeacon of Tegaingl; 


all the Bithels ; the Hanmers ; and many other noted families. 
He beareth argent between three Boars' heads couped a chevron 

[ADDENDA.] Ednowain Bendew (" the strong skulled "), is supposed to have lived 
at Llys y Coed, in the parish of Cilcain, in the county of Flint ; and that he had a 
mansion also at Tymaen, in the parish of Whiteford, in the same county (Pennant's 
Tours in Wales, iii., pp. 159 and 446). His wife was Gwerful, daughter of Lluddoca ab 
TUDOR TREVOR, Earl of Hereford, head of the Tribe of the Marches. An old MS. 
states of him that " he was brave, for he killed a wild boar without help" (Dwmi's 
Vis., ii., p. 83), 

Ithel ap Rotpert, above referred to, was living in 1393 (Pennants Hist, of Whiteford 
and Holy-well, p. 1 1 9). 

Dr. Richard Davies, Bishop successively of St. Asaph and St. David's, one of the 
translators of the Old Testament into English, and of the New Testament and Liturgy 
into Welsh, was of this Tribe (see ante, p. 92, note). 

Pennant (Tours in Wales, iii., p. 446) gives the following list of families in his time 
xtant in the male line : Lloyd of Wigfair ; Foulkes of Mertyn ; Griffith of Rhual ; 
Hughes of Halkin and Bagillt ; and Griffith of Plas isaf, Caerwys. The Lloyds of 
Wigfair, became extinct in the male line on the death of John Lloyd, Esq., F.R.S. and 
M.P. for Flintshire in 1815, unmarried. John Inglis Jones, Esq. of Derry Ormond, in 
the county of Cardigan, also claims direct descent from Ednowain Bendew (Nicholas's 
County Families, p. 197). 

The following families are enumerated by Pennant; among those that are extinct 
or only represented in the female line belonging to this tribe, all in Flintshire : 

Wynns of Galedlom and Caerwys ; the Facknalts of Facknalt ; Pugh of Ysceifiog ; 
Piers of Llanasaph ; Parry of Coleshill and Basingwerk ; Griffith of Pantyllongdy, 
Llanasa ; Griffith of Caerwys Hall ; Evans of Llaneurgain (Northop). The heiress of 
this family (Martha, daughter of Thomas Hughes, Esq.), about the middle of last 
century, married Edward Pryse Lloyd, Esq. of Glansevin, in the county of Carmarthen, 
whose descendant, Morgan Pryse Lloyd, Esq. of that place, is now the representative of 
this family (Arch. Camb., 1863, p. 248), and (Dwmi's Vis., ii., p. 326). Jones of 
Ysceifiog ; of this family was John Jones, Esq. of Gelli lyfdy, a great collector of Welsh 
MS., which now form part of the Hengwrt collection at Peniarth (see ante, p. 115)! 
Williams, Colomendy, Ysceifiog ; and Hughes of Coedybrain. Ed. 



COMMONLY called the son of Gwenllian, the daughter of Rhys 
ap Marchen, who was Lord of seven townships in Dyffryn 
Clwyd, called Ruthin land, viz. Tref Ben-y-Coed, and Efenechdyd, 
y Groes-lwyd, Pant Meugen, and three more, all freehold land, 
and had no children only Gwenllian aforesaid, which by the 
means of Bleddyn ap Cynfin, King of Wales, was given in 
marriage to this Efnydd's father, being of a near kindred unto 
the said King, who gave him seven 1 other townships, viz. Almor, 
Tref Alen, Gresfordd in Bromfield, Lleprog-fawr, Lleprog-fechan, 
and Tref y nant in Tegaingl, &c. He had a daughter called 
Hunydd, who was the wife of Meredydd ap Bleddyn, Prince of 
Powys. Of this Efnydcl, was descended John Almor, one of 
the Marshalls of the Hall to King Henry the Seventh, father 
of John Almor, Serjeant at Arms to King Henry the Eighth, 
who bore for his arms, azure a lion rampant or armed and 
langued gules. Sir William Meredith of England, is also of 
this tribe. Efnydd's Coat was, azure a lion saliant or, where- 
with he quartered his mother's, being azure between three Nag's 
heads erased argent a fess or. 

1 Only six townships are named. Ed. 

[ADDENDA.] Of Efnydd or Eunydd, who flourished about the close of the eleventh 
century, some particulars have already been given (ante, p. 43, note). His father was, 
it is there stated, Gwernwy, a cousin of BLEDDYN AB CYNFYN, but Dwnn (Vis., ii., 
pp. 83 and 355) states him to have been Morien ap Morgeneu ap Gwerystan ap 
Gwaethfoed, lord of Powys, and that Eunydd, with HEDD MOLWYNOG and 
MARCHWEITHIAN, had the distinction of being constituted heads of tribes conferred 
upon them on account of their bravery at the Battle of Coventry (Ib.j 


Eunydd married Eva, daughter and heiress of Llywelyn ab Dolphyn ab Llywelyn 
Aurdorchog, lord of the townships of Aelhaiarn, Llygadog, Ucheldref, Garthaiarn, 
Llandderfel, Caer Gilor, and Saith Marchog. By this lady he had issue, two sons, 
Ithel and Heilyn, and a daughter, Hunydd above named (Hist. Powys Fadog, iii., 

P- 193)- 

Pennant gives the following list of Eunydd's descendants, all extinct, or in the female 
line only : Simunt of Coedllai ; Prichard of Caergwrle ; Rogers of Flint ; Meredydd 
of Trefalun ; Meredith of Pentrebychan ; Meredith of Stansty ; Almor of Almor ; 
Alynton of Alynton ; and Lloyd of Gresford and Alynton. 

The Almors and Alyntons took their names from the townships where they resided 
the latter being simply a translation of Trefalun. The first to assume the name of 
Almor, was John ap levan ap David, ninth in descent from Eunydd, through his son 
Ithel. The Almors became extinct in the male line about the commencement of the 
seventeenth century (Dwnn's Vis., ii., p. 355)- 

Mallt, the heiress of Trefalun, married Richard Trevor, descended from Ednyfed Gam 
of Llys Pengwern. By this alliance, the Trevors became possessed of Trefalun, which 
is still in the possession of their descendants (Hist. Powys Fadog, iii., p. 194). Of this 
family was Sir Thomas Trevor, Lord Chief Justice of England, created Baron Trevor 
in 1711. 

The Merediths of Pentrebychan maternally descended from Eunydd, are now 
represented by Lieut.-Col. Henry Warter Meredydd (see ante, p. 106). 

Sir Frederick Hughes, Bart, of East Bergholt, Suffolk (being the seventh Bart.), 
claims direct descent from Eunydd (Nicholas's County Families, p. 397). Ed. 


HE is by many writers called Lord of Merionydd ; but I appre- 
hend erroneously, for the Princes and their issue were always 
Lords of Merionydd. Howbeit it might be that he (as others) 
took the same to farm and therefore might be called lord 

1 William Lleyn, the bard, out of an old book written in the days of Edward the 
First, by one David Scrivenor, to one lorwerth ap Llewelyn ap Tudur, a descendant of 
this chief, gives the Bradwen [Pedigree] thus : Bradwen ap Mael ap Bleddyn ap 


thereof. Yet, certain it is that he and his issue were possessed 
of all Tal-y-bont, save Nanney, and the Prince's demesnes, and 
for the most part of the Hundred of Estimaner in like manner. 
He is said to have lived in Gruffudd ap Cynan's time. The 
ruins of his house, Llys Bradwen, 1 are to be seen in the town- 
ship of Cregenan, in the hundred of Tal-y-bont Is-cregenan in 
Merionethshire. Llywelin ap Tudur ap Gwyn ap Peredur ap 
Ednowain ap Bradwen lived in the time of Edward the First 
and did him homage with the lords and gentry of Wales, as by 
the said king's records is manifest. Aron, the grandchild of 
this Llywelin ab Tudur by his son Ednyfed had two sons more 
eminent than the rest of his children, Ednyfed and Gruffudd, of 
the which William David Lloyd of Peniarth, Esq., lately deceased, 

Morudd ap Cynddelw ap Cyfnerth ap Cadifor ap Run ap Mergynawc ap Cynfawr ap 
Hefan ap Cadifor ap Maeldaf hynaf ap Unwch Unarchen ap Ysbvvys ap Ysbvvch, which 
Ysbwys and Ysbwch, father and son came into this island out of Spain with Aurelius, 
Ambrosius, and Uther, A.D. 466, and first inhabited Moelysbidion, viz. the Strangers 
Mount, and when Aurelius had recovered his crown from Vortigern the Usurper, he 
rewarded those men, being his retinue, with the whole hundred of Talybont, and part of 
Estimaner in Merionethshire, where their posterity flourish to this day. 

1 These ruins, which I have seen, consisting of large stones, as usually laid to form 
the foundations of buildings, mark the form as well as the simplicity of the habitations 
of the ancient Reguli of Wales, agreeing exactly with the account given of them by 
Whitaker in his History of Manchester, who says " they were commonly placed in the 
hollow of a valley ; and either upon the margin of one stream, or the confluence of 
two, for the conveniency of water and security from winds. And the followers lived 
immediately about the person of their chief, or in little bodies along the windings of 
the valley, to be within reach of the usual signals of the lord, the striking of the shield 
or the blowing of the horn." The Ichnography of Llys Bradwen presents nearly this 
figure QT^_ .] the outward circular apartment being the audience hall and Court of 
Judicature ; the oblong building the chiefs own retirement : around this principal 
building there were the traces of several others of various forms and dimensions. 


was descended, whose inheritance is come to Margaret, the 
mother of Lewis Owen, Esq. of Peniarth, deceased. 

Ednyfed ab Aaron is said to have entertained Owain Glyndwr 
when he was overcome by King Henry the Fourth, the Usurper; 
but secretly in a cave by the sea-side, in the parish of Celynnin, 
which of him is called Ogof Owain. Of this Ednyfed was 
descended Morgan ap Gruffudd ap Einion, a courageous stout 
man, who as it is reported by his kinsmen, by chance in the 
streets of the city of London, far in the night, met with King 
Henry the Eighth with a small guard about him, coming to see 
what rule was kept in the city, and when neither would yield 
to the other, they drew and fought hardly, until Morgan's com- 
panion that was with him bade him take heed what he did ; for 
that he feared it was the king with whom he fought, whereupon 
Morgan crying mercy yielded and craved pardon, and the king 
did let him go saying that he was a lusty man, and ever after 
he was called lusty Morgan, a tradition to which the following 
couplet from a bard of those times seems to countenance : 

" Morgan hir mawr gan Harri, 
Mae Llundain dan d'adain di." 

Ednowain ap Bradwen bore for his arms gules three snakes 
rowed in a triangular knot argent. 1 

1 Llewelin Dalran, of this tribe, came to South Wales, and, marrying Jennet, daughter 
and heiress of Gwilym ap Sitsyllt, Lord of Aberaeron, Cardiganshire, laid the 
foundation of several families of note in that country, such as the Lewes's of 
Abernantbychan and Coedmore, now extinct ; the Lewes's of Llysnewidd ; and the 
Lewes r s of Gellydowill, a family which centres in Thomas Lewes, Esq., Captain of the 
Sampson Man of War, and his brother Brigadier-General Lewes, at present serving in 


the West Indies, an Officer of distinguished merit, who arrived not at the rank he now 
possesses by forced marches, but who from long and arduous services had an irresistible 
claim on those rewards, which longer to have with-held would have been a reproach to 
the fountain of preferment, an Officer who will be spoken of with honour so long as 
cool intrepid bravery and discipline shall continue to be the best recommendation of a 
British soldier. Nor can another descendant of the above Llewelin Dalran be here 
overlooked ; Sir Watkin Lewes, Knight, Member of Parliament for the City of London, 
the first Welshman since the days of Sir Hugh Middleton who has filled the Civic 
Chair, and on ['c] whom no man has experienced a greater accumulation of City 
honours, or passed through them with more credit to himself and utility to the public, 
discharging the duties of a Magistrate with humanity, firmness and discretion, suited to 
times the most trying and critical, who may boast himself almost the only one of all 
the swarm of Patriots that clustered some years ago round the standard of liberty, who 
has never disgraced his principles by becoming either the slave of a popular faction or 
the tool of ministerial influence. 

[ADDENDA.] Ednowain ab Brad wen is supposed by the best authorities to have lived 
somewhat later than the period above ascribed to him. The most correct date would 
probably be the latter half of the twelfth century. His wife was Margaret, daughter 
of Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd ( ' D-wmi's Vis., i., p. 39) ; or as other pedigrees have it, 
Jane, daughter of Philip ab Uchdryd, lord of Cyfeiliog, son of EDWIN AB GORONWV 
(Hist. Powys Fadog, v., p. 100). 

The mother of Lewis Owen, Esq. of Peniarth, in the text called Margaret, is 
-elsewhere ( ' Dwmi's Vis., ii. p. 238 ; and (Arch. Camb., 1879, p. 122) called Elizabeth. 
She was William David Lloyd, Esq.'s sister and heiress, and married Griffith Owen, Esq. 
of Talybont, fourth son of Baron Lewys Owen, who was murdered near Mallwyd, in 
October, i;>5 (see ante, p. 114). Her inheritance passed by marriage to the Owen's of 
Morben, and from them, through the Williams's, a branch of the families of Wynnstay 
and Bodelwyddan, to the Wynne's of Peniarth, now represented by William Robert 
Maurice Wynne, Esq. One of Griffith Owen's grandsons was that eminent and 
learned divine, Dr. John Owen, the Puritan Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. Hugh 
Owen of Bronyclydwr, a Puritan preacher of some celebrity, who died isth March, 1699, 
was also of the same family. Two branches of this family, those of Owen, Caerberllan 
and Owen of Garthangharad, were still extant in 1846 according to the learned 
annotator of Dwims Visitations (vol. ii., p. 237) and it is believed are so now. The 
Hon. Griffith Humphrey Pugh Evans of Lovesgrove, and Lewis Pugh Pugh, Esq. of 
Abermaide, both in Cardiganshire, claim to represent other branches of the same family 
{Nicholas's County Families, pp. 195 and 210). 



The Lewes's of Llysnewydd (Carmarthenshire), above referred to are now represented 
by Col. William Price Lewes of that place ; and Col. John Lewes of Llanllyr, 
Cardiganshire flb. } pp. 200 and 293). 

According to Dwnn (Vis., ii., p. 284), Rhys Nanmor, an eminent poet who flourished 
from about 1440 to 1480, and resided at Maenor Vynwy in Pembrokeshire, was paternally 
descended from Ednowain ab Bradwen, and maternally from Ednyfed Fychan of the 
tribe of MARCHUDD. 

The Lloyds of Nantymynach, Mallwyd (Dwnn's Vis., ii., p. 242) ; and according 
to Pennant and Yorke (Tracts of Powys), the Griffiths of Garth and Cloddiau Cochion, 
long extinct, belonged also to this tribe ; also the Morgans of Caelan, Llanbrynmair, 
Montgomeryshire. Ed. 


TUDOR TREVOR, the Tribe of March 1 called likewise in our books 
Llwyth Maelor (or the Tribe of Maelor), was the son of Ynyr 
ap Cadfarch, descended of Cadell Deyrnllug, King of Powys. 
He is said to have been the founder of, and to have resided 
at Whittington Castle, which continued in his posterity for many 
generations after. His mother was Rhiengar, daughter to 
Lluddocca ap Caradoc Vreichfras, Earl of Hereford, who was 
one of the Knights of King Arthur's Round Table. Tudor 
had large possessions in Herefordshire, in right of his mother, 
as well as in that country called Ferlys, which lies between the 
rivers Wye and Severn. He was contemporary with Howel 
Dda, King of Wales, whose daughter, Angharad, he married, 
by whom he had three sons and one daughter. Powell of 

1 So called, because a great number of the gentlemen in the Marches of England and 
Wales are descended from him. 

21 I 

Edenhope, in his Pentarchia, describes his arms in the following 
manner : 

Ermimts fulgens Theodori parma Trevori, 
Dat rapidum fulvumqiie sinistro verte leonem ; 
Mostonis sunt nota satis simuL arma Trevoris 

Which may be thus expressed in plain English : " Parted per 
bend sinister ermine and ermines, over all a lion rampant or: 
the well-known arms of the Mostyns, and also of the Trevors." 

[ADDENDA.] Tudor Trevor lived during the first half of the tenth century. In 
907 he married Angharad, daughter of Howel Dda, by whom he had three sons, 
Goronwy, Lluddocaf, and Dingad. 

Goronwy (who died in his father's lifetime), married Tangwystl, daughter of Dyfnwal 
ab Alan, a direct descendant from Rhodri Mawr, and by her had an only daughter and 
heiress, Rhiengar, who succeeded to her grandfather's lands in Hereford, Gloucester, 
Erging, and Ewyas. Rhiengar married Cyhelin ab Ifor, by whom she was mother of 
ELYSTAN GLODRUDD (Royal Tribe V.) Many of Goronwy's descendants have therefore, 
been already dealt with in the account of that Tribe (ante, pp. 125 to 133). 

Lluddocaf was lord of Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry and Maelor Saesonaeg ; and 
was the ancestor of, among others, the Mostyns of Mcstyn, Talacre, Bryngwyn, and 
Segroid ; the Trevors of Brynkinallt, Plas-teg, and Trefalun ; the Wynns of Eyarth ; 
the Lloyds of Leaton Knolls ; the Youngs of Bryn Yorkin ; the Edwards of Sansaw 
Hall ; the Trevors of Trevor Hall, and Thomas of Coed-helen ; the Lloyds of 
Halchdyn, Plas Madog, Berth, and Rhagatt ; the Eytons of Park Eyton ; the 
Vaughans of Burlton Hall ; the Pennants of Downing and Penrhyn Castle ; and the 
Dymocks of Penley Hall (Mont. Coll., ii., p. 265). 

Dingad was lord of Maelor Gymraeg or Bromfield, and was the ancestor of the 
families of Jones Parry of Llwynon ; Lloyd of Llwynycnotiau ; Roberts of Hafodybwch ; 
Jones of Croes Foel ; Edwards of Sealyham and Lord Kensington ; Erddig of Erddig ; 
Trafford of Esclusham ; Davies of Hafod y wern ; Madog yr Athraw of Plas Madog 
and Erbistock ; Bersham of Bersham ; Wynn of Gerwyn fawr ; Eyton of Eyton 
uchaf ; Sontley of Sontley ; Bady of Rhiwabon ; Jefferies of Acton ; Broughton of 


Broughton and Marchwiail ; Powell of Alrhey ; Ellis of Alrhey and Wyddial Hall, 
Hertfordshire ; and others ffb., p. 266). 

Of the above, the following at least have become extinct, or are to be found only in 
the female line : Mostyn of Bryngwyn (merged in the family of Owen of Woodhouse) ; 
Trevor of Brynkinallt, Plas-teg, and Trefalun (now represented by Boscawen Trevor 
Griffith, Esq.) ; Young of Bryn Yorkin ; Pennant of Downing and Penrhyn Castle ; 
Dymock of Penley Hall ; Erddig of Erddig ; Trafford of Esclusham ; Bersham of 
Bersham ; Sontley of Sontley ; Bady of Rhiwabon ; Jefferies of Acton ; Davies of 
Hufod y Wern ; Broughton of Broughton ; Powel of Alrhey ; Ellis of Alrhey ; and 
Lloyd of Halchdyn. 

Reference has already been made (ante, p. 96) to Sir John Trevor of Brynkinallt, 
Commissioner of the Great Seal, Master of the Rolls, and Speaker of the House of 
Commons in the time of James the Second and William the Third. Sir Thomas 
Trevor of Trefalun, was a Baron of the Exchequer in the reign of Charles the First. 
Sir John Trevor of Trefalun, was Secretary of State to Charles the Second. He 
married Ruth, a daughter of the celebrated John Hampden, and one of his sons, 
Thomas, became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1701, which office he also filled 
during the whole of Queen Anne's reign, and in December 3ist, 1711, he was called to 
the peerage by the title of Baron Trevor of Bromham. In 1726 he was made Lord 
Privy Seal, and in 1730, Lord President of the Council. He was an able and upright, 
but reserved, grave and austere judge. His third son, who became fourth Lord Trevor, 
was a distinguished diplomatist, and having published a volume of poems is enrolled in 
Horace Walpole's list of Royal and Noble Authors. Having become possessed of the 
Hampden estates, he took the name and arms of Hampden, and was, in 1766, created 
Viscount Hampden, a title, which, as well as the Barony of Trevor, became extinct in 
1824. Another of the first Lord Trevor's sons became Bishop of Durham in 
J7S2.- Ed. 



Alleluiatic victory over the Saxons, 86 
Alliteration, characteristic of Welsh poetry, 60 
Almor of Almor, 206 
Alynton of Alynton, 206 
Alphonsus, son of Edward I., 66 
Angharad, Queen ot Gruffudd ab Cynan, 26 
Anwyl of Park, 18 

Athelstan, King of England, God-father to Elystan Glod- 
rudd, 125; imposes tribute on his country, 125 

Bady of Rhiwabon, 211 

Bagots, Lords of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, 

70, 71 

Bala, celebrated by Lord Lyttelton, 21 
Bangor Monachorum, 42 

Bards, their massacre by Edw. I. not authenticated, 59 
Bauge, battle of, 75 
Bellot, Bishop of Chester, 20 
Berain, Catherine of, 82, 198, 199 
Bersham, 211 
Bevan of Fosbury, 123 

Beveridge, Bishop, interview with Sir John Wynn, II 
Bible, its Translators into Welsh, 90, 93 
Bishops, Trial of the Seven, 100, 129 
Blayney of Gregynog, 158 
Blayney, Arthur, his character, 155 
BI.EDDYN Ab CYNFYN, 39 119; his arms, 40; death, 40; 

wives, 116; sons II& 
Bodville of Bodvel, 186 
Bodwrda of Bodwrda, 1 86 
Bottwnog School, founder of, 187 
Bradwen, Llys, 207 
BRAINT HIR, 197, 198; his arms, 198 
Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, 104 
British Chronicles, The, 42 
Brochwel Ysgithrog, 42 
Brogyntyn, 17 
Brogyntyn, Owain, 47, 54, 107, 108 ; his arms, 109 ; his 

cup and dagger, 109 
Bromfield of Bromfield, 203 
Bromley, Lord Chancellor, 120 
Broughton, 211 
Brynkir, 21 

Cadwaladr, Queen Victoria's descent from, 73 
Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, 40, 109 ; his arms, 40, 109 ; his 

death, 40, 109 ; his sons, 1 10 
Cadwgan ab Elystan, 126; his arms, 126. 
Caer Hywel, 44 

Camden's partiality as a historian, 92 
Caractacus, ancestor of lestyn ab Gwrgant, 120 
Caradog Vreichfras, 210 

Caradog ab lestyn, 122 ; his descendants, 122 
Carbery, Earl of, 106, 107 
Carno, Battle of, 2 

Carreg Hwfa Castle taken and plundered, 62 

Carter, Col., of Kinmael, 113, 194 

Catherine of Berain, " Mother of Wales," 82, 198, 199 

Catherine Tudor, Widow of Henry V., 15, 192 

Celynin of Llwydiarth, 118; his descendants, 118 

Cesail Gyfarch, 14, 201 

Chaloner, Sir Thomas, 190 

Chaloner of Chester, 190 

Chaloner of Guisborough, 190 

Chaloner of Lloran Ganol, 190 

Charlton, Sir John, first English Lord of Powys, 58 

Charlton, Sir John, second English Lord of Powys, 69 

Charlton, Sir John, third English Lord of Powys, 70 

Cheshire, first represented in the House of Commons, 68 

Chirk Castle, 55, 96 

CILMIN TROED-DU, 181 183 ; his arms, 182 

Clough, Sir Richard, 82, 199 

Cobham, Lord, 71 

Coetmore Howel, 22 

Coytmore of Coytmore, 186 

COLLWYN AB TANONO, 184188; arms, 185; sons, 

186 ; extinct families, 188 
Corbet of Ynysymaengwyn, 102, 127 
Corsygedol, 17 

Court of Marches, its institution, 6 
Criccieth Castle, 185 
Crogen or Chirk, Battle of, 48 
Cromwell descended from Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, III; 

his protection of Protestants, 112 
Crown Manors in Wales, observations on, 159 
Cwmhir, Abbey of, 126 
Cyfeiliog, 57 
Cyfeiliog, Huw, 45 
Cyfeiliog, Owain, 45 ; his Castle at Tafolwern, 57 ; 

death, 58 ; distinguished poet, 58 ; interview with 

Henry II. at Shrewsbury, 64. 
Cymry, their origin, 41 
Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, 54, 117 
Cynfelyn ab Dolphyn of Manafon, 118; his descendants, 

1 18 

Cynfyn, Rhiwallon ab, 39 
Cynwrig Efell, 47, 54 ; his arms, 98 
Cynwrig Hir, 3 

Dafycld ab Owain's embassy to the Lord Rhys, 48 

Dafydd Llwyd ab Llywelyn of Mathafarn, 56 

Dafydd, lord of Denbigh, barbarously executed, 22 

Daron, Dean of Bangor, 124 

Dates, uncertainty of, in Welsh Chronology, 69, 1:5 

Davies of Coedymynydd, 189 

Davies of Hafodywern, 211 

Davies, Dr. John of Mallwyd, Grammarian and Lexico- 
grapher, 93, 195 

Davies, Dr. Richard, Bishop of St. Asaph and St. 
David's, 92, 204 

Davies, John of, the Genealogist, 119 


Davies, Robert of Llanr.erch, the Antiquary, 87 

Davies of Trewylan, 119 

Derwas of Cemines, 118 

Dighy, Sir Kenelm, dubbed Knight, 79 

Dinas Bran Castle, 52 

Dingad al> Ednowain ab Brad wen, 211 

Dolben, Dr., Bishop of Bangor, 101 

Dolforwyn Castle, 40 

Done, Margaret, Anecdote of, 95 

Drunkenness in the French army, 75 

Dymock of Penley Hall, 211 

EDNOWAIN AB BRADWEN, 207 210; extinct families, 

EDNOWAIN BENDEW, 203, 204; extinct families, 204 

Ednyfed ab Aaron, 208 

Ednyfed Fychan, 179, 191, 193 : his wife Gwenllian, 36 : 
hisarms, 191; hissons, 193; his illustrious descend- 
ants, 192 

Edward I. nominated Prince of Wales, 51 

Edwards of Nanhoron, 187 

Edwards of Sansaw Hall, 211 

Edwards of Sealyham, 211 

EDWIN, 201 203 ; his arms, 202 ; sons, 202 : extinct 
families, 203 

EFNYDD or EUNYDD, 43, 205, 206; his arms, 205; 
descendants, 206 

Eglwysegl, 86 

Einion ab Collwyn, 28, 120 

Einion ab Ithel, 13 

Einion Efell, 47, 54 ; his arms, 98 

Ellis of Alrhey and Wyddial, 212 

Ellis of Bronyfoel and Ystumllyn, 186 

EI.YSTAN GI.ODRUDD, 125 133; hisarms, 126; his 
sons, 126; his death, 126; his descendants, 126, 
127, 128, 132 ; extant families, 132 ; extinct fami- 
lies, 133 

Erddig of Erddig, 211 

Esquires, several classes of 10 

Evans, Rev. Evan, collector of Welsh MSS, 115 

Evans of Eleirnion, 183 

Evans of Llanrwst, 189 

Evans of Llaneurgain, 204 

Evans of Lovesgrove, 209 

Evans of Tanybwlch, 188 

Evans of Trecastell, 38 

Evans of Watstay, 9 

Extent of North Wales, The, 173 

Eyton of Leeswood, 88 

Eyton of Park Eyton, 211 

Eyton of Rhiwabon, 9 

Facknalt of Facknalt, 204 

Ferlys, the country between the Severn and Wye, 125, 


Fitzwalter, Milo's gallant conduct, 32 

Fitzwarren, Fulke's encounter with Gruff, ab Cynan, 3 

Fitzpeter, Jeffrey, Justiciary of England, 63 

Fitzhamon invades Glamorgan, 120 

Foulkes of Eriviatt, 194 

Foulkes of Carwedd Fynydd and Meiriadog, 201 

Foulkes of Gwernygron, 181 

Foulkes of Llys Llywarch, 201 

Foulkes of Mertyn, 204 

Founders of Five Royal Tribes, I 

French writers, their Latin Prosody, 55 

Fychan, Sir Gruffudd of Byrgedwyn, 44, 72 ; beheaded, 

Fychan, Sir Gruffydd, of Caer Hywel, 84 

Gavelkind, derivation of the term, 42 ; its effect upon 
estates, 14, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 47, 53, 67, 102 

Gerald de Windsor, Constable of Pembroke, 29 ; Nest, 
wife of, 29 ; revenge on Owain ab Cadwgan, 30 

Gethin of Fedwdeg, 22 

Gethin, Rhys, 22 

Giraldus Cambrensis, 38 

Gloucester, Humphrey Duke of, 75 

Glyndyfrdwy, 56 

Glynclwr, Owain, 38 ; his arms, 1 1 8 ; his descendants, 

Glyn of Ewell, 183 

Glyn of Gaunts, 183 

Glynn of Bryngwdion, 183 

Glynn of Glynllifon, 182, 183 

Glynn of Hawarden, 182, 183 

Glynn of Lleuar, 182, 183 

Glynn of Nantlle, 182, 183 

Glynne, Sir John of Hawarden, 83 

Glynne, Sir Stephen Richard of Hawarden, 183 

Glynne, Sir William, of Glynllifon, 179 

Goch, Dafydd, killed at Pennal, 179 

Godolphin, Col. Sydney, 103 

Goodman, Dr. Gabriel, Dean of Westminster, 91 

Goodman, Dr. Godfrey, Bishop of Gloucester, 91 ; Will 
of, 1 60 

Gore, Orinsby, 17, 103 

Goronwy ab Ednowain ab Bradwen, 211 

Goronwy Owen on Welsh Poetry, 59 

Gresford Vicarage, Inscription on, 155 

Grey, Sir Edward, lord of Powys, 78 

Grey, Sir Henry, lord of Powys, 76 

Grey, Sir John, lord of Powys, 73, 74 

Griffith of Chwaen, 176 

Griffith of Garreglwyd, 178, 194 

Griffith of Garn, 203 

Griffith of Garth and Cloddiau Cochion, 210 

Griffith of Pantyllongdy, 204 

Griffith of Plas Isaf, Caerwys, 204 

Griffith of Rhual, 204 

Griffith, Sir William, of Penrhyn, 16, 192, 193 

GRUFFUDD AH CYNAN, 126; his captivity at Chester, 
3 ; his arms, 4 ; reforms of music, 5 ; character 
and reign, 23 ; life, 23 ; benefactions, 24 ; death, 

25 ; personal appearance, 25 ; Queen Angharad, 

26 ; sons, 26 
Gruffudd ab Dafydd Goch, 22 

Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn, 64 ; his wife, 65 

Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, death of, 51 

Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, 39 

Gruffydd ab Madog, 50 ; alliance with Edward the 

First, 51 ; wife, Emma, 52 ; death and burial, 52 
Gruffydd ab Maredudd, 57 
Gruffydd ap Rhys ab Tewdwr, 29 ; his wife, Gwenllian, 

31 ; death, 32 

Gruffydd ap the Lord Rhys, 37 
Gruffydd Fychan ab Grurl'udd ab Gwenwynwyn, 66 
Gruffydd Fychan of Glyndyfrdwy, 38 


Gruffycld Maelor, 10, 47 : death and burial, 48 ; wife, 
Angharad, 48 ; children, 48 ; arms, 49 

Gruffydd, Pyrs of Penrhyn, 193 

Gwasannau, origin of the name, 86 

GWEIRYDD AP RHYS GOCH, 180, 181 ; his arms, 180 ; 
sons, 1 80 

Gwenllian, daughter of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn. 119 

Gwenllian, wife ot Ednyfed Fychan, 36 

Gwenllian, mother of Eunydd, 43, 205 

Gwenwynwyn, 57, 61 ; arms, 64 ; wife, 64; sons, 66. 

Gwenwynwyn, Gruffudd ab, 64, 65 

Gwgan of Caereinion's embassy, 48 

Gwydir, 8 

Gwydir family, History of the, 5 

Gwyn ab Bleddyn, 118 

Gwyn ol Baron's Hall, 175 

Gwyn, Mynachdy, 202 

Gwynedd, Hywel, 201, 203 

Gwynedd, Owain, 4, 33 ; arms, 4 

Haer, wife of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 1 16 

Hafod Lwyfog, 14 

Hampden, Viscount, 212 

Hanmer, Sir Thomas, Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, ioo; his Epitaph, 164; the same paraphrased, 
1 66 

Harlech, Baron, 17, 103, 175; Castle, 184; its brave 
defence, 89 

Hawys Gadarn married to Sir John de Charleton, 66 ; 
buried at Shrewsbury, 69 

HEDD MOI.WYNOO, 195 197 ; his sons, 195 ; arms 
and descendants, 196 

Helig ab Glanawg's patrimony overflowed, 190 

Hcngwrt MSS, 115 

Henry II marches to Oswestry, 33 ; puts out the eyes 
of hostages, 33 ; makes peace with the Lord Rhys, 
34 ; battle of Crogen, the king's life in danger, 48 ; 
reproved by Owain Cyfeiliog, 64 

Henry IV. 's cruel statutes against the Welsh, 59 

Henry VII. 's Welsh descent, 192 

Henry VIII. 's Regulatons in North Wales, 68 

Herbert, Sir Edward piurchases Powys Castle and lord- 
ship, 78 

Herbert, Lady Mary, Pope's lines to, 80 

Herbert of Cherbury, Edward Lord, 81 

Herbert, Richard, beheaded at Banbury, Si 

Herbert, William Earl of Pembroke, 79 

Herberts, The, of Powys Castle, 79 

Hirlas, Owain, 59 

Hirwaen Wrgant, battle of, 28 

Holt Castle built, 55 

Holland of Berw, 1 78 

Holland of Kinmael, 113 

Holland William's letter to Sir John Wynn, 144 

Hope Castle, 144 

Hughes of Beaumaris, 180 

Hughes of Coedybrain, 204 

Hughes of East Bergholt, 206 

Hughes of Gwerclas, 108, 109, 170 

Hughes of Halkin and Bagillt, 204 

Hughes of Kinmael, I75> '7 

Hughes of Plascoch, 179 

Hughes, Dr. William, Bishop of St. Asaph, 19, 194 

Humphreys, Dr., Bishop of Bangor, 201 

Hunydd, daughter of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 119 
HWFA AB CYNDDELW, 172176; his arms, 174; ex- 
tinct families, 176 
Hywel ab leuaf of Talgarth, 126 
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, 60 
Hywel y Fwyall, Sir, 184, 187 
Hywel y Pedolau, Sir, 65, 173 

Idwal, Prince, his murder, 188 

IF.STYN AB GWRGANT, 27, 50, 120 122 ; his treachery, 

120; arms, 120 ; descent from Caractacus, 120; 

descendants, 120 122 ; children, 122 
leuan ab Maredudd, 13, 14 
lolo Goch, 195. 197 
lorwerth Drwyndwn, 46 
lorwerth Goch, 44 
Irish allies of Griffith ab Cynan, 2 

James I. at Chester in 1617, 80 ; his aversion to a drawn 

sword, 79 ; knighting Sir William Morice, 80 
Jefferies of Acton, 211 
Jefferies, Chancellor, Anecdotes of, 97 
John ab Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn, 66 
John ab Maredudd, 14, 16 
John Dafydd Rhys the Grammarian, 94 
Jones, Inigo, 8, 26 
lones, Col. "the Regicide," 194 
Jones, Sir William, Chief Justice of England, 187 
Jones of Castellmarch, 187 
Jones of Croes Foel, 211 
Jones of Derry Ormond, 204 
Jones of Dol, 120, 121 
Jones of Gellilyfdy, 204 
Jones of Haim, 38 
Jones of Llyfnant, 179 
Jones Parry of Llwynon, 188, 211 

Kensington.. Lord, 211 

Kenyon, Lord, 175 

Kyffin, origin of the name, 99 

Kyffin of Bodfach, 99 

Kyffin of Glascoed, 99 

Kyffin of Maenan, 98 

Kyffin, Maurice, the translator and poet, 99 

Kynaston, claim to the Barony of Powys, 75 ; family, 

44, 82 

Kynaston, Arthur of Pantybyrsle, 84 
Kynaston, Humphrey, the Wild, 44, 85 
Kynaston, Sir John Roger, 84 
Kynaston, Sir Roger, 84 
Kynaston of Bryngwyn, 83 
Kynaston of Hordley and Hardwick, 84 
Kynaston of Otley, 83 
Kynaston of Stocks, 84, 85 
Kynaston of Trewylan, 83 

Lewes of Abernantbychan, 208 

Lewes of Coedmore, 208 

Lewes of Gellidywyll, 208 

Lewes of Llanllyr, 210 

Lewes of Llysnewydd, 208, 210 

Lewes, Brigadier General, 208 

Lewes, Captain Thomas, 208 

Lewes, Sir Watkin, Mayor and M.P. for London, 209 

2 l6 

Lewis of Ilnrpton Court, 38 

Lewis of Llanddyfnan, 174 

Lewis of Presaddfed, 174, 175 

Lewis of Trysglwyn, 175, 176 

Levvys of Cemlyn, 176 . 

Lewys, Robert, Chancellor of Bangor, 176 

Lewys Glyn Cothi, and the inhabitants of Chester, 89 

Linen scarce in the fifteenth century, 43 
Lisburne, Earl of, 185 

Lollards persecuted by Henry V., 71 

Lord Rhys, his great feast at Cardigan, 35 

Lumley, the Barony of, 106 

Llanegwest, or Valle Crucis Abbey, 50 

Llannerch Gardens and Waterworks, 87 

Llanrwst burned by the Earl of Pembroke, 81 

Llewelyn Aurdorchog, his arms and descendants, 119, 
202, 206 

Llewelyn ab Gniffydd, 51, 52 

Llewelyn ab Tudor ah Gwyn, 207 

Llewelyn Dalran, 208 

Lloyil, Humphrey, Bishop of Bangor, 19 

Lloyd, John, Bishop of St. David's, 132 

Lloyd, Rev. John of Caerwys, III 

Lloyd, Sir Richard of Holt, 19 

Lloyd, William, Bishop of St. Asaph, 179 

Lloyd, of Aston, 104 

Lloyd of Bach Eurig, 197 

Lloyd of Berth, 211 

Lloyd of Blaenyglyn. in 

Lloyd of Bodlith, 106 

Lloyd of Cwmbychan, III 

Lloyd of Dolglessyn, 108 

Lloyd of Dyffryn Erethlyn, 196 

Lloyd of Erw Cynddel, 197 

Lloyd of Forest, Pontruffydd and Pengwern, 194 

Lloyd of Foxhall, 105 

Lloyd of Glanhafon, 14 

Lloyd of Glansevin, 204 

Lloyd of Gwaredog, 180, 181 

Lloyd of Hafodunos, 196 

Lloyd of Halchdyn, 211 

Lloyd of Hersedd, Ffern, and Lhvyn Yn, 202 

Lloyd of Kininael, 194 

Lloyd of Leaton Knolls, 211 

Lloyd of Llai or Leighton, 72 

Lloyd of Lhigwy, 181 

Lloyd of Llwynycnotiau, 211 

Lloyd of Maesmawr, 72 

Lloyd of Marrington, 72 

Lloyd of Nantymynach, 210 

Lloyd of Palau, 196 

Lloyd of Peniarth, 207 

Lloyd of Pentrehobin, 202 

Lloyd of Plasmadog, 211 

Lloyd of Plas uwch Clawdd, 38 

Lloyd of Plas Power, 197 

Lloyd of Rhagatt, 211 

Lloyd of Rhandir, 197 

Lloyd of Rhiwgoch, 180 

Lloyd of Tregayan, 188 

Lloyd of Wigfair, 204 

Lluddocaf ab Ednowain ab Bradwen, 21' 

Llwyd, Edward, the Antiquary, 196 

Llwyd, Humphrey, the historian, 43, 105 ; his des- 
cendant's claim to the barony of Lumley, 106 

Llwyd, Meurig of Llwynymaen, 195, 196 

Llwyd of Esclusham and Uulasseu, 19 

Llwynymaen, 102 

LLYWARCH AH BRAN, 177180; his sons, 177; arms 

178; extinct families, 180 
Llywarch ab Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn, 66 

Mac in Erse synonymous with the Welsh ap or ab, 12 

Madog ab Bleddyn, 116, 119 

Madog ab GnifTudd Maelor, 10, 49 ; his sons, 50 

Madog ab Gruffudd's children murdered at Holt, 55 

Madog ab lestyn, 123 

Madog ab Maredudd, 45 ; his death and burial, 46 ; his 

di s:endants, 46, 47 ; his Norman wife's treachery, 46 
Madog grupl, 53 
Madog yr Athraw, 211 
Madryn of Madryn, 188 

Maelor, the lordship of Bromfield, why so called, 47 
Maelor, Gruffudd, 47 
Maesmor of Maesmor, 108 
Malta, Knights of, 44 
March, Mortimer Earl of, 67 
Marches, Court of, its institution, 6 
Marchers, The Lords, 67 
MARCIIUDD AH CYNA.N, 191195; extant and extinct 

families, 194 
MARCHWEITHIAN, 198201 ; arms, 199 ; extinct 

families, 201 
Maredudd ab Bleddyn, 42 ; his wives, 43 ; descendants, 

44, 1 17 

Maredudd ab Owain of South Wales, 38 
Marsh, Dr., Archbishop of Armagh, 20 
Matthew of Llandaff, 123, 133 
Matthews of Esgair Foel Eirin, 118 
Mathrafa! Castle destroyed, 50 
Maurice of Lloran, 102, 127 
Mealy of Perfeddgoed, 124 
Meredith, Sir William, 205 
Meredith of Glantanad, 104 
Meredith of Pentrebychan, 106, 121, 206 
Meredith of Monachdy Gwyn, 180 
Meredith of Trefalun, 206 
Meyrick of Bodorgan and Goodrich Court, 179 
Militia for the Scotch war raised in North Wales by 

Edward II., 67 
Mold Castle destroyed, 65 

Morgan Hir ab lestyn and his descendants, 122 
Morgan of Golden Grove, 194 
Morgan ap Gruffudd ap Einion, 208 
Morgan, Dr. William, Bishop of St. Asaph, 90, 189 ; 

his letters to Sir John Wynn, 134, 142 ; his letter 

to Mr. Martyn, 139 ; Sir John Wynn's reply, 136 
Morice of Clenenneu, 16, 17 
Morice, Dr. Andrew, Dean of St. Asaph, 18 
Morice, Dr. David of Bettws, 18 
Morice, Sir William, Secretary of State to Charles II., 

17 ; knighted by James I., 80 
Mortimer, Roger, 55 

Mostyn family, 12, 2ii ; surname first assumed, 12 
Mostyn, Lord, 99 
Mostyn of Bryngwyn, 83, 211 
Mostyn of Segrwyd, 180 

Music and Bardism regulated by Gruffudd ab Cynan, 4. 5 
Myddelton, Charles, 95 

2I 7 

Myddelton, Foulk, 95, 106 

Myddelton, Sir Hugh, 95 

Myddelton, Pierce, 95 

Myddelton, Richard, 94 

Myddelton, Robert, 95 

Myddelton, Sir Thomas, 95, 96 

Myddelton, Captain William, 94, 95 

Myddelton of Chirk Castle, 14 

Myddelton of Gwaenynog, 14 

Mutton, Sir Peter, 9 

Mwsoglen family, 178, 179 

Mytton of Garth, 72 

Mytton of Halston, 67 

Mytton of Halston, John, his reckless expenditure, 67 

Nanmor, Rhys, the poet, 210 

Nanney of Cefndeuddwr and Gwynfryn, 118, 176 

Nanney of Maesyneuadd, 17 

Nanney of Nannau, 109 ; their arms, 1 10 

NEFYDD HARDIJ, 188, 189 

Ness Cliff, Wild Kynaston's retreat, 44 

Nest, mother of Robert of Gloucester, 29 

Newborough, Lord, 186 

Newmarch, Bernard seizes the lordship of Brecknock, 28 

Newton of Haethle, 121 

Norman invasion of South Wales, 28 

North Wales, its Princes paramount, 2, 46 

Oakeley of Tanybwlch, 1 88 

Offa's Laws revived by Harold, 116 

Officers of the Welsh Court, I 

Oldcastle, Sir John, apprehended in Powysland, 71 

Orwel, Jane, mistress of Edward de Charleton, 77 

Osborn, Fitzgerald, or Osbwrn Wyddel, 16, 182 

Owain ap Aldyd, 202 

Owain ap Cadwgan, a turbulent chieftain, 30 

Owain ap Edwin of Tegaingl, 202 

Owain ap Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn, 66 

Owain Cyfeiliog, see Cyfeiliog, Owain 

Owain Glyndwr, 53 ; his children and descendants, 117 ; 

arms, n8 ; wife, 181 ; hid in a cave, 208 
Owain Gwynedd, see Gwynedd, Owain 
Owain Tudor, 15, 192 
Owen, Griffith of Talybont, 209 
Owen, Hugh of Bronyclydwr, 209 
Owen, Dr. John, the Puritan divine, 209 
Owen, Sir John of Clenenneu, 18, 175 
Owen, Lewis, Baron of the Exchequer, his murder, 

113, 114, 209 

Owen, Sir Roger of Condover, 201, 203 
Owen, Sir Thomas, Judge, 201, 203 
Owen of Bettws Cedewain, 203 
Owen of Bodeon and Orielton, 174, 179 
Owen of Bodsilin, 18 
Owen of Caerberllan, 209 
Owen of Cefnhafodau and Glansevern, 38 
Owen of Clenenneu, 174 
Owen of Condover, 203 
Owen of Garthangharacl, 209 
Owen of Hengwrt, 113 
Owen of Llynlloedd, 203 
Owen of Morben, 209 
Owen of Peniarth, 208 
Owen of Plasdu, 187 


Owen of Rhiwsaeson, 127 
Owen of Tedsmore, 203 
Owen of Woodhouse, 203 

Panton of Coleshill, 201 

Parry, Dr. Richard, Bishop of St. Asaph, 28, 90 ; his 

letter to Sir John Wynn, 142 
Parry of Cefn Llanfair, 186 
Parry of Coleshill and Basingwerk, 204 
Parry of Llwyn Yn, 90 
Parry of Plasnewydd, 90 
Parry of Tywysog and Pistyll, 201 
Parry of Wernfawr, 176 
Pelidys, a magician. 198 
Pembroke, Earl, beheaded at Banbury, 81 
Pennant of Downing, 211 
Pennant of Penrhyn Castle, 194, 211 
Penrhyn Castle, 194 
Pen Rhys, Monastery of, 29 
Pentarchia, a MS. History of the Royal Tribes in Latin 

verse, 40, 52, 55, 127 
Philip of Cyfeiliog, 202 
Piers of Llanasaph, 204 
Piozzi, Mrs., 82 
Plas Dinas, Manor of, 78 
Porthamel, 178 

Powel, Dr. David, the historian, 90, 203 
Powell, Sir Thomas of Nar.teos, 202 
Powell of Alrhey, 212 
Powell of Brandlesome Hall, 38 
Powell of Ednop, 127 
Powell of Nanteos, 203 
Powell of Worthen, 126 

Powis Castle, 40, 62, 67 ; taken by Sir Thomas Myddel- 
ton, 79 
Powys, Barony of, conveyed from the Greys to the 

Herberts, 78 ; claims to it, 75 
Powys Fadog, why so called, 45, 57 
Powys, Wenwynwyn do. 45, 57 
Powys, Earls of, 81, 133 
Powys, William, Duke of, 80 
Powys, William, Marquis of, 80 
Presaddfed, meaning of name, 173 
Price, Sir John, the friend of Leland, 78 
Price, Sir Robert, Chief Justice of the Common 

Pleas, 200 

Price of Cwm Mein, 201 
Price of Dugoed, Penmachno, 201 
Price of Fedw deg, 201 
Price of Llanrwst, 201 
Price of Rhiwlas, 199, 200 
Price of Tyddyn Sieffrey, 201 
Pritchard of Caergwrle, 206 
Pritchard of Dincun, 176 
Prophecies, pretended, instrumental in bringing in 

Henry VII., 57 

Pryce, Sir Edward Manley, Newtown Hall, 128 
Pryce, Sir John Powell do. 128 

Pryce, Sir [ohn do. 129; 

his letter to Bridget Bostock, 129 
Pryce of Cyfronydd, 117 
Pryce of Esgairweddan, 133 
Pryce of Glwysegl, 122 
Pryce of Llanfyllin, 122 


Pryce of Llwyn Yn, 202 

Pryceof Newtown Hall, 128, 131 

Pryce of Vaynor, 133 

Prys, Edmund, Archdeacon of Merioneth, 90, 93, 177 

Prys, Ellis, Plas lolyn, 199 

Prys, Captain Thomas, Plas lolyn, 2OO 

Prytherch of Myvyrian, 178 

Pugh of Abermaide, 209 

Pugh of Vsceifiog, 204 

Ranulph de Poer put to death, 35 

Reinallt ap Gruffudd of the Tower, 89 

Reynolds, John of Oswestry, 119 

Rhaiadr Castle built, 35 

Rhiwaedog, 17 

Rhydderch of Tregayan, 188 

Rhys ab Gruffudd, 37 

Rhys ab Llewelyn ab Hwlcyn, 175 

RHYS AB TEWDWR, 27 38 ; his death and arms, 29 ; 
extinct families, 38 ; extant families, 38 

Rhys Fawr ab Maredudd, Standard Bearer of Eng- 
land, 199 

Rhys Goch o'r Eryri, 1 86 

Rhys Nanmor, 210 

Rhys, Dr. John David, 94 

Rhys, The Lord, 32 ; invades Cardigan, 33 ; his 
successes, 34 ; submits to Henry II., 34 ; feast at 
Cardigan, 35 ; builds Rhaiadr Castle, 35 ; dies of 
the plague, 37 ; his children, 37 

Ririd ab Bleddyn, 116, 119 

Ririd Flaidd Lord of Penllyn, 14, 95, Il6 

Robert of Gloucester, 29 

Robert ab Rhys, Chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey, 199 

Robert of Lygun, 186 

Robert of Rhuddlan, slain by Gruffudd ab Cynan, 3 

Roberts, Dr. William, Bishop of Bangor, 201 

Roberts, of Hafodybwch, 211 

Roberts of Llangedwyn, 104 

Robinson, Dr. Nicholas, Bishop of Bangor, 23, 173 

Rogers of Flint, 206 

Rowlands, Dr. Henry, Bishop of Bangor, 187 

Salesbury, Col. E. W. Vaughan of Rug, 56, 57, 107 

Salesbury of Lleweni, 82, 83 

Salesbury, William, the translator of the New Testa- 
ment, 57, 92 

Salisbury, Col. William, Governor of Denbigh Castle, 170 

Sanctuaries violated, 30 

Scolan, alleged destruction by him of Welsh MSS., 116 

Sherlock, Bishop of Bangor, 13 

Shrewsbury taken by the Welsh, 46 

Sidney, Sir Henry and Sir Philip, 43 

Simunt of Coedllai, 206 

Smith, Chancellor of St. Asaph, 194 

Smith of Vaenol, 187 

Sontley of Sontley, 211 

South Wales, fall of its independency, 28 

Sparrow of Red Hill, 175 

Stafford, Viscount, his attainder and its reversal, 71 

Strata Florida Abbey or Ystrad Fflur, 35, 126 

Strata Marcella Abbey or Ystrad Marchell, 58, 64 

Sudeley, Lord, 158 

Surnames first adopted by the Welsh, 12 ; variety of in 
one family, 108 

Tafolwern Castle, 57 

Taliesin's Poem on the Tombs of the Warriors, 61 

Tanad of Abertanad, 72, 102 

Tanad of Blodwel, 104 

Tankerville, Henry Earl of, 75 

Taylor, Bishop Jeremy, 107 

Thelwal of Plasyward, 82 

Thelwal of Ruthin, 21 

Thomas of Coedhelen, 179, 211 

Thomas, Sir Rhys ab, of Dinevor, 132, 179 

Thomas, Sir William, of Coedhelen, 132 

Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, 77 

Tower of London, repository for Welsh MSS., 116 

Trafford, 211 

Tracy of Gregy nog, 158 

Trahaiarn ab Caradog slain, 2 

Trevor, Sir John, 96, 212 

Trevor, Sir Thomas, 206, 212 

Trevor, Lord, 212 

Trevor of Brynkinallt, 178 

Trevor of Trefalun, &c., 206, 211 

Triads, The, 6 1 

Tribes, Fifteen Noble, 171, 172 

Tribes, Royal, I 

Tribute of Hounds, Hawks and Wolves' heads, 125, 126 

Tudor, Catherine, Queen and Widow of Henry V., 15 

Tudor, Owen, 15, 192 

Tudor of Penmynydd, 192, 193 

TUDOR TREVOR, 210 2125 arms, 211; sons and 
descendants, 211 

Tudur Aled, an eminent poet, 197 

Turberville, Sir Payne of Coety, 123 

Tyndale, William, translator of the Bible, III 

Tyssilio, the author of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Chro- 
nicle, 42 

Uchdryd, lord of Cyfeiliog and Meirion, 202 

Valle Crucis Abbey built, 50 

Vanbutchell, Epitaph on Mary, 168 ; translation of 

same, 169 

Vaughan, Sir John, 97, 185 

Vaughan, Dr. Richard, Bishop of London, 90, 187 
Vaughan, Robert, the antiquary, 115 
Vaughan, Sir Robert Williames, Bart., no, 114, 195 
Vaughan, Rowland of Caergai, the translator, 170 
Vaughan of Aberkin, 187 
Vaughan of Blaenycwm, 2OI 
Vaughan of Burlton, 211 
Vaughan of Corsygedol, 17, 38, 187 
Vaughan of Glanllyn, 14 
Vaughan of Golden Grove, 1 06 
Vaughan of Llwydiarth, Caergai and Glanllyn, 104, 118, 

122, 133 

Vaughan of Llysfaen, 201 
Vaughan of Nannau, arms of, no 
Vaughan of Pantglas, 201 
Vaughan of Plashen, 187 
Vaughan of Talgarth and Tretower, 123 
Vaughan of Talhenbont, 187 
Vaughan of Wengraig, 113 

Wales, its union with England, a blessing to both, 66 
Wales, North, its boundary by the Treaty of 1264, 52 


Watstay, 9 

Welsh chieftains, causes of their domestic feuds, 41 

Welsh metres, 59 

Welsh poetry, 67 

Whittington Castle, 210 

Wilcock, Mowddwy, 66 

William or Wilcock ab Gruffuckl ab Gwenwynwyn, 66 

William, Sir Thomas ab, of Trefriw, 93, 177 

Williams, Archbishop, 192, 193, 195 ; his letters to Sir 
John Wynn, 143, 145, 146, 150 

Williams, Lord of Thame, 124 

Williams, Rev. Richard of Fron and Machynlleth, 98 

Williams, Sir William of Llanforda, 83 

Williams, Sir William, Speaker, 99, 104, 181, 196 ; his 
monument in Llansilin Church, 167 

Williams, Sir William of Vaenol, 187 

Williams of Aberarch, 188 

Williams of Aberpergwm, 123 

Williams of Bodelwyddan, IOI 

Williams of Cochwillan, 194 

Williams of "Colomendy, 204 

Williams of Fron, 95 

Williams of Hafod Garregog, 201 

Williams of Marl and Pantglas, 18, 194 

Williams of Meillionydd, 194 

Williams of Penbedw, IOI 

Williams of Vaynol, 194 

Williams of Ystumcolwyn, 194 

Willoughby de Eresby, Lady, 8 

Wynn, Henry of Gwydir, 9, 180 

Wynn, John of Bodvel, 1 86 

Wynn, Sir John of Gwydir, 5 ; his children, 7 ; corres- 
pondence with Bishop Morgan and Mr. Martyn, 
134 142 ; instructions to his Chaplain, 151 ; 
inventory of his wardrobe, 152 

Wynn, John (his son) of Gwydir, 7 ; his wife, 7 

Wynn, Sir John of Wynnstay, 9 ; his monument in 
Ruabon church, II 

Wynn, Maurice of Gwydir, 82 

Wynn, Sir Owen of Gwydir, 8 

Wynn, Sir Richard of Gwydir, 7 ; contract with 
Bernard Lyndesey, 154; inscription on monu- 
ment, 154 

Wynn, Sir Thomas of Bodvean, 186 

Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, Bart., n, 83, 104 

Wynn of Berthddu, 12 

Wynn of Bodewrid, 180 

Wynn of Bodvel, 186 

Wynn of Bodychen, 175 

Wynn of Bodysgallen, 12 

Wynn of Bryn Cynwrig, 197 

Wynn of Cerniogau, 200 

Wynn of Coed Coch, 194 

Wynn of Coedllai, 38 

Wynn of Coparleni, 202 

Wynn of Dolbachog, 38 

Wynn of Dyffryn Aled, 162 

Wynn of Eyarth, 211 

Wynn of Galedlom and Caerwys, 204 

Wynn of Garth, 72 

Wynn of Garthewin, 162 

Wynn of Gerwyn fawr, 211 

Wynn of Giler, 197, 200 

Wynn of Glyn Ardudwy, 17 

Wynn of Glynllifon, 186 

Wynn of Gwynfryn, 187 

Wynn of Hafod y Maidd, 201 

Wynn of Llangynhafal, 201 

Wynn of Llwyn, 1 1 

Wynn of Melai, 162, 194 

Wynn of Pantglas, 200 

Wynn of Pennardd, 186 

Wynn of Peny berth, 1 86 

Wynn of Plasnewydd, 201 

Wynn of Tower, 88 

Wynn of Wern, 21 

Wynne of Peniarth, 209 

Wynne of Voelas, 199, 200 

Wynnstay, 9, 10 ; destroyed by fire and rebuilt, 10 

Wythan of Trewythan, 1 10 

Yale of Plas yn Yale, 17 
Young of Bryn Yorkin, 211 



Lord Chancellor ELI.ESMERE ... ... 6 



HUMPHREY Duke of Buckingham ... 7 

CATHERINE of Berain ... ... ... ... 82 

GEORGB Lord Jefferies ... ... ... 9& 

Chief Justice VAUGHAN ... 9 

Sir JOHN TREVOR ... ... ... IO 

Sir ORLANDO BRIDGEMAN ... ... ... i4 

HUMPHREY LLWYD ... ... ... ... IO 6 

Sir THOMAS HANMER ... ... ... ... ... 164 

Sir WILLIAM WILLIAMS ... ... '68